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Romanticism in Music: 

Romanticism in Music 1820-1900

Romanticism - Emphasis:: 

Romanticism - Emphasis: Romantic emotion imagination individualism freedom of expression Classical Clarity Form Balance Symmetry


Influences Subjective Poetry Literature Supernatural Medieval Medieval Painting Nature Fantasy

Subjective Poetry: 

Subjective Poetry William Wordsworth Walt Whitman

Literature: Supernatural: 

Literature: Supernatural Edgar Allan Poe Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein Thomas DeQuincy .


Medieval Sir Walter Scott, Ivanhoe Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame Revival of Gothic Architecture

Gothic Architecture: 

Gothic Architecture



Painting: Fantasy: 

Painting: Fantasy Painter Eugène Delacroix: often depicted violent scenes in far-off lands

Painting: Nature: 

Painting: Nature Landscapes: J.M.W. Turner

Characteristics of Romantic Music: 

Characteristics of Romantic Music Used classical forms Expanded tone color dynamics pitch range harmony

Nationalism and Exoticism: 

Nationalism and Exoticism Nationalism: composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity, using the folk songs, dances, legends, and history of their homelands. (as opposed to the more universal character of classical music) Exoticism: Use of melodies, rhythms or instruments that suggest foreign lands.

Program Music: 

Program Music Absolute Music: Music as Music. Program Music: instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene


Piano cast-iron frame hammers covered with felt expanded range pedals


Musicians Franz Schubert Robert Schumann Clara Schumann Frèdèric Chopin Franz Liszt Felix Mendelssohn Johannes Brahms Hector Berlioz Bedrich Smetana Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky Giuseppe Verdi Richard Wagner

Musicians as "free artist”: 

Musicians as 'free artist' conductor teacher critic performer

The Art Song, or Lieder: 

The Art Song, or Lieder art song or lieder: a composition for solo voice and piano. The accompaniment serves as an interpretive partner to the voice.

Lieder makers: 

Lieder makers Composers Franz Peter Schubert Robert Schumann Johannes Brahms Poets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Heinrich Heine

Lieder - forms: 

Lieder - forms strophic form: uses the same music for each stanza of the poem through-composed form: uses new music for each stanza. The Song Cycle: Romantic art songs grouped in a set.

Franz Peter Schubert: 

Franz Peter Schubert

Franz Schubert: 

Franz Schubert b. Vienna father was a schoolmaster choirboy at the court chapel, scholarship to the Imperial Seminary. taught at father's school briefly bohemian life composed for the cultivated middle class; he did not mingle with the aristocracy.

Schubert - Music: 

Schubert - Music 600 lieder (songs) 9 symphonies Symphony #8, the Unfinished Symphony #9, The Great C Major string quartets (and other chamber music) sonatas (and other short pieces for piano) masses operas

Listening: Erlkönig: 

Listening: Erlkönig 'He paced up and down several times with the book; suddenly he sat down, and in no time at all (just as quickly as he could write) there was the glorious ballad finished on the paper.' Text by Goethe Acc. conveys the horse's hoofs Four characters



Robert Schumann: 

Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann : 

Robert Schumann b. Zwickau, Germany Law at the Leipzig University @20, piano studies - Prof. Frederick von Wieck Don't worry about my finger, I can compose without it.' Clara

Robert Schumann: 

Robert Schumann New Journal of Music - founder and editor reviews of new composers such as Chopin and Berlioz Suicide attempt; asylum @44

Robert Schumann - Music: 

Robert Schumann - Music Programmatic piano works Lieder (art songs) 4 symphonies chamber music

Listening: Estrella: 

Listening: Estrella A B A form

Clara Wieck Schumann : 

Clara Wieck Schumann b. Leipzig, Germany Child prodigy Pianist Married Robert Schumann Close friend of Brahms Performing artist Stopped composing at 36

Clara - Music: 

Clara - Music Lieder piano pieces piano concerto piano trio (piano, violin, and cello) Romances for piano and violin

Listening: Romance in G Minor for Violin and Piano: 

Listening: Romance in G Minor for Violin and Piano For King George V of Hanover ABA' form

