A Writer’s Reference 8th Edition PDF by Diana Hacker Free Download

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Writing With sources r r esearching R1 Thinking like a researcher gathering sources R2 Managing information taking notes responsibly R3 Evaluating sources MLA Papers MLA-1 Supporting a thesis MLA-2 Citing sources avoiding plagiarism MLA-3 Integrating sources MLA-4 Documenting sources MLA-5 Manuscript format sample research paper APA and c Ms Papers Coverage parallels MLA’s APA-1 APA-2 APA-3 APA-4 APA-5 CMS-1 CMS-2 CMS-3 CMS-4 CMS-5 i index Multilingual menu Revision symbols Detailed menu hackerhandbooks.com/writersref How to use this book Writing correct Ly g grammatical s entences G1 Subject-verb agreement G2 Verb forms tenses and moods G3 Pronouns G4 Adjectives and adverbs G5 Sentence fragments G6 Run-on sentences M Multilingual Writers and es L c hallenges M1 Verbs M2 Articles M3 Sentence structure M4 Using adjectives M5 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions M6 Paraphrasing sources efectively P Punctuation and Mechanics P1 The comma P2 Unnecessary commas P3 The semicolon and the colon P4 The apostrophe P5 Quotation marks P6 Other punctuation marks P7 Spelling and hyphenation P8 Capitalization P9 Abbreviations and numbers P10 Italics B Basic grammar B1 Parts of speech B2 Sentence patterns B3 Subordinate word groups B4 Sentence types 00_HAC_6676_FM_i-xviii.indd 1 18/07/14 5:14 pm

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Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers Harvard University c ontributing esL s pecialist Kimberli Huster Robert Morris University A Reference EiGHt H EDitio N BEDf o RD/St. MARti N’S Boston ◆ New York 00_HAC_6676_FM_i-xviii.indd 5 18/07/14 5:14 pm

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C Composing and Revising C Composing and Revising

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C Composing and Revising C1 Planning 3 a Assessing the writing situation 3 b Exploring your subject 4 c Drafting and revising a working thesis statement 9 d Drafting a plan 13 C2 Drafting 15 a Drafting an introduction 15 b Drafting the body 17 c Drafting a conclusion 20 d Managing your files 21 C3 Reviewing revising and editing 22 a Developing strategies for revising with comments 22 b Approaching global revision in cycles 28 c Revising and editing sentences 30 d Proofreading the final manuscript 31 e Student writing: Literacy narrative 32 Writing guide: Literacy narrative 37 C4 Preparing a portfolio reflecting on your writing 38 a Understanding the benefits of reflection 38 b Student writing: Reflective letter for a portfolio 39 Writing guide: Reflective letter 42 C5 Writing paragraphs 43 a Focusing on a main point 43 b Developing the main point 45 c Choosing a suitable pattern of organization 46 d Making paragraphs coherent 51 e Adjusting paragraph length 56 C6 Document design: A gallery of models 57 MLA essay format 59 MLA works cited page 60 APA title page 61 APA abstract 62 APA essay format 63 APA list of references 63 Business report with a visual 64 Business letter 65 Résumé 66 Professional memo 67 E-mail message 68 C 1 – 68

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3 Assessing the writing situation C1-a Writing is a process of fguring out what you think not a matter of recording already developed thoughts. Since it’s not possible to think about everything all at once you will fnd the process more manageable if you handle a piece of writing in stages. You will generally move from planning to drafting to revising but as your ideas develop you will fnd yourself circling back and returning to earlier stages. C1 Planning C1-a Assess the writing situation. Begin by taking a look at your writing situation. Consider your subject your purpose your audience available sources of information and any assignment requirements such as genre length document design and deadlines see the checklist on p. 5. It is likely that you will make fnal decisions about all of these matters later in the writing process — after a frst draft for example — but you will become a more effective writer if you think about as many of them as possible in advance. Purpose In many writing situations part of your challenge will be determining your purpose or your reason for writing. The wording of an assignment may suggest its purpose. If no guidelines are given you may need to ask yourself “Why am I communicating with my readers” or “What do I want to accomplish” College writers most often write for the following purposes: to inform to analyze to explain to synthesize to summarize to propose to persuade to call readers to action to evaluate to change attitudes Audience Analyzing your audience can often help you determine how to accom- plish your purpose — how much detail or explanation to provide what kind of tone and language to use and what potential objections to address. The choices you make as you write will tell readers who you think they are novices or experts for example and will show respect for your readers’ values and perspectives. The checklist on page 5 includes questions that will help you analyze your audience and develop an effective strategy for reaching your readers. hackerhandbooks.com/writersref C1 Planning Exercises: C1–3 02_HAC_6676_chC_003-068.indd 3 17/07/14 5:01 pm

