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Civil-Military Relations in the Postmodern Era: 

Civil-Military Relations in the Postmodern Era Conference on Democracy, Multiculturalism, and Armed Forces: The Challenges of Human Security University of the Cordillera La Paz, Bolivia John Allen Williams Professor of Political Science, Loyola University Chicago Chairman and President, Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society Captain (Retired), U.S. Naval Reserve 26 March 2004

Issues of Civil-Military Relations: 

Issues of Civil-Military Relations What is the purpose of the military? National defense Internal security Defense of a particular regime or class What is the attitude toward the military? By civilians By the military itself How is the military controlled? Sense of professionalism (Samuel P. Huntington) Links with civilian society (Morris Janowitz) Importance of transparency for civilian control

Outline of Presentation: 

Outline of Presentation “Postmodernism” as a concept The “Postmodern Military” study Analysis of 12 western democracies Applicability to other countries Changes since September 11 Importance of International linkages Diversity in armed forces Common ground as a basis for leadership

Aspects of Postmodern Society: 

Aspects of Postmodern Society Lack of absolute values Relativism Ambiguity Permeability of institutions Erosion of national sovereignty

The “Postmodern Military” Study: 

The “Postmodern Military” Study Co-Editors Charles C. Moskos John Allen Williams David R. Segal 12 countries (western democracies) 11 variables 3 time periods (expanded later to 4) Emphasis on social determinants of civil-military relations

Case Studies and Authors: 

Case Studies and Authors United States (Moskos) Canada (Pinch) United Kingdom (Dandeker) France (BoNne/Martin) Germany (Fleckenstein) The Netherlands (van der Meulen) Italy (Nuciari) Denmark (Sorensen) Switzerland (Haltiner/Hirt) Australia/New Zealand (Downes) Israel (Gal/Cohen) South Africa (Cilliers/Heinecken

Variables: 

Variables Threat Force structure Major mission definition Dominant military professional Public attitude toward military Media relations Civilian employees Women’s role Spouse and Military Homosexuals in the military Conscientious objection

Three Time Periods: 

Three Time Periods Modern: 1900 (1648?) -1945 Pre Cold War National sovereignty established Levee en masse / citizen-soldier Late Modern: 1945-1990 Cold War Military professionalism in officer class Professional military education emphasized Postmodern: 1990 - indefinite future After the Cold War Erosion of national sovereignty; subnational threats

Slide9: 

Armed Forces in the Post-Cold War Era - I   Forces Modern Late Modern Postmodern Variable (Pre-Cold War) (Cold War) (Post-Cold War) (1900-1945) (1945-1990) (since 1990)   Threat Enemy invasion Nuclear war Subnational, (e.g. ethnic violence, terrorism) Force Structure Mass army, Large professional Small professional conscription military military Major Mission Defense of Support of New missions Definition homeland alliance (peacekeeping, humanitarian) Dominant Military Combat leader Manager or Soldier-statesman; Professional technician soldier-scholar From Charles C. Moskos, John Allen Williams, and David R. Segal, eds., The Postmodern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Slide10: 

Armed Forces in the Post-Cold War Era - II   Forces Modern Late Modern Postmodern Variable (Pre-Cold War) (Cold War) (Post-Cold War) (1900-1945) (1945-1990) (since 1990)   Public Attitude Supportive Ambivalent Indifferent toward Military   Media Relations Incorporated Manipulated Courted   Civilian Minor Medium Major Employees component component component Women's Role Separate corps Partial Full integration or excluded From Charles C. Moskos, John Allen Williams, and David R. Segal, eds., The Postmodern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Slide11: 

Armed Forces in the Post-Cold War Era - III   Forces Modern Late Modern Postmodern Variable (Pre-Cold War) (Cold War) (Post-Cold War) (1900-1945) (1945-1990) (since 1990)   Spouse and Integral part Partial Removed Military involvement   Homosexuals in Punished Discharged Accepted Military   Conscientious Limited or Routinely Subsumed under Objection prohibited permitted civilian service   From Charles C. Moskos, John Allen Williams, and David R. Segal, eds., The Postmodern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Commonalities Among Countries: 

Commonalities Among Countries Postmodern developments affect all countries Challenges to traditional military culture Cultural relativism Nonmilitary criteria of evaluation Social/ethical Political Militaries less separate from civilian society Lesser “objective” control (Samuel P. Huntington) Greater “subjective” control (Morris Janowitz)

Military Forces in Postmodern Society: 

Military Forces in Postmodern Society Civilian/military interpenetration (structurally and culturally) Smaller differences within armed services (rank, branch, combat vs. support) and between armed services (Army, Navy, Air Force) From warfighting to nontraditional missions Use of military forces in internationally sanctioned missions (such as the Bolivian Army battalion in the Congo) International military forces

Model Applicable to All Militaries?: 

Model Applicable to All Militaries? Militaries grow out of societies they defend Militaries reflect values of their society If societies change, so will their militaries Many cross-national military similarities Importance of domestic politics Need to accommodate societal diversity Concern with subnational/ethnic challenges Threat of terrorism

After September 11: Toward a “Security State”?: 

After September 11: Toward a “Security State”? Wider range of threats perceived Support for increased military capabilities Willingness to use military force? Changes in civil-military relations? US/UK phenomenon only? Effect of 911 & Iraq War?

