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15-441 Computer Networking: 

15-441 Computer Networking Bridges/Switches, 802.11, PPP

LAN Switching: 

LAN Switching Extend reach of a single shared medium Connect two or more “segments” by copying data frames between them Switches only copy data when needed  key difference from repeaters LAN 1 LAN 2

Switched Network Advantages: 

Switched Network Advantages Higher link bandwidth Point to point electrically simpler than bus Much greater aggregate bandwidth Separate segments can send at once Improved fault tolerance Redundant paths Challenge Learning which packets to copy across links Avoiding forwarding loops

Interconnecting LANs: 

Interconnecting LANs Q: Why not just one big LAN? Limited amount of supportable traffic: on single LAN, all stations must share bandwidth limited length: 802.3 specifies maximum cable length large “collision domain” (can collide with many stations) limited number of stations: 802.5 have token passing delays at each station


Hubs Physical Layer devices: essentially repeaters operating at bit levels: repeat received bits on one interface to all other interfaces Hubs can be arranged in a hierarchy (or multi-tier design), with backbone hub at its top

Hubs (more): 

Hubs (more) Each connected LAN referred to as LAN segment Hubs do not isolate collision domains: node may collide with any node residing at any segment in LAN Hub Advantages: simple, inexpensive device Multi-tier provides graceful degradation: portions of the LAN continue to operate if one hub malfunctions extends maximum distance between node pairs (100m per Hub)

Hub limitations: 

Hub limitations single collision domain results in no increase in max throughput multi-tier throughput same as single segment throughput individual LAN restrictions pose limits on number of nodes in same collision domain and on total allowed geographical coverage cannot connect different Ethernet types (e.g., 10BaseT and 100baseT)


Bridges Link Layer devices: operate on Ethernet frames, examining frame header and selectively forwarding frame based on its destination Bridge isolates collision domains since it buffers frames When frame is to be forwarded on segment, bridge uses CSMA/CD to access segment and transmit

Bridges (more): 

Bridges (more) Bridge advantages: Isolates collision domains resulting in higher total max throughput, and does not limit the number of nodes nor geographical coverage Can connect different types of Ethernet since it is a store-and-forward device Transparent: no need for any change to hosts LAN adapters

Bridges: frame filtering, forwarding: 

Bridges: frame filtering, forwarding bridges filter packets same-LAN -segment frames not forwarded onto other LAN segments forwarding: how to know which LAN segment on which to forward frame? looks like a routing problem (more shortly!)

Backbone Bridge: 

Backbone Bridge

Interconnection Without Backbone: 

Interconnection Without Backbone Not recommended for two reasons: - single point of failure at Computer Science hub - all traffic between EE and SE must path over CS segment

Bridge Filtering: 

Bridge Filtering bridges learn which hosts can be reached through which interfaces: maintain filtering tables when frame received, bridge “learns” location of sender: incoming LAN segment records sender location in filtering table filtering table entry: (Node LAN Address, Bridge Interface, Time Stamp) stale entries in Filtering Table dropped (TTL can be 60 minutes)

Bridge Filtering: 

Bridge Filtering filtering procedure: if destination is on LAN on which frame was received then drop the frame else { lookup filtering table if entry found for destination then forward the frame on interface indicated; else flood; /* forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived*/ }

Bridge Learning: example: 

Bridge Learning: example Suppose C sends frame to D and D replies back with frame to C C sends frame, bridge has no info about D, so floods to both LANs bridge notes that C is on port 1 frame ignored on upper LAN frame received by D

Bridge Learning: example: 

Bridge Learning: example D generates reply to C, sends bridge sees frame from D bridge notes that D is on interface 2 bridge knows C on interface 1, so selectively forwards frame out via interface 1

Bridges Spanning Tree: 

Bridges Spanning Tree for increased reliability, desirable to have redundant, alternate paths from source to dest with multiple simultaneous paths, cycles result - bridges may multiply and forward frame forever solution: organize bridges in a spanning tree by disabling subset of interfaces

WWF Bridges vs. Routers: 

WWF Bridges vs. Routers both store-and-forward devices routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers) bridges are Link Layer devices routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms bridges maintain filtering tables, implement filtering, learning and spanning tree algorithms

Routers vs. Bridges: 

Routers vs. Bridges Bridges + and - + Bridge operation is simpler requiring less processing bandwidth - Topologies are restricted with bridges: a spanning tree must be built to avoid cycles - Bridges do not offer protection from broadcast storms (endless broadcasting by a host will be forwarded by a bridge)

Routers vs. Bridges: 

Routers vs. Bridges Routers + and - + arbitrary topologies can be supported, cycling is limited by TTL counters (and good routing protocols) + provide firewall protection against broadcast storms - require IP address configuration (not plug and play) - require higher processing bandwidth bridges do well in small (few hundred hosts) while routers used in large networks (thousands of hosts)

Ethernet Switches: 

Ethernet Switches layer 2 (frame) forwarding, filtering using LAN addresses Switching: A-to-B and A’-to-B’ simultaneously, no collisions large number of interfaces often: individual hosts, star-connected into switch Ethernet, but no collisions!