Frederic Francois Chopin: 

Frederic Francois Chopin b. Warsaw, Poland Warsaw Conservatory Pianist

Frédéric François Chopin : 

Frédéric François Chopin Tour of Europe to Paris @21 Friends with the artistic elite Performed in Aristocratic Salons Piano teacher to the daughters of the rich George Sand, aka Aurore Dudevant Died of tuberculosis @ 39

Chopin - Music: 

Chopin - Music mostly piano pieces Polish dances - not meant for ballroom dancing Mazurka Polonaise Polonaise in A-Flat

Chopin - Salon Music: 

Chopin - Salon Music Prélude: a short introductory piece Nocturne: (night piece), a slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano Étude: a study piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties Listening: Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2

Franz Liszt: 

Franz Liszt Esterhaza, Hungary Studied in Vienna and met Schubert Beethoven Paris Nicolò Paganini - violin virtuoso Chopin - 'The Poet of the Piano'


Liszt Touring piano virtuoso - Greatest of his day Weimar - court conductor, composer. taught pianists free supported Wagner's works Biography of Chopin

Liszt - Mistresses: 

Liszt - Mistresses Countess Marie d'Agoult Cosima Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein Rome: Abbé Liszt 'Liszt was what a prince ought to be.'

Liszt - Music: 

Liszt - Music Piano Music - Transcendental Etudes created the Symphonic Poem or Tone Poem: a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas. Faust Symphony Dante Symphony

Listening: Transcendental Étude No. 10 in F Minor : 

Listening: Transcendental Étude No. 10 in F Minor dedicated to Carl Czerny 'Studies in storm and dread meant to be played by, at most, ten or twelve players in the world.' Robert Schumann ABC B' A’ form

Liszt and Friends: 

Liszt and Friends

Program Music: : 

Program Music: Program Music: instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea or scene. Program symphony: Concert overture: Symphonic poem or tone poem: Incidental Music:

Program symphony: : 

Program symphony: a symphony (with several movements) with a program.

Concert overture: : 

Concert overture: one movement, in sonata form, not intended to usher in a stage work. An independent composition.

Symphonic poem or tone poem:: 

Symphonic poem or tone poem: a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas

Incidental Music: : 

Incidental Music: music to be performed before and during a play

Felix Mendelssohn : 

Felix Mendelssohn Hamburg, Germany prominent/wealthy Jewish family gifted musician and artist Overture to 'A Midsummer Night’s Dream'

Listening: Overture to “A Midsummer Night's Dream”: 

Listening: Overture to 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' Sonata Allegro Form Enchanted Forest - introduction Wood Nymphs - First Theme King Oberon's Court - Bridge Lovers - Second Theme Actors and Donkey - Closing Later added incidental music including the Wedding March


Leipzig Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra conductor @20 - Bach's St. Matthew Passion rekindled interest in Bach Performed as pianist, organist, and conductor Leipzig Conservatory founder/president Conventional private life Died of a stroke at 38


Music all forms except opera Violin Concerto in E Minor Midsummer Night's Dream Overture Hebrides Overture 4 Symphonies Italian Symphony Scotch Symphony Elijah (oratorio) Chamber music

Hector Berlioz: 

Hector Berlioz b. near Grenoble, France son of a physician, study medicine Paris Conservatory Prix de Rome Symphonie fantastique 1st Program Symphony Music Journalist Died embittered at 65


Music Most for orchestra Symphonie fantastique: 1st Program Symphony Romeo and Juliet The Damnation of Faust, opera and oratorio Les Troyans Requiem, 'I have seen one man listening in terror shaken to the depths of his soul, while his next neighbor could not catch an idea ....'