New Military Missions and Forces: 

New Military Missions and Forces International Peace operations Conventional operations Unconventional operations Domestic Homeland security Law enforcement Natural disaster response Catastrophic terrorism response

Importance of International Linkages: 

Importance of International Linkages Military Professional military education International peace operations (Congo) Share information with soldiers from other nations Learn from experiences of others (officer and emlisted) Scholarly societies and international research The Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society (IUS) http://www.iusafs.org International society of civilian and military scholars Regional associations (IUS/Canada) European Research Group on the Military and Society (ERGOMAS) International Sociological Association Research Committee 01: Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution

Diversity and Military Leadership: 

Diversity and Military Leadership Militaries are becoming more diverse Race/ethnicity Religion Gender Sexuality Leadership becomes more difficult Greater opportunities for friction Fewer unifying factors Less in common between leaders and led

Need for Unifying Forces: 

Need for Unifying Forces Core values Duty, Honor, Country Honor, Courage, Commitment Strong leaders Committed to core values Take care of their people Training and operations can be hard Must care for soldiers and their families Help link military and society Shared (positive) history Sense of service to the nation and to fellow citizens Transparency to build trust

Civil-Military Relations in the Postmodern Era: 

Civil-Military Relations in the Postmodern Era Conference on Democracy, Multiculturalism, and Armed Forces: The Challenges of Human Security University of the Cordillera La Paz, Bolivia John Allen Williams Professor of Political Science, Loyola University Chicago Chairman and President, Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society Captain (Retired), U.S. Naval Reserve 26 March 2004

Slide21: 

Backup Slides

Effect of War on Terrorism and Conflict in Iraq: 

Effect of War on Terrorism and Conflict in Iraq Greater public appreciation of military Increased focus on warfighting vs. social issues Support for military personnel, but not necessarily for particular engagements

Slide23: 

Armed Forces in a Security State I*  Forces Postmodern I Postmodern II Variable (1990-2001) (2001  ?) Threat Subnational, (e.g. (terrorism at each level) ethnic violence, terrorism) Subnational Transnational International Force Structure Small professional Small professional military military Integrated reserve force Military police Major Mission New missions Homeland security/MSCA Definition (peacekeeping, Peacekeeping humanitarian) Intensive combat Dominant Military Soldier-statesman; Soldier-statesman & scholar Professional soldier-scholar Soldier-policeman

Slide24: 

Armed Forces in a Security State II*   Forces Postmodern I Postmodern II Variable (1990-2001) (2001  ?)   Bureaucratic Structure Hierarchical Flattening hierarchy (new variable) Professional enlisted force Public Attitude Indifferent Supportive of personnel toward Military Wary of involvements   Media Relations Courted Co-opted   Civilian Major Integrated (operations & support) Employees component Privatization of functions Women's Role Full integration Full integration (?) (not by end of period)

Slide25: 

Armed Forces in a Security State III*   Forces Postmodern I Postmodern II Variable (1990 - 2001) (2001  ?)   Spouse and Removed Networked Military Homosexuals in Accepted Tolerated, then accepted Military (no: tolerated)   Conscientious Subsumed under Subsumed under Objection civilian service civilian service (?) (not by end of period)  * Postmodern II Model adapted by John Allen Williams from Postmodern Model (here labeled Postmodern I) in Charles C. Moskos, John Allen Williams, and David R. Segal, eds., The Postmodern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Civilian-Military Differences on Personnel Issues : 

Civilian-Military Differences on Personnel Issues Role of Women in Combat Gays in the Military Data from Laura L. Miller and John Allen Williams, “Do Military Policies on Gender and Sexuality Undermine Combat Effectiveness,” in In Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, eds., Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security (MIT Press, 2001).

Women Permitted in Combat? : 

Women Permitted in Combat? Civilian mass: yes Civilian elite: yes Military elite: no Do you think women should be allowed to serve in all combat jobs?

Women Permitted in Combat? : 

Women Permitted in Combat? Do you think women should be allowed to serve in all combat jobs? Mass Civ. Elite Mil. Elite (Reg.) Mil. Elite (Reserve) Yes 52.0 57.5 37.6 33.4 No 46.0 42.5 62.4 66.6

Women Required to Serve in Combat?: 

Women Required to Serve in Combat? Civilian elite: strongly no Military elite: strongly no Do you think women should be required to serve in all combat jobs? (Is this consistent with equal opportunity?)

Women Required in Combat?: 

Women Required in Combat? Civilian Elite Mil. Elite (Reg.) Mil. Elite (Reserve) Yes 13.9 12.7 9.6 No 86.1 87.3 90.4 Do you think women should be required to serve in all combat jobs?

Gays in the Military: 

Gays in the Military Mass: yes Civilian elite: yes Military elite: strongly no Do you think Gays and Lesbians should be allowed to serve openly in the military?

Gays in the Military: 

Gays in the Military Do you think Gays and Lesbians should be allowed to serve openly in the military? Mass Civilian Elite Mil. Elite (Reg.) Mil. Elite (Reserve) Yes 56.4 54.3 18.1 18.5 No 36.7 35.6 72.8 75.1

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