Lyme Fraud Against Humanity


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5 MAIN TOPICS Proving Scientific Fraud has been Committed : 

5 MAIN TOPICS Proving Scientific Fraud has been Committed A brief background – Key Entities CDC/FDA/NIH/ALDF/IDSA/Castle-Connelly/Kaiser Permanente/New York Medical College/Yale University Biomarkers of Disease —The FDA and Dearborn Conferences (–Show you How they are all linked) Treatment Failure and History of Relapsing Fever Intracellularity and the Viability of Cysts Pam3Cys

1. The Key Entities Timeline : 

1. The Key Entities Timeline

Bayh-Dole Act, 1980 : 

Bayh-Dole Act, 1980 The Bayh-Dole Act allows for the transfer of exclusive control over many government funded inventions to universities and businesses operating with federal contracts for the purpose of further development and commercialization. This made things profit motivated instead of helping and sharing information about this disease, everyone kept their ideas and studies to themselves in fear someone would take their work and make $.

Edward McSweegan : 

Edward McSweegan Dr. Edward McSweegan in 1986 corresponded with Senator Barry Goldwater, explaining how the Department of the Navy is incompetent, and that the Tick Borne Diseases funding and patent rights should therefore be given to SmithKline, Yale, et. al.

Shortly after the Goldwater letter scandal, Edward McSweegan became the National Institute of Health's Lyme Disease Program Officer : 

Shortly after the Goldwater letter scandal, Edward McSweegan became the National Institute of Health's Lyme Disease Program Officer

Monopoly Intentions : 

Monopoly Intentions Dr. McSweegan doled out the abundant grant money to his circle of friends, Durland Fish of Yale and Gary Wormser of New York Medical College was among many to receive his plentiful bestowments. We believe this move was an intended monopoly on blood, test kits, and more because both OspA vaccine trials produced unreadable Western Blots (reported 4 times in all) --- but both the OspA teams - ImmuLyme and LYMErix - reported 92 and 76% "safe and effective" vaccines regardless.

Over the course of the last 35 years, billions of dollars went to Lyme Disease research. : 

Over the course of the last 35 years, billions of dollars went to Lyme Disease research.

Slide 10: 

Here we find a $250,000 grant that is unaccounted for. What? Would your boss give you that money and not record it?

Slide 11: 

Alan Steere wanted to keep all the grant funding in the Rheumatology department, so a web of deceit was spun, beginning with the testing at the Dearborn Conference.

The Steere/European/Dearborn diagnostic standard is fraudulent and was meant to: : 

The Steere/European/Dearborn diagnostic standard is fraudulent and was meant to: a) falsely qualify the LYMErix vaccine b) set up a monopoly on what is in human blood (new diseases, genetic susceptibilities to diseases), since Yale's L2 Diagnostics, Imugen, and Corixa were to be the only ones qualified to test for VBDs after LYMErix was on the market.

Rheumatologist Arthur Weinstein, M.D. Proclaimes Trio:on New York Medical College Website: as of 2-18-2009, but 1st published in 1998 : 

Rheumatologist Arthur Weinstein, M.D. Proclaimes Trio:on New York Medical College Website: as of 2-18-2009, but 1st published in 1998 "The College has recognized that Lyme disease is a major clinical and research interest on this campus. The main players in the development of the program were Fish, Wormser and Connolly," Dr. Weinstein advises. The entrepreneurial trio are Durland Fish, Ph.D., former director of the College's Lyme Disease Center and now a research scientist at Yale; Gary P. Wormser, M.D., still professor of medicine and pharmacology and chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the College; and John J. Connolly, Ed.D., former College president and current chairman of the board of the American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc., which had its genesis on the Valhalla campus in 1990.

New York Medical College partnerships with Kaiser Permanente : 

New York Medical College partnerships with Kaiser Permanente This opened the door for Kaiser, to set up a partnership with NYMC to teach incoming new doctors the HMO way.

US Patent 5,618,533 : 

US Patent 5,618,533 This is the only scientifically valid test for Lyme disease per the FDA rules of validation Flagellin-based polypeptides for the diagnosis of lyme disease Yale University

US Patent 5,747,294 : 

US Patent 5,747,294 Yale University Richard Flavell The LYMErix Vaccine – RECALLED Compositions and methods for the prevention and diagnosis of lyme disease

US Patent 5,520,862 : 

US Patent 5,520,862 University of Connecticut Steven J. Padula B31 = Low or No OspC- associated with brain invasion

US Patent 6,719,983 : 

US Patent 6,719,983 The University of Texas Alan Barbour Immune System is Overwhelmed due to antigenic variation

Slide 22: 

The very nature of "relapsing fever" or borrelia, is that they all do antigenic variation, and this is the reason vaccines are no good. Antibodies are rendered useless in the relapse, meaning vaccines which produce antibodies, are also useless.

