Pakistan: Pakistan Location: Location Southern Asia
West of India
East of Afghanistan
Southwest of China
Touches Arabian Sea
History of Pakistan: History of Pakistan
Became a country in 1947
Was divided for nearly 25 years as East and West Pakistan, but the current country is made up of the Western part
March 23, 1956 became a republic with Major General Iskander Mirza as president
1958 did away with the independence constitution and the president gave power to military under Gen. Mohammed Avub Khan
Although it was a military dictatorship, he brought about beneficial economic and land reform
1962 divided into East and West Pakistan
West Pakistan rejected East Pakistan’s political rule, provoking a political feud and eventually civil war after East Pakistan declared independence as the separate state of Bangladesh
History (cont): History (cont) The civil war ended with a truce by all sides as West Pakistan’s soldiers surrendered
Pakistan People's Party’s leader Zulifikar Ali Bhutto became president in 1971
Established “Islamic socialization” and a new Pakistani Constitution
The opposing political party accused Bhutto of rigging the 1977 election; these allegations led to protests and riots until Bhutto was executed in 1979 and Gen. Mohanned Zia ul-Hag assumed power
United States supported Zia, despite his harsh, brutal methods
1985 influenced by the U.S., Zia returned the country to civilian rule, but he also altered the Constitution to give him more presidential power
Benaizir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, became leader of the PPP and won the 1988 election after Zia was killed in an airplane crash
1990 Pakistan Muslim League leader Mohammad Nawaz Sharif removed Bhutto from office
Sharif instituted economic reforms and privatization and eventually Sharia law (Islamic religious law) became more powerful than civil law
1993 Bhutto (PPP) took power again
1996 Bhutto was removed from office again
1997 Sharif was reelected again and worked to consolidate his power
1999 Sharif was overthrown
October 2001 Gen. Pervez Musharraf took over as chief of state and then made himself president
October 2002 first legislative election in three years
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal won a majority of seats in the legislature- this group is against the Pakistani government’s support of the U.S.’s war on terror
Slide7: Establishment of Pakistan
British lord Louis Mountbatten (in uniform) officially hands off power to Mohammed Ali Jinnah (to left of Mountbatten), leader of the new nation of Pakistan, on August 14, 1947. Mountbatten Jinnah Slide8:
Chief Justice Chaudhry: challenges Musharraf’s position as army chief in conjunction with his position as president, therefore challenging the validity of the reelection of Musharraf as president on October 6.
Chaudhry made rulings that undermined Musharraf’s power. For examply: revoked the exile of Musharraf’s opponent, Nawaz Sharif.
It could take up to a year to hold the next election.
In 1999, General Musharraf took power from Prime Minister Sharif, promising the country a true democracy. Slide9: Chief Justice Chaudhry returned to his position in court in July.
“The state-run Associated Press of Pakistan reported that Musharraf told the diplomats that he took the action he did because certain decisions by the judiciary ‘created impediments in the fight against terrorism’”
(http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/11/06/pakistan.crisis/index.html#cnnSTCText). Slide10: “Military ruler Musharraf on Saturday suspended the constitution, sacked the chief justice and imposed strict media curbs in the nuclear-armed nation of 160 million people” (http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jCiUXcyanPl3_Nec2dJRni_x13NQ).
The ex- Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, opposed Musharraf’s decision to declare a state of emergency. She labeled it as an effort to enforce martial law.
Musharraf said that he would give up his position in the army by November 15 if was reelected as president. This seems to be unlikely.
Benazir Bhutto Slide11: Lawyers, demonstrators, students, judges, human rights activists and opposition leaders are being arrested, and some are being tortured in jail by military intelligence officials.
“Asma Jahangir, the head of the Human Rights Commission in Pakistan, is reaching out to lawyers around the world, asking them to apply pressure on the Pakistani government to restore a democracy and the judicial system. She is currently being held in confinement in her Lahore home.”
Friday, November 09, 2007, Benazir Bhutto is placed under house arrest because of her influence in the opposition and mass protests against Musharraf. The Pakistani police surrounded her Islamabad home with barbed wire. http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jIE0IUn4WIiaMBpjG8SI_6H5RXzgD8SQ770G1
Slide12: “Oh-No-Istan” The United States is extremely concerned with the situation in Pakistan because Pakistan is a key ally in the War on Terror. The current, unstable situation in Pakistan takes attention away from the fight against terrorism. Slide13: Glossary
Pakistan: A country located in Asia, next to the northwest border of India; formerly West Pakistan
Bangladesh: country in Asia located to the east of India; formerly East Pakistan
Pervez Musharraf: President of Pakistan since he took over the position in 1999. He has also made himself the army chief of Pakistan.
Benazir Bhutto: She is the ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan. She opposed Musharraf’s declaration of a state of emergency.
Iftikhar Chaudhry: He is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Pakistan. He is questioning the legality of Musharraf’s October reelection as President.
Asma Jahangir: She is the head of the Human Rights Commission in Pakistan.
Nawaz Sharif: The former leader of Pakistan
Slide14: Privatization: private companies perform jobs that the government used to do in an effort to save the government money
Major General Iskander Mirza: president of Pakistan in 1956
General Mohammad Ayub Khan: military general; took over government in 1958
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: leader of the Pakistan People's Party in 1971
General Mohammed Zia al-Haq: president of Pakistan from 1977 to 1988
Ghulam Ishaq Khan: removed Benazir Bhutto from office in 1990
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal: an Islamic extremist coalition opposed to the government’s support of the U.S. war on terror
General Ashfaq Pervez Kiani: military official loyal to Musharraf because appointed by Musharraf
Lieutenant General Nadim Taj: military official loyal to Musharraf because appointed by Musharraf
Bibliography: Bibliography http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/analysis/toons/2007/11/05/mitchell/index.html