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Location Southern Asia West of India East of Afghanistan Southwest of China Touches Arabian Sea

History of Pakistan: 

History of Pakistan Became a country in 1947 Was divided for nearly 25 years as East and West Pakistan, but the current country is made up of the Western part March 23, 1956 became a republic with Major General Iskander Mirza as president 1958 did away with the independence constitution and the president gave power to military under Gen. Mohammed Avub Khan Although it was a military dictatorship, he brought about beneficial economic and land reform 1962 divided into East and West Pakistan West Pakistan rejected East Pakistan’s political rule, provoking a political feud and eventually civil war after East Pakistan declared independence as the separate state of Bangladesh

History (cont): 

History (cont) The civil war ended with a truce by all sides as West Pakistan’s soldiers surrendered  Pakistan People's Party’s leader Zulifikar Ali Bhutto became president in 1971 Established “Islamic socialization” and a new Pakistani Constitution The opposing political party accused Bhutto of rigging the 1977 election; these allegations led to protests and riots until Bhutto was executed in 1979 and Gen. Mohanned Zia ul-Hag assumed power United States supported Zia, despite his harsh, brutal methods 1985 influenced by the U.S., Zia returned the country to civilian rule, but he also altered the Constitution to give him more presidential power Benaizir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, became leader of the PPP and won the 1988 election after Zia was killed in an airplane crash


1990 Pakistan Muslim League leader Mohammad Nawaz Sharif removed Bhutto from office Sharif instituted economic reforms and privatization and eventually Sharia law (Islamic religious law) became more powerful than civil law 1993 Bhutto (PPP) took power again 1996 Bhutto was removed from office again 1997 Sharif was reelected again and worked to consolidate his power 1999 Sharif was overthrown October 2001 Gen. Pervez Musharraf took over as chief of state and then made himself president October 2002 first legislative election in three years Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal won a majority of seats in the legislature- this group is against the Pakistani government’s support of the U.S.’s war on terror


Establishment of Pakistan British lord Louis Mountbatten (in uniform) officially hands off power to Mohammed Ali Jinnah (to left of Mountbatten), leader of the new nation of Pakistan, on August 14, 1947. Mountbatten Jinnah


Chief Justice Chaudhry: challenges Musharraf’s position as army chief in conjunction with his position as president, therefore challenging the validity of the reelection of Musharraf as president on October 6. Chaudhry made rulings that undermined Musharraf’s power. For examply: revoked the exile of Musharraf’s opponent, Nawaz Sharif. It could take up to a year to hold the next election. In 1999, General Musharraf took power from Prime Minister Sharif, promising the country a true democracy.


Chief Justice Chaudhry returned to his position in court in July. “The state-run Associated Press of Pakistan reported that Musharraf told the diplomats that he took the action he did because certain decisions by the judiciary ‘created impediments in the fight against terrorism’” (


“Military ruler Musharraf on Saturday suspended the constitution, sacked the chief justice and imposed strict media curbs in the nuclear-armed nation of 160 million people” ( The ex- Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, opposed Musharraf’s decision to declare a state of emergency. She labeled it as an effort to enforce martial law. Musharraf said that he would give up his position in the army by November 15 if was reelected as president. This seems to be unlikely. Benazir Bhutto


Lawyers, demonstrators, students, judges, human rights activists and opposition leaders are being arrested, and some are being tortured in jail by military intelligence officials. “Asma Jahangir, the head of the Human Rights Commission in Pakistan, is reaching out to lawyers around the world, asking them to apply pressure on the Pakistani government to restore a democracy and the judicial system. She is currently being held in confinement in her Lahore home.” Friday, November 09, 2007, Benazir Bhutto is placed under house arrest because of her influence in the opposition and mass protests against Musharraf. The Pakistani police surrounded her Islamabad home with barbed wire.


“Oh-No-Istan” The United States is extremely concerned with the situation in Pakistan because Pakistan is a key ally in the War on Terror. The current, unstable situation in Pakistan takes attention away from the fight against terrorism.


Glossary Pakistan: A country located in Asia, next to the northwest border of India; formerly     West Pakistan Bangladesh: country in Asia located to the east of India; formerly East Pakistan Pervez Musharraf: President of Pakistan since he took over the position in 1999. He has also made himself the army chief of Pakistan. Benazir Bhutto: She is the ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan. She opposed Musharraf’s declaration of a state of emergency. Iftikhar Chaudhry: He is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Pakistan. He is questioning the legality of Musharraf’s October reelection as President. Asma Jahangir: She is the head of the Human Rights Commission in Pakistan. Nawaz Sharif: The former leader of Pakistan  


Privatization: private companies perform jobs that the government used to do in an effort to save the government money Major General Iskander Mirza: president of Pakistan in 1956   General Mohammad Ayub Khan: military general; took over government in 1958 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: leader of the Pakistan People's Party in 1971   General Mohammed Zia al-Haq: president of Pakistan from 1977 to 1988   Ghulam Ishaq Khan: removed Benazir Bhutto from office in 1990 Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal: an Islamic extremist coalition opposed to the government’s support of the U.S. war on terror General Ashfaq Pervez Kiani: military official loyal to Musharraf because appointed by Musharraf Lieutenant General Nadim Taj: military official loyal to Musharraf because appointed by Musharraf



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