amer deadlocks

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Chapter 3: Deadlocks: 

Chapter 3: Deadlocks


Overview Resources Why do deadlocks occur? Dealing with deadlocks Ignoring them: ostrich algorithm Detecting andamp; recovering from deadlock Avoiding deadlock Preventing deadlock


Resources Resource: something a process uses Usually limited (at least somewhat) Examples of computer resources Printers Semaphores / locks Tables (in a database) Processes need access to resources in reasonable order Two types of resources: Preemptable resources: can be taken away from a process with no ill effects Nonpreemptable resources: will cause the process to fail if taken away

When do deadlocks happen?: 

When do deadlocks happen? Suppose Process 1 holds resource A and requests resource B Process 2 holds B and requests A Both can be blocked, with neither able to proceed Deadlocks occur when … Processes are granted exclusive access to devices or software constructs (resources) Each deadlocked process needs a resource held by another deadlocked process A B B A Process 1 Process 2 DEADLOCK!

Using resources: 

Using resources Sequence of events required to use a resource Request the resource Use the resource Release the resource Can’t use the resource if request is denied Requesting process has options Block and wait for resource Continue (if possible) without it: may be able to use an alternate resource Process fails with error code Some of these may be able to prevent deadlock…

What is a deadlock?: 

What is a deadlock? Formal definition: 'A set of processes is deadlocked if each process in the set is waiting for an event that only another process in the set can cause.' Usually, the event is release of a currently held resource In deadlock, none of the processes can Run Release resources Be awakened

Four conditions for deadlock: 

Four conditions for deadlock Mutual exclusion Each resource is assigned to at most one process Hold and wait A process holding resources can request more resources No preemption Previously granted resources cannot be forcibly taken away Circular wait There must be a circular chain of 2 or more processes where each is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain

Resource allocation graphs: 

Resource allocation graphs Resource allocation modeled by directed graphs Example 1: Resource R assigned to process A Example 2: Process B is requesting / waiting for resource S Example 3: Process C holds T, waiting for U Process D holds U, waiting for T C and D are in deadlock! R A S B U T D C

Dealing with deadlock: 

Dealing with deadlock How can the OS deal with deadlock? Ignore the problem altogether! Hopefully, it’ll never happen… Detect deadlock andamp; recover from it Dynamically avoid deadlock Careful resource allocation Prevent deadlock Remove at least one of the four necessary conditions We’ll explore these tradeoffs

Getting into deadlock: 

Getting into deadlock A B C Acquire R Acquire S Release R Release S Acquire S Acquire T Release S Release T Acquire T Acquire R Release T Release R

Not getting into deadlock…: 

Not getting into deadlock… Many situations may result in deadlock (but don’t have to) In previous example, A could release R before C requests R, resulting in no deadlock Can we always get out of it this way? Find ways to: Detect deadlock and reverse it Stop it from happening in the first place

The Ostrich Algorithm: 

The Ostrich Algorithm Pretend there’s no problem Reasonable if Deadlocks occur very rarely Cost of prevention is high UNIX and Windows take this approach Resources (memory, CPU, disk space) are plentiful Deadlocks over such resources rarely occur Deadlocks typically handled by rebooting Trade off between convenience and correctness

Detecting deadlocks using graphs: 

Detecting deadlocks using graphs Process holdings and requests in the table and in the graph (they’re equivalent) Graph contains a cycle =andgt; deadlock! Easy to pick out by looking at it (in this case) Need to mechanically detect deadlock Not all processes are deadlocked (A, C, F not in deadlock) R A S F W C E D G B T V U

Deadlock detection algorithm: 

Deadlock detection algorithm General idea: try to find cycles in the resource allocation graph Algorithm: depth-first search at each node Mark arcs as they’re traversed Build list of visited nodes If node to be added is already on the list, a cycle exists! Cycle == deadlock For each node N in the graph { Set L = empty list unmark all arcs Traverse (N,L) } If no deadlock reported by now, there isn’t any define Traverse (C,L) { If C in L, report deadlock! Add C to L For each unmarked arc from C { Mark the arc Set A = arc destination /* NOTE: L is a local variable */ Traverse (A,L) } }

Resources with multiple instances: 

Resources with multiple instances Previous algorithm only works if there’s one instance of each resource If there are multiple instances of each resource, we need a different method Track current usage and requests for each process To detect deadlock, try to find a scenario where all processes can finish If no such scenario exists, we have deadlock

Deadlock detection algorithm: 

Deadlock detection algorithm Hold Want current=avail; for (j = 0; j andlt; N; j++) { for (k=0; kandlt;N; k++) { if (finished[k]) continue; if (want[k] andlt; current) { finished[k] = 1; current += hold[k]; break; } if (k==N) { printf 'Deadlock!\n'; // finished[k]==0 means process is in // the deadlock break; } } Note: want[j],hold[j],current,avail are arrays!