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4 C1-b Planning NOTE: When you write e-mail messages to instructors classmates or potential employers respect your reader by using a concise meaning- ful subject line keeping paragraphs brief and focused proofreading for careless errors and paying attention to your tone. Don’t write some- thing that you wouldn’t feel comfortable saying directly to your reader. Finally avoid forwarding another person’s message without permission. Genre Pay close attention to the genre or type of writing assigned. Each genre is a category of writing meant for a specifc purpose and audience — an essay in a writing class a lab report in a biology class a policy memo in a criminal justice class or a case study for an education class. Some- times the genre is yours to choose and you need to decide if a particular genre — a poster presentation an audio essay a Web page or a podcast for example — will help you communicate your purpose and reach readers. Academic English What counts as good writing varies from culture to culture. In some situations you will need to become familiar with the writing styles — such as direct or indirect personal or impersonal plain or embellished — that are valued by the culture or discipline for which you are writing. C1-b Experiment with ways to explore your subject. Instead of plunging into a frst draft experiment with one or more tech- niques for exploring your subject and discovering your purpose: talking and listening reading and annotating texts asking questions brainstorm- ing clustering freewriting keeping a journal blogging. Whatever tech- nique you turn to the goal is the same: to generate ideas that will lead you to a question a problem or a topic that you want to explore further. Talking and listening Because writing is a process of fguring out what you think about a sub- ject it can be useful to try out your ideas on other people. Conversation can deepen and refne your ideas even before you begin to draft. By talking and listening to others you can also discover what they fnd hackerhandbooks.com/writersref C1 Planning As you write: Thinking like a college writer C1 Planning As you write: Exploring a subject 02_HAC_6676_chC_003-068.indd 4 17/07/14 5:01 pm

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5 C1-b Exploring your subject Subject ■ Has the subject been assigned or are you free to choose your own ■ Why is your subject worth writing about What questions would you like to explore How might readers beneft from reading about it ■ Do you need to narrow your subject to a more specifc topic because of length restrictions for instance Purpose and audience ■ Why are you writing: To inform readers To persuade them To call them to action Some combination of these ■ Who are your readers How well informed are they about the subject ■ Will your readers resist any of your ideas What possible objections will you need to anticipate and counter Genre ■ What genre — type of writing — does your assignment require: A report A proposal An analysis of data An essay ■ If the genre is not assigned what genre is appropriate for your subject purpose and audience ■ Does the genre require a specifc design format or method of organization Sources of information ■ Where will your information come from: Reading Research Direct observation Interviews Questionnaires ■ What type of evidence suits your subject purpose audience and genre ■ What documentation style is required: MLA APA CMS Chicago Length and document design ■ Do you have length specifcations If not what length seems appropriate given your subject purpose audience and genre ■ Is a particular format required If so do you have guidelines or examples to consult ■ How might visuals — graphs tables images — help you convey information Reviewers and deadlines ■ Who will be reviewing your draft in progress: Your instructor A writing tutor Your classmates ■ What are your deadlines How much time will you need for the various stages of writing including proofreading and printing or posting the fnal draft Checklist for assessing the writing situation 02_HAC_6676_chC_003-068.indd 5 17/07/14 5:01 pm

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APA CMS APA and CMS Papers APA CMS

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APA/ CMS APA and CMS Papers Directory to APA in-text citation models 473 Directory to APA reference list models 473 APA Papers APA-1 Supporting a thesis 475 a Forming a working thesis 475 b Organizing your ideas 476 c Using sources to inform and support your argument 476 APA-2 Citing sources avoiding plagiarism 478 a Understanding how the APA system works 479 b Understanding what plagiarism is 479 c Using quotation marks around borrowed language 479 d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words 481 APA-3 Integrating sources 482 a Using quotations appropriately 482 b Using signal phrases to integrate sources 484 c Synthesizing sources 487 APA-4 Documenting sources 489 a APA in-text citations 489 b APA list of references 495 APA CITATIONS AT A GLANCE Article in a journal or magazine 502 Article from a database 504 Book 509 Section in a Web document 516 APA-5 Manuscript format sample research paper 521 a APA manuscript format 521 b Sample APA research paper 525 Directory to CMS-style notes and bibliography entries 535 CMS Chicago Papers CMS-1 Supporting a thesis 536 a Forming a working thesis 536 b Organizing your ideas 537 c Using sources to inform and support your argument 537 CMS-2 Citing sources avoiding plagiarism 539 a Using the CMS system for citing sources 539 b Understanding what plagiarism is 540 c Using quotation marks around borrowed language 540 d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words 541 CMS-3 Integrating sources 542 a Using quotations appropriately 542 b Using signal phrases to integrate sources 545 CMS-4 Documenting sources 548 a First and later notes 548 b Bibliography 549 c Model notes and bibliography entries 549 CMS CITATIONS AT A GLANCE Book 552 Article in a journal 556 Article from a database 558 Letter in a published collection 562 Primary source from a Web site 566 CMS-5 Manuscript format sample pages 567 a CMS manuscript format 567 b Sample CMS pages 570 APA CMS 471 – 576