Slide 23: 

In Dr. Barbour's "Biology of Borrelia Species" (1986), he recommends treating syphilis with high-passage relapsing fever to raise a fever. We wonder how CDC and NIH personnel could recommend such a treatment for any of these spirochetal diseases, unless he believed antibiotics did not work.

Slide 25: 

"The propensity for borrelia to go to the brain of infected mammals suggests that the relationship between these spirochetes and neural tissues is not trivial.  Further study of this attraction and the interaction that follows may reveal the basis for the significant nerve and brain involvement in Lyme borreliosis"– Dr. Barbour's "Biology of Borrelia Species" (1986)

Slide 26: 

In 1992, Dr. Barbour reported that OspA also undergoes antigenic variation, yet he, as the owner of the ImmuLyme OspA patent, never says a word about this, while he was a CDC officer and former head of the NIH Rocky Mountain labs.

US Patent 6,689,364 : 

US Patent 6,689,364 Tufts University Brigitte Huber LYMErix is a toxin

US Patent 6,045,804 : 

US Patent 6,045,804 Mayo Foundation for Medical Educational Research David Persing Monopoly The method of the invention discriminates B. burgdorferi infection from OspA vaccination

US Patent 5,932,220 : 

US Patent 5,932,220 The University of Texas Alan Barbour Master’s Disease Diagnostic tests for a new spirochete, Borrelia lonestari sp. nov

Dr. Alan Barbour : 

Dr. Alan Barbour Owns over 25 patents for Lyme Disease in the US. Dr. Edwin J. Masters discovered a borrelia strain in Missouri, after all the powers that be, said “you don’t have Lyme out there.” His patients presented a bulls-eye rash and have the same symptoms as “Lyme Disease” but they must say it’s “Lyme-Like.” Why all the cloaking of the truth? Just because it can not be grown in-vitro, does not mean it is not in the relapsing fever category, just like b. burgdorferi. It is a cow relapsing fever. The CDC and the ALDF does not claim Dr. Masters as the founder of STARI to this day on their websites. They leave him right out of the history. It should be called b. Mastersi in all fairness, not b. Lonestari.

Dr. Barbara Johnson of the CDC at Fort Collins : 

Dr. Barbara Johnson of the CDC at Fort Collins Together with SmithKline she owns five patents in European Database.

Slide 32: 

She also owns 24 US Patents and currently works for the CDC.

Slide 33: 

Complaint Letter About Kaisers HMO Abuse

Patents are for Profit$ : 

Patents are for Profit$

Slide 36: 

Shortly after the IDSA published their 2006 Lyme Disease Guidelines, Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal opened an anti-trust investigation against them.

2. Biomarkers of Disease : 

2. Biomarkers of Disease This is data the IDSA refused to turn over to the Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal for a year and a half before settling out of court. The IDSA opted to review the 2006 guidelines instead of giving over their self-incriminating data. Dr. Portez, past president of the IDSA, “The review doesn’t necessarily mean the guidelines will change. We are glad this has ended,” Portez stated.

Slide 38: 

"This agreement vindicates my investigation -- finding undisclosed financial interests and forcing a reassessment of IDSA guidelines," Blumenthal said. "My office uncovered undisclosed financial interests held by several of the most powerful IDSA panelists. The IDSA's guideline panel improperly ignored or minimized consideration of alternative medical opinion and evidence regarding chronic Lyme disease, potentially raising serious questions about whether the recommendations reflected all relevant science.”

Slide 39: 

Some of the markers include: GFAp; anti-gangliosides Anti-heat shock proteins (seen in Multiple Sclerosis) Anti-phospholipid (Steere and Lupus; "L2 Diagnostics") QEEG HLAs Quinolinic acid in the CSF (excitotoxin) Epstein-Barr like lymphocyte changes SPECT (hypoperfusion or reduced blood flow to the brain) NO in the brain MMPs - 1997 Klempner's famous MMP-130 study.  Proves "objective signs“ and he knows we’re very sick Dysregulated cytokines (interleukins, TNF, etc) Circulating free immune complexes (likely associated with LYMErix vascular adverse events) Histological changes (autopsy and biopsy) EMGs (electromyography shows nerve damage) Autoractive T cells, spinal fluid antibodies and decomplexing (Schutzer, Coyle, Sigal, Molloy) MRI-gad (gadolinium uptake in the brain- a sign of active meningitis).

