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IMPERIALISM Imperialism is the quest for colonial empires It can include the use of economic, political, or military power


EXAMPLES Roman Empire- force France, Spain, England- trade Great Britain- “The sun never sets on the British Empire”


REASONS Increase trade by providing market for manufactured goods Gain sources for raw materials Secure military advantages Increase prestige Share religious and cultural beliefs


FAMOUS PEOPLE Frederick Jackson Turner- Frontier thesis Alfred Thayer Mahan- The Influence of Sea Power Upon History Josiah Strong- Our Country Anglo-Saxon dominance


SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Cuba- series of revolts against Spanish rule 1868- beginning of revolts Cuban leaders exiled Jose Marti- poet 1895- revolt in which Marti is killed 1896- Spanish send Gen. Valeriano Weyler to crush revolt- “the Butcher”

Unites States Reaction : 

Unites States Reaction U.S. Press wants war with Spain Hearst and Pulitzer very vocal Pres. McKinley wants to avoid war

Events leading to war: 

Events leading to war Feb. 9, 1898- Hearst’s journal prints comment of Spanish official concerning McKinley- “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd” Feb. 15, 1898- The Maine explodes in Havana, Cuba. Spain is blamed. Apr. 20, 1898- Congress recognizes Cuban independence and votes for military force

Teller Amendment: 

Teller Amendment States that the United States claimed no “sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control” over Cuba After defeating Spain, control would rest with Cuban people


FAMOUS BATTLES Philippine Islands- Spanish-controlled May 1, 1898- Battle of Manila Bay Commodore George Dewey defeats Spanish fleet Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo supports U.S. forces


Cuba and Puerto Rico- Spanish-controlled July 1, 1898- U.S. begins assault on Santiago El Caney and San Juan Hill Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders July 3, 1898- U.S. defeats Spanish fleet off coast of Cuba Troops defeat Spanish in Puerto Rico


RESULTS OF WAR Spain grants Cuba its independence Spain gives Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S. Spain gives up control of the Philippines United States gains prestige as world power


ANNEXATION DEBATE Expansionists argue in favor based upon commercial reasons, naval concerns, the belief that the U.S. would bring democratic government to the Philippines, and that European powers would be kept away Anti-Imperialist League formed in June 1898 argues that U.S. should not become imperial power and annexation of Philippines would violate American principles


WAR IN PHILIPPINES Aguinaldo sets up provisional government and proclaims himself President Filipino rebels fight 3-year war against U.S. 1902- Congress passes Philippine Government Act Act states that Philippines would be ruled by a governor and two-house legislature


The United States would appoint the governor and Upper House After order is restored, the Filipinos would elect the Lower House William Howard Taft became the first governor of the Philippines


Jones Act of 1916- allows the Filipinos to elect both houses of their legislature Total independence will not come until U.S. concludes that a stable government has been established Philippines get independence in 1946


ACQUISITION OF HAWAII U.S. interest in Hawaii was because of 2 major reasons: strategic location along trade routes to China and fertile soil During the 1820s, New England Protestant missionaries travel to Hawaii By 1870s, their descendents had become major landowners in Hawaii


In 1886, Hawaiian king Kalakaua attempts to restrict American influence. Hawaiian League is formed to overthrow the monarchy and persuade U.S. annexation 1887- League forces Kalakaua to sign a new constitution that limited his power U.S. gets rights to use Pearl Harbor as naval base


1891- Kalakaua is succeeded by his sister, Liliuokalani Queen Liliuokalani tries to encourage Hawaiian nationalism U.S. oversees end to monarchy Does not annex until 1898


CHINA United States trade with China began in 1784 when Empress of China (trading ship) sailed for Guangzhou 1843- China opens 5 ports to trade from U.S. and Europe 1894- Japanese invasion leads to loss of territory- Taiwan, Liaotung peninsula and control of Korea


China’s weakness leads to European powers (Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia) making China to divide into spheres of influence Spheres of Influence- where a foreign nation has exclusive rights over trade, mines, and railroads


OPEN DOOR POLICY Proposed in 1899 by Secretary of State John Hay Called for European nations and Japan to accept policy change


OPEN DOOR POLICY Keep all ports in their spheres open to all nations for trade Allow Chinese officials to collect all tariffs and duties Guarantee equal railroad, harbor, and tariff rates


BOXER REBELLION Caused by Chinese resentment of foreigners Fists of Righteous Harmony begins rebellion In 1900, they attacked Western missionaries and traders in northern China, killing 300 Laid siege to foreign settlement in Beijing Rebellion ends as international force enters


JAPAN Japan becomes imperial power as a result of 1894 invasion of China Japan had been very isolated for most of its history From 1639-1850s, Japan had only allowed one Dutch trading ship a year 1853- Commodore Matthew Perry had sailed into Tokyo Bay


President Millard Fillmore had encouraged Perry to persuade Japan to open itself up to trade with the West Japan becomes industrialized and builds a strong army and navy 1894- invades China 1904- attacks Russia in Manchuria


RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Japanese victory might lead to strong competitor in Asia Russian victory might lead to end of U.S. trade with Manchuria May,1905- Japan wins crucial battles and asks for U.S. mediation Pres. Roosevelt negotiates end to war and wins Nobel Peace Prize