Symphonie fantastique : 

Symphonie fantastique Fourth movement, 'March to the Scaffold' Harriet Smithson idée fixe: a melody which represents a person, place or thing, (a musical noun) the beloved descending march to the scaffold march through the street

Listening*: Movement V, "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath”: 

Listening*: Movement V, 'Dream of a Witches' Sabbath' the beloved caricaturized Funeral knell, Dies irae Witches' dance

Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Music: 

Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Music nationalism: Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer's homeland. Chopin, Poland Edvard Grieg, Norway Jean Sibelius, Finland Smetana and Dvorak, Bohemia Tchaikovsky, Russia Verdi, Italy Wagner, Germany

Russia (The Five): 

Russia (The Five) Mily Balakirev César Cui Alexander Borodin Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov Modest Mussorgsky

Bedřich Smetana : 

Bedřich Smetana Founder of Czech nationalist music Composer and conductor The Bartered Bride Má Vlast

Listening: The Moldau, by Bedřich Smetana : 

Listening: The Moldau, by Bedřich Smetana Two springs The river Forest hunt Peasant wedding Moonlight dance The river The rapids of St. John The river at its widest Vyšehrad Castle

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky : 

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky Russian Government clerk Music @21: St. Petersburg Conservatory Professor @ Moscow Conservatory Married: Antonina Ivanova Miliukova Benefactress: Nadezdha von Meck Died @53 mysterious circumstances


Music Six Symphonies (4-6 best known) Piano Concerto No. 1 in B Flat Violin Concerto Romeo and Juliet (overture-fantasy) Ballets Swan Lake Sleeping Beauty Nutcracker Orchestral showpieces Marche slav Overture 1812

*Listening: Romeo and Juliet, Overture-Fantasy : 

*Listening: Romeo and Juliet, Overture-Fantasy Sonata Form Friar Lawrence - intro (5 min.) Feud between Montagues and the Capulets - First Theme Love theme - Second Theme Orthodox Hymn in Coda

Johannes Brahms : 

Johannes Brahms b. Hamburg, Germany Son of a bass player - poor family played piano in waterfront bars Schumann Met on tour at age 20 'musical messiah' Lived in the Schumann home for two years after Robert was committed Lifelong friendship with Clara


Brahms Hamburg Philharmonic - snubbed Vienna, Austria composer teacher pianist Died of Cancer at age Music: heir to Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven


Music 4 symphonies #1 dubbed, 'Beethoven's 10th' 2 piano concertos 1 violin concerto piano pieces chamber music 200 lieder (songs) including Brahms's Lullaby German Requiem

Listening: German Requiem: 

Listening: German Requiem

Giuseppe Verdi : 

Giuseppe Verdi b. near Bussetto Milan, studies La Scala Parliament – Viva 'Vittorio Emmanuele, Re D'Italia'


Music For the mass public Emphasis on expressive vocal melody used duets, trios, quartets, and choruses Oberto - First opera Nabucco first big success


Nationalism Rigoletto Il Trovatore La Traviata

Final operas: 

Final operas Aïda Otello Falstaff Last two based on Shakespeare plays

Listening: Rigoletto, "La donna è mobile: 

Listening: Rigoletto, 'La donna è mobile Aria Vocal melody dominates Simple orchestral accompaniment

Giacomo Puccini : 

Giacomo Puccini

Richard Wagner: 

Richard Wagner b. Leipzig, Germany son of theater musicians Conductor - German theater Paris Dresden, Conductor of Dresden Opera Revolutionary due to accumulated debts Switzerland King Ludwig of Bavaria Munich Opera Cosima Liszt von Bülow


Genius Selfish Ruthless German nationalist absolute self-conviction Died in Venice (heart attack)


Music Wrote his own librettos medieval German legends heroes, gods, demigods music dramas unending melody: continuous musical flow instead of traditional arias, recitatives and ensembles speech song inspired by rhythms of the German language emphasis on the orchestration Leitmotif: A short musical idea associated with a person, an object, or a thought in the drama. (very similar to Berlioz' idée fixe)


Works: Rienzi: first music drama, done in the tradition of French Grand Opera Lohengrin Die Meistersinger Fliegen Hollander

The Ring of the Nibelung: 

The Ring of the Nibelung Das Rheingold Die Walküre Siegfried Götterdammerung

More Music Dramas: 

More Music Dramas Tannhäuser Tristan and Isolde Parsifal

Listening: Die Walküre (The Valkyrie): 

Listening: Die Walküre (The Valkyrie)

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