Slide 40: 

All treatment outcome articles where OspA primers were used are factitious because all these antigens undergo antigenic variation and we should be looking for all borrelia - not just burgdorferi - by using specific flagellin and specific intragenic spacer RNA.  The Mouse Infectivity Test is the ultimate test because of the difficulty in reculturing spheroplasts without actual blood cells in the media which are spirochete's real food.

Slide 42: 

The current CDC-promoted Western Blot (gel electrophoresis) testing for “Lyme Disease” does not meet the requirements of the FDA’s rules for a scientifically valid test.

Scientific Validity per FDA : 

Scientific Validity per FDA A test or method is scientifically valid if: 1) It detects only one species (SPECIFICITY) 2) It is precise (refers to the equipment’s performance) 3) The test does not suffer a matrix ("inert ingredients") effect or any other effect through a range of concentrations (LINEARITY) 4) The test is ACCURATE* 5) RUGGEDNESS – the same results are acquired on different equipment 6) The test must demonstrate its Limit of Detection (LOD) or limit of quantitation.  This last criteria is what analytical chemistry is all about.  They always want to improve the LOD, since they want to detect smaller and smaller quantities of something reliably *In the case of “Lyme Disease” Western Blotting, the Accuracy we will take to mean the percentage of cases that are known to be positive (through DNA testing of EM rash or spinal fluid) that are found to be positive by Western Blotting or through the identification of Lyme- or Borreliae- (no typo) specific antibody bands.

Slide 44: 

The Lyme ELISA does not even come close to detecting any cases of “Lyme Disease.” The cut-off is set too high and it screens out almost all the cases of neurological chronic lyme. The ELISA is over 43 years old.

Slide 45: 

Here we see the CDC (Dave Dennis) states: that ELISAs are no good after the first 3 months after a tick bite, and as we know, most Chronic Lyme victims are chronic because they're not diagnosed early.

Slide 46: 

Initially the unsuspecting patient goes into the emergency room with some kind of Lyme symptoms. They are given a “Lyme antibody test kit” which just tests yes or no. Compare this to a over the counter pregnancy test. Then your blood is sent off to a lab around the country. The lab ONLY uses the ELISA and screens out all the neurological cases of the borrelia infection.

Key Meetings : 

Key Meetings In June of 1994, Drs. Steere, Dattwyler, et. al appeared before the FDA in Silver Spring Maryland. In October of 1994 the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease was held in Dearborn Michigan.

Slide 49: 

In June of 1994, Drs. Steere, Dattwyler, et. al appeared before FDA in Silver Spring Maryland

Slide 52: 

Dr. Margaret Miltrane of the FDA, Center of Biologics states the following:

Slide 53: 

Dr. Miltrane goes on to say:

Slide 54: 

Dr. Dennis of the CDC stated the below paragraph. The CDC does not disclose who this “working group” is. Could they possibly be the same ones who own a vested interest in the outcome of the standard? Or perhaps they own a test kit or two…

Slide 55: 

It had been decided before this meeting with the FDA, a two-tiered approach would be implemented, by a nameless “working group.”

Slide 57: 

Dr. Alan Steere received grant money to watch the “Natural History” of people. They turned out to be our children.

Slide 61: 

Dr. Dattwyler is now the author of the new IDSA “2006 guidelines" But this is what he told to the FDA : Therefore, Lyme is not a knee disease, and the Klempner report is fictitious, so there is no data to support the new IDSA guidelines on Lyme as an imaginary, self-limited disease that is cured by the placebo effect of antibiotics as Mark Klempner asserted. We want to diagnose the earliest case of Lyme to possibly prevent brain invasion

There are scientifically valid ways to diagnose Lyme. : 

There are scientifically valid ways to diagnose Lyme. With antibody testing, The Dearborn Conference was a ruse.  Since most people with borreliosis (or relapsing fever) have band 41 or antiflagellar antibodies, and since these 41 kilodalton antibodies are not necessarily specific, everyone in this research arena at this time was investigating how to make 41 SPECIFIC for Lyme.