GREAT WHITE FLEET 1907- President Roosevelt sends 4 destroyers and 16 battleships on world cruise Roosevelt- “the Pacific was as much our home waters as the Atlantic”


CUBA 1899- Pres. McKinley appoints Leonard Wood as governor of Cuba Changes are made such as construction of schools and a sanitation system Dr. Carlos Finlay discovered mosquitoes cause yellow fever Cubans want independence


PLATT AMENDMENT Limits Cuba’s right to make treaties with other countries Allowed U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary Made Cuba to sell or lease land for U.S. naval or fueling stations (Guantanamo Bay) Made Cuba a protectorate


PUERTO RICO Made a territory like Samoa Foraker Act- governor and upper house to be appointed by U.S. and lower house to be elected by Puerto Ricans Jones Act of 1917- made Puerto Ricans American citizens and they can elect both houses of their legislature 1952- Becomes a commonwealth


PANAMA CANAL The United States had long wanted a shortcut from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean The route around Cape Horn was long and dangerous Proposals had been made to build a canal across Nicaragua


HISTORY OF CANAL 1517- Balboa had proposed a canal be dug across Panama 1850- U.S. and Great Britain sign the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty that agrees to an equal partnership to build a canal across Panama 1880s- French company begins construction, but does not complete


ROOSEVELT’S ACTIONS 1901- Pres. Roosevelt instructs Secretary of State John Hay to negotiate with Great Britain to end partnership Hay-Pauncefote Treaty- Britain agrees to allow U.S. to build canal on its own, and in return, U.S. agrees to allow all countries vessels to use the canal

Hay begins negotiations with Colombia- which owned Panama: 

Hay begins negotiations with Colombia- which owned Panama 1903- Hay-Herran Treaty is drafted- 99-year lease over 6-mile stretch across Panama in exchange for 10 million and 250,000 yearly rental Colombian Senate does not ratify treaty


Philippe Bunau-Varilla, former chief engineer for French effort, asks for U.S. support of Panamanian revolution Oct. 9, 1903- Bunau-Varilla meets privately with Pres. Roosevelt Nov. 2, 1903- U.S. gunboat arrives in Panama


Nov. 3, 1903- Panamanian rebels begin revolution Nov. 4, 1903- rebels win and declare Panama an independent nation Nov. 6, 1903- U.S. recognizes Panama and Hay begins negotiation


Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gives U.S. complete and unending sovereignty over a 10-mile wide canal zone Roosevelt later said- “I took the Canal Zone and let Congress debate”


ROOSEVELT COROLLARY 1823- Monroe Doctrine Raw materials and trade possibilities garnered European and American interest in Latin America in late 1800s Europeans gave high-interest loans 1902- Great Britain, Germany, and Italy blockade and attack Venezuelan shipping


Roosevelt warns the three nations not to take any land and encourages arbitration to settle dispute 1904- Dominican Republic unable to pay loans, Roosevelt issues his corollary to the Monroe Doctrine


Roosevelt states that not only will U.S. keep European powers out of the hemisphere, but that the U.S. will directly intervene in Latin American nations if necessary “Speak softly, but carry a big stick” Accused of “gunboat diplomacy”


DOLLAR DIPLOMACY Following Roosevelt as President, Taft promotes the use of economic power rather than military force Suggest replacing European loans with American U.S. invests in railroads, mines,and banana and sugar plantations


WILSON Wanted democratic governments in Latin America to discourage European involvement Sent troops to Caribbean nations to put down revolts and establish constitutional governments


MEXICAN REVOLUTION President Porfirio Diaz ruled for more than 30 years In 1910 election, Diaz uses force and fraud to defeat opposition candidate Francisco Madero Madero’s supporters begin revolution in November of 1910


1911- Diaz is forced into exile in Paris In new election, Madero wins Madero’s policies are opposed by fellow revolutionaries who did not think his plans went far enough in returning land to the peasants and by military officers and landowners who thought it went too far


U.S. Ambassador Henry Wilson did not believe that Madero’s government could protect U.S. interests and met with those opposed to Madero to discuss an overthrow 1913- General Victoriano Huerta takes control of the government and puts Madero in jail, who is then shot attempting escape


U.S. President Wilson is outraged by events Civil War erupts in Mexico Four major leaders emerge to confront Huerta- Venustiano Carranza, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon Wilson doubts they can defeat Huerta

American Response: 

American Response April 9, 1914- Huerta’s forces arrest American sailors Wilson demands apology German ship with arms heads to Veracruz Wilson orders U.S. Navy to land Marines and stop shipment


ABC POWERS Argentina, Brazil, and Chile organize a conference at Niagara Falls, Ontario to resolve the crisis Huerta is urged to resign and he goes to Spain Aug. 1914- Carranza enters Mexico City 1915- Carranza becomes President


March 1916- Pancho Villa retaliates against U.S. by raiding Columbus, New Mexico Pres. Wilson sends Gen. John “Blackjack” Pershing to find Villa June, 1916- U.S. and Mexico are on the brink of war U.S. does not want war because of events in Europe


Crisis is avoided and Wilson withdraws troops in Jan. 1917 1920- Carranza is killed by forces of Alvaro Obregon

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