aquaculture fish diseases including all parasitic and non-parasitic de

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FICKNARD ROWLAND IN FISH DISEASESExternal, fish lice primarily a pond problem visible, flat, move about 2 sucking disks for attachment Pierce skin with mouthpiece and feed on blood. Large number vs. small number Secondary infections occur

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. . DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND PRODUCTION Name: FICKNARD ROWLAND A.K.A GM P.O. Box 1407, Mirerani Lutheran Church, Manyara, Tanzania. +255654890858/ +255756890858. frmwaseba@gmail.com JUNE - 2010

I. Copepod parasites : 

I. Copepod parasites

Argulus : 

Argulus External, fish lice primarily a pond problem visible, flat, move about 2 sucking disks for attachment Pierce skin with mouthpiece and feed on blood. Large number vs. small number Secondary infections occur

Lernea : 

Lernea Slender copepods with anchor attachment (5-22mm) anchor causes tissue damage Secondary infection

Lernea : 

Lernea Easily identified Primarily warmwater fish Egg sacs are very obvious

Ergasilus : 

Ergasilus External Small (1.5 - 2.5 mm) Gill parasite Many fish species Only females on fish Claw like claspers 1 million eggs year live 1 year

Actheres ambloplitis : 

Actheres ambloplitis External Common on catfish Gill parasite Attach by leg like structures Egg sacs Especially bad on larval fish

II. Trematode parasites : 

II. Trematode parasites

Gyrodactylus : 

Gyrodactylus External, visible Monogenetic (complete life cycle on fish) Live young - move readily No eye spots Haptor with 1 large pair of hooks and 16 hooklets Skin irritation but also on gills and fins Signs are listlessness, frayed fins, flashing, fungus Heaviest in winter and spring

Dactylogyrus : 

Dactylogyrus Monogenetic Lay eggs in water (not as explosive as Gyro) 4 eyespots 1 pair hooks, 16 hooklets

Dactylogyrus : 

Dactylogyrus Primarily a gill parasite So cause gill damage and symptoms can be mistaken for O2 problem or other gill infections Primarily warmwater, especially cyprinids

Cleidodicus : 

Cleidodicus External, monogentic Eyespots 4 large anchor hooks Lay eggs On gills is problem Symptoms looks like O2 problem Warmwater fish, especially catfish

Digenetic trematodes : 

Digenetic trematodes Quite a number are problems Some internal, some external Require more than 1 animal host Sanquinicola in salmonids blood fluke snails are intermediates

Digenetic trematodes : 

Digenetic trematodes Various types of yellow and black grubs common in wild but in ponds also aesthetic problem only don't know why not in text snail - fish - bird cycle

III. Protozoa : 

III. Protozoa

I. multifilis : 

I. multifilis Large ciliated protozoan Primarily ww fishes but some cw White color with large horseshoe shaped nucleus Flash, twitch, flag Heavily infested fish are lethargic Skin, gills, fins - penetrate skin so not exactly external Can be explosive since 1,000 or more from one At 70-75o life cycle only 3-4 days Only free swimming vulnerable

I. multifilis : 

I. multifilis

Chilodonella : 

Chilodonella External Numerous species Small, oval, colorless, ciliate (faint bands) Skin, fins, gills Both warm and cold but primarily warm and under crowded cond. Signs -- listless, off feed, flashing, lie on side Easy to control

Chilodonella : 

Chilodonella

Ambiphrya : 

Ambiphrya Several species Small urn-shaped ciliate Ring of cilia at top end and band of cilia in middle Skin, gills, fins of salmonids and warm water fish - particularly bad on bass and catfish - young Usually harmless, but if a lot the scopola (attachment organism) smothers gills. Signs -- piping, may look like bacterial gill disease, redden skin & gills, listless Easy to control at this time

Epistylis : 

Epistylis Stalked ciliates Usually on skin but also gills Also eggs (fuzzy so can confuse with fungus) Trout, walleyes, catfish, others Signs flashing secondary infection

Epistylis : 

Epistylis

Trichodina : 

Trichodina External Ciliate - many species Saucer shaped, rows of cilia, especially on margin. Skin, fins, gills, activity Signs -- flashing, tattered appearance of fins, white irregular blotches secondary bacterial problems

Hexamita salmonis : 

Hexamita salmonis Octomitus, internal Tiny flagellate Colorless (must stain), pearshaped - 8 flagella Salmon and trout intestines Irritate gut lining, irregular swimming, yellow intestinal fluid Some question its status as a pathogen. Apparently more of a problem when non-prepared foods fed

Ichtyobodo : 

Ichtyobodo Costia, external Flagellate, small, pearshaped, flickering flame A couple species Trout, salmon, ww fish especially bad on trout fingerlings and catfish