Slide 63: 

“Ordering multiple tests, such as the ELISA, Western Blot, Antigen Capture, and PCR, is significantly more efficient in a clinical diagnosis than is any single test.” ---IgeneX, Inc.

Slide 64: 

Hold on a second, Dr. Dattwyler said : The sickest people don’t test positive on any testing. So why keep on testing? The FDA and CDC states Lyme Disease is a clinical diagnosis.

Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease (Dearborn, Michigan) : 

Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease (Dearborn, Michigan)

Slide 66: 

The conference was designed around falsely qualifying OspA vaccines.

Slide 68: 

Dr. Allen Steere “Value of Standardization Of Serologic Testing in Clinical Diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection” Dr. David Dennis “Standardization of Serologic Testing for Epidemiological Purposes”

Slide 69: 

Dr. Barbara Johnson “Standardization of Lyme Disease Serologic Tests” Dr. Arthur Weinstein “Recommendations of the Work Group for Standard Criteria for Lyme Serodiagnosis”

Slide 70: 

Everyone who was Presenting….

Slide 71: 

…owned patents and had vested interests in the outcome of the standardization of the testing…

Slide 72: 

At this time is where and how Dr. Steere came up with the current fraudulent diagnostic standard for Lyme: Where: OspA (band 31) and B (band 34) were left out of the standard, and a person had to have 5 of 10 bands that "show up over months to years," suddenly, within the first few months of the disease.

Slide 73: 

Dr. Gary Wormser submitted the following to the conference, and he says only 9 of 59 patients tested positive according to Steere's IgG criteria: (9/59) = 15%

Slide 74: 

Read carefully what Dr. Wormser says in this report:

Slide 75: 

Dr. Wormser says he is assessing Dr. Steere's IgG recommendation for the CDC to adopt, and that it was NO GOOD. Yet it was adopted by the CDC anyway.  Who approved this standard, even though none of the labs agreed?

Slide 76: 

For Dr. Wormser to report in the IDSA guidelines that one has to have a positive test for Lyme, means he has published scientific fraud.  Similarly, CDC says their testing for Lyme is "valid," when it is hardly valid, if only 15 % cases of Lyme are identified by the Steere IgG panel.

Imugen, or Phil Molloy's lab: : 

Imugen, or Phil Molloy's lab: Only 14% tested positive to the Steere criteria, which means 86% of all cases were missed.

Lutheran Hosp., LaCrosse, Wisconsin : 

Lutheran Hosp., LaCrosse, Wisconsin They said Steere's proposal was 22%.  That is, it missed detecting 78% of all the known the cases.

Slide 79: 

This is an Imugen report form where they report that less than 5 bands is normal, when clearly they know that the 5 band criteria of Steere will miss 85% of all cases.

Who said What? : 

Who said What?

Slide 81: 

Gary Wormser at New York Medical College-  Steere’s method detected 9/59 cases Igenex- Steere’s IgG detected 8% of the cases Imugen – Steere’s method detected 14% of the cases  Wisconsin—Steere’s method was 15% accurate  UCONN-  Larry Zemel was referring to Lyme as comparable to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.  Recommended adding band 50 for children’s blots. Roche—28% were positive for 5 of 10 Steere IgG bands. Wadsworth – had some different scoring system.  Did not report on accuracy of Steere Ontario Ministry of Health - no reporting Lutheran Hospital— 14 % were accurate by Steere’s IgG MarDx Labs – recommended adding bands 31 and 34, but were given CDC positive arthritis positive blood to falsely qualify their test strips.  Theirs were used in both vaccine trials. CDC Atlanta – talked about mice, not humans.  The mouse criteria was 2 out of three from OspC, 16 kD, 17.9 kD, for the mice.

Who approved of Dr. Steere's new IgG standard? : 

Who approved of Dr. Steere's new IgG standard? Why “The Entrepreneurial Trio” itself.  The, who is Castle-Connelly, Dr.  McSweegan, Dr. Steere, Dr. Barbour, Dr. Weinstein, Dr. Dattwyler, Dr. Johnson and other profiteers. Remember now, we got this imaginary standard of 5 of 10 bands when Allen Steere went to Europe with the high passage strain G39/40  and the CDC knows this standard is a hoax since it is revealed in their patents with SmithKline in Europe.

