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Congestion Charging - The International Perspective: 

Congestion Charging - The International Perspective Dr Nick Ayland Transport & Travel Research Ltd


Structure Background Congestion charging options Examples from around the world Lessons to be learned Summary

Historic context: 

Historic context Congestion charging not a new idea Principles advanced by economists in the 1920’s Research been done since 1960’s UK landmark - Smeed Report 1964 London supplementary licensing study 1973 Singapore area licensing scheme 1975

Historic context: 

Historic context Interest taken off over past 25 years Congestion problems have grown Greater awareness of environmental consequences Technological advances - technical feasibility

Area licensing and entry permit: 

Area licensing and entry permit Licence to use the highway within a defined area (eg. London) or to enter that area (eg. Edinburgh proposal) Simple to understand No in-vehicle electronics necessary Doesn’t charge for every trip - restraint effect diluted Practical restrictions on numbers of charged areas and complexity of tariff

Cordon charging schemes: 

Cordon charging schemes Cordon of charging points Charge per crossing Every trip crossing cordon is charged Flexibility - possibility of shoulder charges / peak / off-peak etc EFC requires in-vehicle equipment

Multi Cordon and Zone Charging: 

Multi Cordon and Zone Charging Multi-cordon - 2 or more concentric cordons Zone-based - zone boundaries intercept circumferential as well as radial movements Finer level of influence Charging patterns can better reflect problem traffic movements Reduces boundary problems More expensive to implement More complex to understand

Distance Based Charging: 

Distance Based Charging Charges based on measured distance travelled within charged area Should be v. good at influencing demand Generally requires VPS Expensive to implement at present But…being looked at

United Kingdom: 

London Supplementary Licensing study 1973 London Congestion Charging research programme 1992-5 Bristol (ELGAR, INTERCEPT) and Leicester (LERTS) road pricing trials Studies in cities such as Leeds, Nottingham, Belfast, Birmingham (1999 onwards) PROGRESS demonstrations / studies in Bristol and Edinburgh 2000-2004 Durham Congestion Charging scheme 2002 London Congestion Charging Scheme 2003 United Kingdom


Norway Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim, Kristiansand, Stavanger and others Cordon charging Original aim to raise revenue Low charges - all day Traffic volumes reduced Bergen 6-7% for 5NOK (45-70p) Oslo 6-10% for 11 NOK (£1-1.50) Trondheim - zonal charging Bergen being refocused as a congestion charging scheme

The Netherlands: 

The Netherlands 1980’s - Protol, Autol proposals developed and researched Early 1990’s - Spitsvignet - peak hour licensing 1994 - Rekening Rijden - comprehensive road pricing in the Randstad 2001 Rekening Rijden shelved Current proposal - Mobimiles - distance based Aim is to be operational in 2006 All scheme proposals have fallen on political grounds


Sweden Interest since 1980’s Stockholm and Gothenburg Significant work on Stockholm scheme 1991-1997 Dropped in 1997 Gothenburg PROGRESS trials SNRA review of options 2003 Proposals have been made since then with view to 2005 implementation in Stockholm

Singapore ALS scheme: 

Singapore ALS scheme Paper licence based entry permit scheme 1975 to 1998 Scheme adjusted 14 times Significant impacts Journey to work by PT 33% 1974; 67% 1994 AM peak inbound car flows in 1992 approx half of pre-scheme flows

Singapore ERP scheme: 

Singapore ERP scheme Introduced in 1998 Replaced paper ALS scheme and adjusted area Smart card EFC Early results - additional traffic reduction 17% AM peak reduction into charged area 14.6% over whole day Spreading into pre-peak Monitoring and adjustment

Hong Kong: 

Hong Kong 1983 - 85 Electronic Road Pricing Feasibility Study Multi-cordon charging scheme design Successful trial of ERP technology 1985 - rejected by District Boards 1997 - 99 major Feasibility Study Looked at both DSRC and VPS solutions Technological trials 2001 - HK government shelved idea again

Other Asia: 

Other Asia Seoul - Namsan #1 and 3 tunnels Charge for SOVs introduced 1996 Reported 10% traffic volume reduction (1998) Expansion to area charging scheme been considered Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok - studies in 70’s, 80’s Japan - Tokyo Metropolitan Government looking at congestion charging since 2000


USA Subject of research for some 20 years Congestion charging for facility use Area pricing concepts not seen as so appropriate Partly because of decentralised land use in many US cities Variable congestion-related charges on some existing bridges and facilities PANYNJ toll bridges - 20% peak hour premium; reported 4-7% traffic reduction

USA : 

USA HOT lanes - “Value Pricing” concept Travellers pay to use spare capacity on dedicated HOV lanes SR91 - Orange County,California - 4 new HOT lanes 1995 San Diego - HOT lane created on I-15 in 1996; sensitive to demand since 1998 Katy and NorthWest Freeways, Houston - HOT lane: HOV-2 pay $2, HOV-3+ go free

Key lessons - politics: 

Key lessons - politics Politically difficult thing to do Take account of local considerations Perceived to restrain established freedoms Schemes fall by the wayside Long time to build up public acceptance and political confidence Needs a political champion

Key lessons - public acceptance: 

Key lessons - public acceptance An adequate level of public acceptance is key Thorough consultation / communication Must be part of a package Be clear what the objectives are Say what revenue will be used for Ensure that realistic alternatives are adequately considered and presented Consider equity issues and include mitigation measures

Key lessons - significant impacts: 

Key lessons - significant impacts Evidence from implemented schemes Significant congestion reduction effect Borne out by London

Key lessons - technology works!: 

Key lessons - technology works! Electronic licensing Electronic tag technology Integration with smart cards All been shown to work Satellite-based positioning systems still being proven Likely to form a future option if prices are driven down


Summary Different types of congestion charging can be used to manage and reduce traffic demand Several examples of implementations around the world Many, many more studies and research programmes! Lessons to be learned from successes and failures - politics, public acceptance, impacts, technology Use that experience to maximise chances of success

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