Erik Ericksons Theory of Psychosocial Stages of Development

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Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Stages of Development : 

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Stages of Development

Erikson has formulated eight major stages of development task and simultaneously presenting the individual with a crisis that he must struggle through.According to him individuals develop a “healthy personality by mastering life’s outer and inner dangers.” : 

Erikson has formulated eight major stages of development task and simultaneously presenting the individual with a crisis that he must struggle through.According to him individuals develop a “healthy personality by mastering life’s outer and inner dangers.”

Development follows the epigenetic principle,which holds that”anything that grows has a ground plan, and out of this ground plan the parts have arisen to form a functioning whole”.Meaning: Each part of the personality has a particular time in the life span when it must develop, if it is going to develop at all. Should a capacity not be developed on schedule, the rest of this development is unfavorably altered. The individual is then hindered from dealing effectively with reality. : 

Development follows the epigenetic principle,which holds that”anything that grows has a ground plan, and out of this ground plan the parts have arisen to form a functioning whole”.Meaning: Each part of the personality has a particular time in the life span when it must develop, if it is going to develop at all. Should a capacity not be developed on schedule, the rest of this development is unfavorably altered. The individual is then hindered from dealing effectively with reality.

The Psychosocial StagesTrust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year)*Infants whose needs are met and who are cuddle ,fondled and shown genuine affection evolve a sense of a world as a safe and dependable place.*In contrast, when a child is chaotic ,unpredictable, and rejecting as brought about by his environment, he approaches the world with fear and suspicion .Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (2 to 3 years)*when parents are patient, cooperative and encouraging children acquire a sense of independence and competence.*in contrast, when children are not allowed such freedom and over-protected, they develop an excessive sense of shame and doubt. : 

The Psychosocial StagesTrust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year)*Infants whose needs are met and who are cuddle ,fondled and shown genuine affection evolve a sense of a world as a safe and dependable place.*In contrast, when a child is chaotic ,unpredictable, and rejecting as brought about by his environment, he approaches the world with fear and suspicion .Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (2 to 3 years)*when parents are patient, cooperative and encouraging children acquire a sense of independence and competence.*in contrast, when children are not allowed such freedom and over-protected, they develop an excessive sense of shame and doubt.

Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 years)*parents who give their children freedom in running, sliding, bike riding, skating are allowing the to develop initiative.*Parents who curtail this freedom are giving children a sense of themselves as nuisances and inept intruders in an adult world. They become passive recipients of whatever the environment brings.Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years)*as children move into the world of school, they gain a sense of industry by winning recognition for their achievements. Parents and teachers who support , reward and praise children are encouraging industry.* Those who rebuff , deride or ignore children’s efforts are strengthening feelings of inferiority. : 

Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 years)*parents who give their children freedom in running, sliding, bike riding, skating are allowing the to develop initiative.*Parents who curtail this freedom are giving children a sense of themselves as nuisances and inept intruders in an adult world. They become passive recipients of whatever the environment brings.Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years)*as children move into the world of school, they gain a sense of industry by winning recognition for their achievements. Parents and teachers who support , reward and praise children are encouraging industry.* Those who rebuff , deride or ignore children’s efforts are strengthening feelings of inferiority.

Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 years)*The must answer the question “ Who am I?”They try on many new roles as they grope with romantic involvement, vocational choice and adult statuses.*When the adolescent fails to develop a “centered ” identity, he/she becomes trapped in either role confusion or a negative identity. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)* it is the capacity to reach out and make contact with other people. Intimacy finds expression in deep friendships, to share with and care about another person w/o fear of losing oneself in the process.*Some individuals opt for relationships of a shallow sort. Their lives are characterized by withdrawal and isolation. : 

Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 years)*The must answer the question “ Who am I?”They try on many new roles as they grope with romantic involvement, vocational choice and adult statuses.*When the adolescent fails to develop a “centered ” identity, he/she becomes trapped in either role confusion or a negative identity. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)* it is the capacity to reach out and make contact with other people. Intimacy finds expression in deep friendships, to share with and care about another person w/o fear of losing oneself in the process.*Some individuals opt for relationships of a shallow sort. Their lives are characterized by withdrawal and isolation.

Generativity vs. Stagnation ( Middle Adulthood)*entails selflessness. Reaching put beyond one’s own immediate concern to embrace the welfare of society and of future generations.*in contrast, stagnation is a condition in w/c individuals are preoccupied with their material possessions or physical well being.Integrity vs. Despair (old age)*as individual approach the end of life, they tend to take stock of the years that have gone before. Some feel a sense of satisfaction with their accomplishments. Others experience despair- “the feeling that the time is now short, too short for the attempt to start another life and to try out alternative roads to integrity.” : 

Generativity vs. Stagnation ( Middle Adulthood)*entails selflessness. Reaching put beyond one’s own immediate concern to embrace the welfare of society and of future generations.*in contrast, stagnation is a condition in w/c individuals are preoccupied with their material possessions or physical well being.Integrity vs. Despair (old age)*as individual approach the end of life, they tend to take stock of the years that have gone before. Some feel a sense of satisfaction with their accomplishments. Others experience despair- “the feeling that the time is now short, too short for the attempt to start another life and to try out alternative roads to integrity.”

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