Slide 83: 

None of the labs agreed with Steere's proposal and the Dressler/Steere prospective study showed only 39/54 of the ARTHRITIS patients had anything close to Steere's hypersensitivity, "more antibodies is more valid," proposal.

Slide 86: 

Dr. Steere, wrote in the New England Journal of Medicine (1990 Nov 22; 323(21):1438-44), "The likely reason for relapse is failure to eradicate the spirochete . . . This last article is one of many studies that show continuing symptoms are most likely due to persistence of the spirochete [type of Lyme bacteria]." Indeed, many articles have been published before AND since 1990 demonstrating the possible persistence of Lyme infection in antibiotic-treated patients.

When they want to look for borrelia, they know how to test for it. : 

When they want to look for borrelia, they know how to test for it.

3. Treatment Failure and History of Relapsing Fever : 

3. Treatment Failure and History of Relapsing Fever It's always been known that relapsing fever was incurable, as is syphilis.  There will always be 1/3 to 1/6 of all persons who remain in poor health.

We invite you to come and browse… : 

We invite you to come and browse… ….the many published articles with easy indexing for the reader. Treatment Failure: “In their Own words”

Slide 91: 

This article was found on the Colorado State University website. It states: they are speaking about Borrelia burgdorferi. Saying the spirochete was first identified in 1982. Yet 45 cases were reported in their lab up to 1976 and with 2 deaths. ??? When confronted, it was promptly removed from their website.

4. Intracellularity and the Viability of Cysts : 

4. Intracellularity and the Viability of Cysts Dr. Mark Klempner reported in 1992 that spirochetes were intracellular. The ALDF states that cysts are not viable, but they have no proof New York Medical College published about the "non intracellular intracellular cysts."  They discuss this in terms of "serum-starved" or "starvation forms.“ The serum-starved forms are cysts or spheroplasts.

Slide 93: 

In 1989 the ALDF's Russell Johnson reported that reculturing intact spirochetes from cysts "could take several months."The Mouse Infectivity Test has never been applied in treatment outcomes studies, but it has been referenced by many members of the ALDF, demonstrating that they have read this study by Mario Philipp.All are aware of URI's "reversion of cyst to intact spirochete within one minute of the addition of rabbit blood

5. Pam3Cys : 

5. Pam3Cys What we all know about Pam3Cys has now gotten international attention. The Nobel Prize Winner for the discovery of the HIV virus has taken a job with a company following up on this research. The National Cancer Institute and the US Army's Paul Duray first reported that the lymphocytes of chronic Lyme victims looked like Epstein-Barr transformed or immortalized cells to the ALDF in 1989 in their Infectious Disease Reviews and at a conference at Cold Spring Harbor in 1992.

Slide 95: 

The cryme in Pam3Cys was in the deliberate non-reporting of adverse events to OspA, because now we know that affected discovery in all main diseases.

Slide 96: 

What we are going to find is that Yale, by not reporting the adverse events to LYMErix (or bothering with these patients at all), missed the common link to all chronic, devastating and deadly illnesses: ALS, MS, cancer, CFIDS/FM, Leukemia, what was wrong with the HIV vaccines, etc...  and that link was OspA- Yale's vaccine (Pam3Cys).  OspA is a fungal (mycoplasmal) antigen that turns off the immune system through various mechanisms.  This allows common latent viruses of all kinds to become un-latent.  The latently infected cells do not autokill as they should when the common latent viruses start replicating (the normal mechanism of immunity), and the fungal Pam3Cys antigen OspA, turns off antibody production against similar antigens.

Please Remember: : 

Please Remember: Organizations, affiliations would be out of money earning capabilities if Lyme Disease testing was done properly, and that is WHY they do not promote the true science of this cryme. Books have been written, leaving facts or people out of the history of Lyme disease. They do not want to end this. Profiting off of very sick and dying, is a win-win situation for the profiteers. They have lost nothing. For all the infected people, they loose everything.

Slide 99: 

The reports you have seen today, featured on this presentation, have been brought to you by concerned citizens. The reports are in full-text and can be obtained by contacting:

Slide 100: 

Data Over Dogma Evidence Over Egos Patients Over Politics --- Dr. Ed Masters

Slide 101: 

References Special Thanks to ~ Dr. Edwin J. Masters Peer Observations Magazine Dickson KM, Scientific Advisor Lyme Disease Foundation Illinois Lyme Disease Network Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the second national conference on serologic diagnosis of Lyme Disease. MMWR 1995; 44:590-591. Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations. In: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease (Dearborn, Michigan). Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors 1995; 1-5.