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Directory to APA reference list models Directory to APA in-text citation models 473 APA Gener Al Gu iDelines for listin G Auth ors 1. Single author 498 2. Two to seven authors 498 3. Eight or more authors 498 4. Organization as author 498 5. Unknown author 499 6. Author using a pseudonym pen name or screen name 499 7. Two or more works by the same author 499 8. Two or more works by the same author in the same year 499 9. Editor 499 10. Author and editor 500 11. Translator 500 12. Editor and translator 500 Articles An D other short works 13. Article in a journal 500 a. Print 500 b. Web 501 c. Database 501 14. Article in a magazine 501 a. Print 501 b. Web 501 c. Database 505 15. Article in a newspaper 505 a. Print 505 b. Web 505 16. Abstract 506 a. Abstract of a journal article 506 b. Abstract of a paper 506 17. Supplemental material 506 18. Article with a title in its title 506 19. Letter to the editor 506 20. Editorial or other unsigned article 506 21. Newsletter article 507 22. Review 507 23. Published interview 507 24. Article in a reference work encyclopedia dictionary wiki 507 a. Print 507 b. Web 508 25. Comment on an online article 508 1. Basic f ormat for a quotation 490 2. Basic f ormat for a summary or a paraphrase 490 3. Work with two authors 490 4. Work with three to fve authors 491 5. Work with six or more authors 491 6. Work with unknown author 491 7. Organization as author 491 8. Authors with the same last name 492 9. Two or more works by the same author in the same year 492 10. Two or more works in the same parentheses 492 11. Multiple citations to the same work in one paragraph 492 12. Web source 493 a. No page numbers 493 b. Unknown author 493 c. Unknown date 493 13. An entire Web site 493 14. Multivolume work 494 15. Personal communication 494 16. Course materials 494 17. Part of a source chapter fgure 494 18. Indirect source source quoted in another source 494 19. Sacred or classical text 495 APA directories Directory to CMS-style notes and bibliography entries is on page 535. 22_HAC_6676_ChAPA_473-534.indd 473 24/07/14 11:36 am

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474 APA APA and CMS papers Directory to APA reference list models continued 26. Testimony before a legislative body 508 27. Paper presented at a meeting or symposium unpublished 508 28. Poster session at a conference 508 Books An D other lon G works 29. Basic f ormat for a book 508 a. Print 508 b. Web or online library 510 c. E-book 510 d. Database 510 30. Edition other than the frst 510 31. Selection in an anthology or a collection 510 a. Entire anthology 510 b. Selection in an anthology 511 32. Multivolume work 511 a. All volumes 511 b. One volume with title 511 33. Introduction preface foreword or afterword 511 34. Dictionary or other reference work 511 35. Republished book 511 36. Book with a title in its title 512 37. Book in a language other than English 512 38. Dissertation 512 a. Published 512 b. Unpublished 512 39. Conference proceedings 512 40. Government document 512 41. Report from a private organization 512 42. Legal source 513 43. Sacred or classical text 513 w eB sites An D PAr ts of w eB sites 44. Entire Web site 513 45. Document from a Web site 513 46. Section in a Web document 514 47. Blog post 514 48. Blog comment 514 Au Dio visu Al An D multime DiA sources 49. Podcast 514 50. Video or audio on the Web 515 51. Transcript of an audio or a video fle 515 52. Film DVD BD or other format 515 53. Television or radio program 515 a. Series 515 b. Episode on the air 518 c. Episode on the Web 518 54. Music recording 518 55. Lecture speech or address 518 56. Data set or graphic representation of data graph chart table 518 57. Mobile application software app 519 58. Video game 519 59. Map 519 60. Advertisement 519 61. Work of art or photograph 519 62. Brochure or fact sheet 520 63. Press release 520 64. Presentation slides 520 65. Lecture notes or other course materials 520 Person Al communic At ion An D soci Al m eDiA 66. E-mail 520 67. Online posting 520 68. Twitter post tweet 521 69. Facebook post 521 22_HAC_6676_ChAPA_473-534.indd 474 24/07/14 11:36 am

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475 Forming a working thesis APA-1a This tabbed section shows how to document sources in APA style for the social sciences and felds such as nursing and business and in CMS Chicago style for history and some humanities classes. It also includes discipline-specifc advice on three important topics: sup- porting a thesis citing sources and avoiding plagiarism and inte- grating sources. note: For advice on fnding and evaluating sources and on managing information in courses across the disciplines see the tabbed section R Researching. APA Papers Most instructors in the social sciences and some instructors in other disciplines will ask you to document your sources with the American Psychological Association APA system of in-text citations and refer - ences described in APA-4. You face three main challenges when writing a social science paper that draws on sources: 1 supporting a thesis 2 citing your sources and avoiding plagiarism and 3 integrating quo- tations and other source material. Examples in this section are drawn from one student’s research for a review of the literature on treatments for childhood obesity. Luisa Mirano’s paper appears on pages 526–34. APA-1 Supporting a thesis Most research assignments ask you to form a thesis or main idea and to support that thesis with well-organized evidence. In a paper review- ing the literature on a topic the thesis analyzes the often competing conclusions drawn by a variety of researchers. APA-1a f orm a working thesis. Once you have read a range of sources considered your issue from dif- ferent perspectives and chosen an entry point in the research conversa- tion see R1-b you are ready to form a working thesis: a one-sentence hackerhandbooks.com/writersref APA-1 Supporting a thesis Exercises: APA 1–1 and APA 1–2 22_HAC_6676_ChAPA_473-534.indd 475 24/07/14 11:36 am

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