Recovering from deadlock: 

Recovering from deadlock Recovery through preemption Take a resource from some other process Depends on nature of the resource and the process Recovery through rollback Checkpoint a process periodically Use this saved state to restart the process if it is found deadlocked May present a problem if the process affects lots of 'external' things Recovery through killing processes Crudest but simplest way to break a deadlock: kill one of the processes in the deadlock cycle Other processes can get its resources Preferably, choose a process that can be rerun from the beginning Pick one that hasn’t run too far already

Resource trajectories: 

Two process resource trajectories Resource trajectories

Safe and unsafe states: 

Safe and unsafe states Demonstration that the first state is safe Demonstration that the second state is unsafe

Banker's Algorithm for a single resource: 

Banker's Algorithm for a single resource Bankers’ algorithm: before granting a request, ensure that a sequence exists that will allow all processes to complete Use previous methods to find such a sequence If a sequence exists, allow the requests If there’s no such sequence, deny the request Can be slow: must be done on each request! Any sequence finishes C,B,A,D finishes Deadlock (unsafe state)

Banker's Algorithm for multiple resources: 

Example of banker's algorithm with multiple resources Banker's Algorithm for multiple resources

Preventing deadlock: 

Preventing deadlock Deadlock can be completely prevented! Ensure that at least one of the conditions for deadlock never occurs Mutual exclusion Circular wait Hold andamp; wait No preemption Not always possible…

Eliminating mutual exclusion: 

Eliminating mutual exclusion Some devices (such as printer) can be spooled Only the printer daemon uses printer resource This eliminates deadlock for printer Not all devices can be spooled Principle: Avoid assigning resource when not absolutely necessary As few processes as possible actually claim the resource

Attacking “hold and wait”: 

Attacking 'hold and wait' Require processes to request resources before starting A process never has to wait for what it needs This can present problems A process may not know required resources at start of run This also ties up resources other processes could be using Processes will tend to be conservative and request resources they might need Variation: a process must give up all resources before making a new request Process is then granted all prior resources as well as the new ones Problem: what if someone grabs the resources in the meantime—how can the process save its state?

Attacking “no preemption”: 

Attacking 'no preemption' This is not usually a viable option Consider a process given the printer Halfway through its job, take away the printer Confusion ensues! May work for some resources Forcibly take away memory pages, suspending the process Process may be able to resume with no ill effects

Attacking “circular wait”: 

Attacking 'circular wait' Assign an order to resources Always acquire resources in numerical order Need not acquire them all at once! Circular wait is prevented A process holding resource n can’t wait for resource m if m andlt; n No way to complete a cycle Place processes above the highest resource they hold and below any they’re requesting All arrows point up! A 1 B C D 2 3

Deadlock prevention: summary: 

Deadlock prevention: summary Mutual exclusion Spool everything Hold and wait Request all resources initially No preemption Take resources away Circular wait Order resources numerically

Example: two-phase locking: 

Example: two-phase locking Phase One Process tries to lock all data it needs, one at a time If needed data found locked, start over (no real work done in phase one) Phase Two Perform updates Release locks Note similarity to requesting all resources at once This is often used in databases It avoids deadlock by eliminating the 'hold-and-wait' deadlock condition

“Non-resource” deadlocks: 

'Non-resource' deadlocks Possible for two processes to deadlock Each is waiting for the other to do some task Can happen with semaphores Each process required to do a down() on two semaphores (mutex and another) If done in wrong order, deadlock results Semaphores could be thought of as resources…


Starvation Algorithm to allocate a resource Give the resource to the shortest job first Works great for multiple short jobs in a system May cause long jobs to be postponed indefinitely Even though not blocked Solution First-come, first-serve policy Starvation can lead to deadlock Process starved for resources can be holding resources If those resources aren’t used and released in a timely fashion, shortage could lead to deadlock

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