Slide 102: 

Magnarelli LA, Miller JN, Anderson JF, Riviere GR. Cross-reactivity of nonspecific treponemal antibody in serologic tests for Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:1276-1279. Schwan TG, Burgdorfer W, Rosa PA. Borrelia. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1995:626-635. Steere, AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1989;321:586-96. Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1438-44. Steere AC, Bartenhagen NH, Craft JE, et al. The early clinical manifestations of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1989;99:76-82. Bakken LL, Case KL, Callister SM, Bourdeau NJ, Schell RF. Performance of 45 laboratories participating in a proficiency testing program for Lyme disease serology. JAMA 1992;268:891-5. Hedberg CW, Osterholm MT, MacDonald KL, White KE. An interlaboratory study of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis 1987;155:1325-7.

Slide 103: 

Jones JM. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:1064. Lane RS, Lennette ET, Madigan JE. Interlaboratory and intralaboratory comparisons of indirect immunofluorescence assays for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:1774-9. Luger SW, Krauss E. Serologic tests for Lyme disease: interlaboratory variability. Arch Intern Med 1990;15:761-3. Schwartz BS, Goldstein MD, Ribeiro JMC, Schulze TL, Shahied SI. Antibody testing in Lyme disease: a comparison of results in four laboratories. JAMA 1989;262:3431-4. Quan TJ, Wilmoth BA, Carter LG, Bailey RE. A comparison of some commercially available serodiagnostic kits for Lyme disease. In: Proceedings of the First National Conference on Lyme Disease Testing (Dearborn, Michigan). Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors, 1991:61-73. Steere AC, Grodzicki RL, Kornblatt AN, et al. The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1983;308:733-40. Benach JL, Bosler EM, Hanrahan JP, et al. Spirochetes isolated from the blood of two patients with Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1983;308:740-2.

Slide 104: 

Berger, BW, Johnson RC, Kodner C, Coleman L. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from erythema migrans lesions and perilesional skin. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:359-61. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for public health surveillance. MMWR 1990;39(RR-13):19-21. Russell H, Sampson JS, Schmid GP, Wilkinson HW, Plikaytis B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immun ofluorescence assay for Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1984;149:465-70. Hansen K, Åsbrink E. Serodiagnosis of erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans by the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Micrbiol 1989;27:545-51. Craft JE, Grodzicki RL, Steere AC. Antibody response in Lyme disease: evaluation of tests. J Infect Dis 1984;149:789-95. Grodzicki RL, Steere AC. Comparison of immunoblotting and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using different antigen preparations for diagnosing early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1988;157:790-97. Dressler F, Whalen JA, Reinhardt BN, Steere AC. Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1993;167:392-400.

Slide 105: 

Dattwyler RJ, Volkman DJ, Luft BJ, Halperin JJ, Thomas J, Golightly MG. Seronegative Lyme disease: dissociation of specific T- and B-lymphocytic response to Borrelia burgdorferi. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1441-6. Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations. In: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease (Dearborn, Michigan). Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors 1995:1-5. Johnson BJB, Robbins KE, Bailey RE, et al. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease: accuracy of a two-step approach using a flagella-based ELISA and immunoblotting. J Infect Dis 1995; submitted. Sykes R, Heffron DL. LymeCryme Website,, 2007 Johnson RC, Johnson BJB. Lyme disease: serodiagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection. In: Rose NR, Macario EC, Fahey JL, Freidman H, Penn GM, eds. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1997: 526-533. Hedberg CW, Osterholm MT. Serologic tests for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi—another Pandora’s box for medicine? Arch Intern Med 1990;150:732-3.

Slide 106: 

Bakken LL, Callister SM, Wand PJ, Schell RF. Interlaboratory comparison of test results for detection of Lyme disease by 516 participants in the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene/College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35:537-543. Craven RB, Quan TJ, Bailey RE, Dattwyler RJ, Ryan RW, Sigal LH, Steere AC, Sullivan B, Johnson BJB, Dennis DT, Gubler DJ. Improved serodiagnostic testing for Lyme disease; results of a multi center serologic evaluation. Emerging Infect Dis 1996; 136-140. Empower Yourself ~ Empower Others. 2009©Heffron, DL

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