Ethernet Switches: 

Ethernet Switches cut-through switching: frame forwarded from input to output port without awaiting for assembly of entire frame slight reduction in latency combinations of shared/dedicated, 10/100/1000 Mbps interfaces

Ethernet Switches (more): 

Ethernet Switches (more) Dedicated Shared

IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN: 

IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN wireless LANs: untethered (often mobile) networking IEEE 802.11 standard: MAC protocol unlicensed frequency spectrum: 900Mhz, 2.4Ghz Basic Service Set (BSS) (a.k.a. “cell”) contains: wireless hosts access point (AP): base station BSS’s combined to form distribution system (DS)

Ad Hoc Networks: 

Ad hoc network: IEEE 802.11 stations can dynamically form network without AP Applications: “laptop” meeting in conference room, car interconnection of “personal” devices battlefield IETF MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) working group Ad Hoc Networks

IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA: 

IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA 802.11 CSMA: sender - if sense channel idle for DISF sec. then transmit entire frame (no collision detection) -if sense channel busy then binary backoff 802.11 CSMA receiver: if received OK return ACK after SIFS

IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: 

IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol 802.11 CSMA Protocol: others NAV: Network Allocation Vector 802.11 frame has transmission time field others (hearing sata) defer access for NAV time units

Hidden Terminal effect: 

Hidden Terminal effect hidden terminals: A, C cannot hear each other obstacles, signal attenuation collisions at B goal: avoid collisions at B CSMA/CA: CSMA with Collision Avoidance

Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange: 

Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange CSMA/CA: explicit channel reservation sender: send short RTS: request to send receiver: reply with short CTS: clear to send CTS reserves channel for sender, notifying (possibly hidden) stations avoid hidden station collisions

Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange: 

Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange RTS and CTS short: collisions less likely, of shorter duration end result similar to collision detection IEEE 802.11 allows: CSMA CSMA/CA: reservations polling from AP

Point-to-Point Data Link Control: 

Point-to-Point Data Link Control one sender, one receiver, one link: easier than broadcast link: no Media Access Control no need for explicit MAC addressing e.g., dialup link, ISDN line popular point-to-point DLC protocols: PPP (point-to-point protocol) HDLC: High level data link control (Data link used to be considered “high layer” in protocol stack!)

PPP Design Requirements [RFC 1557]: 

PPP Design Requirements [RFC 1557] packet framing: encapsulation of network-layer datagram in data link frame carry network layer data of any network layer protocol (not just IP) at same time ability to demultiplex upwards bit transparency: must carry any bit pattern in the data field error detection (no correction) connection liveness: detect, signal link failure to network layer network layer address negotiation: endpoint can learn/configure each other’s network address

PPP non-requirements: 

PPP non-requirements no error correction/recovery no flow control out of order delivery OK no need to support multipoint links (e.g., polling) Error recovery, flow control, data re-ordering all relegated to higher layers!|

PPP Data Frame: 

PPP Data Frame Flag: delimiter (framing) Address: does nothing (only one option) Control: does nothing; in the future possible multiple control fields Protocol: upper layer protocol to which frame delivered (e.g., PPP-LCP, IP, IPCP, etc)

PPP Data Frame: 

PPP Data Frame info: upper layer data being carried check: cyclic redundancy check for error detection

Byte Stuffing: 

Byte Stuffing “data transparency” requirement: data field must be allowed to include flag pattern <01111110> Q: is received <01111110> data or flag? Sender: adds (“stuffs”) extra < 01111110> byte after each < 01111110> data byte Receiver: two 01111110 bytes in a row: discard first byte, continue data reception single 01111110: flag byte

Byte Stuffing: 

Byte Stuffing flag byte pattern in data to send flag byte pattern plus stuffed byte in transmitted data

PPP Data Control Protocol: 

PPP Data Control Protocol Before exchanging network-layer data, data link peers must configure PPP link (max. frame length, authentication) learn/configure network layer information for IP: carry IP Control Protocol (IPCP) msgs (protocol field: 8021) to configure/learn IP address

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