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SOVIET UNION RUSSIA EVIL EMPIREEURASIA: EURASIA Connected landmass area of Europe and Asia Nearly half of the Northern Hemisphere Russia: Largest country in the world 11 time zones Ruled by CZARS (emperors) for hundreds of yearsTHE GEOGRAPHY: THE GEOGRAPHY Continuation of the Northern European Plain Extensive areas of grasslands called STEPPES CHERNOZEM (CHER nuh zem): Russian for “black earth” Very fertile soil Great for growing wheatTHE GEOGRAPHY: THE GEOGRAPHY Siberia: Asian part of Russia More than 1 million square miles Most remains frozen or swampy Tundra: short grass, mosses & lichens Permafrost: Permanently frozen soil under the surfaceTHE GEOGRAPHY: THE GEOGRAPHY TAIGA (tie-GA) Russian for “little-stick” Largest forest in the world 10 million acres Coniferous trees Few people live hereTHE GEOGRAPHY: THE GEOGRAPHY HUGE deposits of: Coal Oil/Natural gas Gold/Diamonds Most is difficult to mine due to climateTHE GEOGRAPHY: THE GEOGRAPHY Population of 300 million ¾ live in the Northern European Plain Population density is low Many areas have no people Over 100 different ethnic groups 200 Different languagesRUSSIA: RUSSIA Most of Russia has a Continental Climate: Warm summers Cold, snowy winters Most of SIBERIA has a subarctic climateTRANSPORTATION: TRANSPORTATION Russia’s great size makes transportation hard. Rivers: Boats are used for a few months during the short summers. The rivers are far more reliable after freezing. Huge trucks use the rivers just like roads.TRANSPORTATION: TRANSPORTATION Railroads: More than 90,000 miles of tracks Greatest mover of people & goods Trans-Siberian Railroad: 5,700 miles Moscow to VladivostokCOMMUNISM: COMMUNISM Original idea was by Karl Marx German economist from the 1800s Believed that all land and businesses should be owned by all people in common “COMMUNISM” Russian Revolution of 1917 brought a Communist government to power. SOVIET: Government council in each republic (law-making body)COMMUNISM: COMMUNISM SOVIET SYSTEM: Dictators: Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Command Economy Central government decided what goods will be produced and when Moscow decided what and whenCOMMUNISM: COMMUNISM The Communist “promise” was that the poor would improve their lives with Communism. The truth is: Common people remained poor, and in most cases became poorer.COMMUNISM: COMMUNISM Loss of personal freedoms: You did what the Communist government told you to do No freedom-of: Speech Religion Movement By 1993, no Communist government remained in Eastern Europe U.S.S.R and AGRICULTURE: U.S.S.R and AGRICULTURE Communists took all farmland by the point-of-a-gun. Collective Farms: Communists reorganized farmland into giant “collectives” The farmers who originally owned the land were forced to work for the Communists With little reason to work hard (incentive), productivity was very low!U.S.S.R and INDUSTRY: U.S.S.R and INDUSTRY With an economy based on agriculture, the Communists wanted to increase industry Communists pressed for development of heavy industry Heavy Industry: Production of steel and machinery used in smaller industries With this emphasis, consumer goods were scarce. Clothing…soap…shoes…vegetables…etc. Environment was left heavily damagedCHANGE WAS INEVITABLE: CHANGE WAS INEVITABLE By the 1980s, the Communists knew that change had to come A new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to “change” the Communism systemGlasnost (GLASS-nost): Glasnost (GLASS-nost) Russian for openness, allowed some: Freedom of speech Freedom of the press: Newspapers/TV were “allowed” to report about “some” crimes Radio stations were allowed to broadcast Western music Some western TV shows were allowed Wearing of blue-jeans was allowedPerestroika (Pear-a-STROY-ka): Perestroika (Pear-a-STROY-ka) Russian for restructuring Factory managers decided production Factories changed from military to consumer goods Farmers were allowed to “lease” the lands they once owned, and production did increase Some small, private businesses were allowedWW-II: WW-II 1939: U.S.S.R. and Germany signed an agreement not to attack each other 1941: Germany attacked U.S.S.R. 20 million men/women (U.S.S.R.) died in the fighting 1945: Germany lost…U.S.S.R occupied Germany Called: The Patriotic WarCOLD WAR: COLD WAR After WW-II, U.S.S.R. is a world power: Nukes Jets Submarines U. S. spent more $$$ and U.S.S.R. lost the cold warEND OF COMMUNIST RULE: END OF COMMUNIST RULE Due to changes (glasnost and perestroika) and President Reagan’s pressure: Russians began calling for the end to Communism. 1991: First FREE elections held One-by-one the 15 republics declared their freedomAFTER COMMUNISM: AFTER COMMUNISM Some problems: Housing shortages: 2-3 families to one apartment during Communism People wanted their own homes Unemployment: Under Communism you were promised a job and retirementAFTER COMMUNISM: Ethnic fighting: Chechnya: Declared their independence in 1991…Russia refused to allow it Muslims are fighting for freedom from Russia Using terror tactics (bombings and murder) AFTER COMMUNISMAFTER COMMUNISM: Economic problems: Inflation skyrocketed Ruble (Russian Money) worth $1.75…dropped to .01 Black-market sold everything from food to guns Black-market: Sales of stuff hidden from the government often by barter (trade) Privatization: Opposite of nationalization, sell businesses back to private owners AFTER COMMUNISMAFTER COMMUNISM: Health Problems: Death-rate is twice the U.S. Population declined by 3 million Alcohol and drug-use increasing Environment Problems: Siberian cities are worst polluted in the world Money is needed to feed the people so the environment is not as important. AFTER COMMUNISMSlide27: Reach For A Star Productions John P. Luke www.mrluke.net You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.