Ichtyobodo : 

Ichtyobodo Signs light bluish - grayish film lose appetite flash crowd bottom - listless have to examine microscopically

Henneguya : 

Henneguya Internal From many species warm and cold water A myxosporidean Encysts in tissue Muscle damage, but some stages on gills so No control

Ceratomyxa shasta : 

Ceratomyxa shasta Internal myxosporidian Salmonids Has caused many epizootics of 100% mortality Intestine and gall bladder, spleen, liver, and kidney Signs vent area swelling distended abdomen early are listless, off food, seek slack water fish may darken No treatment - transmission method unknown

Myxosoma cerebralis : 

Myxosoma cerebralis Internal myxosporidian protozoan Twisted spines and deformed backs Salmonids Whirling or tail chasing is a sign "called whirling disease" Survivors often deformed and have "Blacktail" (loss of chromatophore control) No known control method except prevention Really a problem in young fish

Plistophora : 

Plistophora Internal Several species Small (3-6 microns) beanshaped Trout gills, golden shiner ovaries (reduces fecundity) No control

Plistophora : 

Plistophora

Cryptobia borreli : 

Cryptobia borreli Flagellate Variety of fishes including salmonids A blood parasite, affects kidney function Signs anemic popeye (exophthalmic) fluid in body cavity No treatment

Slide 33: 

IV. Fungal disease

Fungal disease : 

Fungal disease Pervasive Numerous species including Saprolegnia Fish and eggs Warm, cool, cold Appears as a white cottony growth on eggs on fish is white to brownish patches on various body areas Any damage to body surface can open way, spawning, netting, handling Control by sanitation, or chemicals, for others no control Often prophylactic type treatment of eggs

Saprolegnia : 

Saprolegnia

V. Bacterial disease : 

V. Bacterial disease

Furunculosis : 

Furunculosis Aeromonas salmonicida -- Salmonids Cause muscle lesions Can enter through scratch or digestive tract Bacteria produces a toxin Signs blisters or patches - bluish - red or purple hemorrhages at fin bases or frayed dorsal fins acute lesions Short incubation

Furunculosis : 

Furunculosis

Pseudomonus : 

Pseudomonus Also called fin rot Signs superficial grayish - red skin ulcers dropsy popeye inflamed fins Many fishes affected - frogs also Much different than fin rot Warm and cold Variety of symptoms

Cytophaga psychrophilia : 

Cytophaga psychrophilia external Usually called peduncle disease A low water temp. disease Signs darkening lesions on peduncle or near pectoral fins Worst on young fish Can result in total erosion of caudal area Primarily a problem in 40-50oF range

Yersinia rucheri : 

Yersinia rucheri Causes enteric redmouth disease in salmonids Inflammation and erosion of jaws and palate May kill more RBT than any other bacterial agent Signs black, popeye lethargic, drift at surface mouth and tongue inflamed, underbelly with spotty hemorrhages dead fish with dropsy fin sockets hemorrhaged, in heavily infected fish - gill bleeding Especially a problem in intermountain west and still growing Worst in hot summer months

Bacterial Gill Disease : 

Bacterial Gill Disease external Called GD often Salmonids and warm water (but primarily salmonid) Superficial infection of gill epithelium By an undecided bacteria, probably related to columnaris disease causative agent

Bacterial Gill Disease : 

Bacterial Gill Disease Above 56o becomes more of a problem Fish can't get rid of CO2 and ammonia or get O2 Often secondary fungal infection Signs lethargic, off food, pipe, "ride high" whitened gill tips, excess mucous Worse in fingerlings

Flexibacter columnaris : 

Flexibacter columnaris external and internal Columnaris disease Through skin and gills, especially if scratched Seldom a problem below 55oF worse at 65oF Primarily salmonids and catfish Signs grayish white body lesions with bright yellow slime common on head and mouth internal also

Hemophilus piscium : 

Hemophilus piscium internal Ulcer disease Ulcers or sores on surface of fish and work inward Resembles furunculosis but opposite sores work in but in furunculosis work out Circular sores Salmonids primarily

Tuberculosis : 

Tuberculosis Related to human tuberculosis bacterium Salmonids Almost no problem now since don't feed fish viscera products External and internal lesions kidney, spleen, liver, digestive tract

Tuberculosis : 

Tuberculosis

Vibrio anguillarum : 

Vibrio anguillarum internal Called Vibriosis Many fish Primarily a problem of marine cultured fish Signs off feed lethargic erratic swimming, spinning bloody discharge from vent internal

Renibacterium salmoninarium : 

Renibacterium salmoninarium internal Causes kidney disease Salmonid problem Kidney lesions but can develop into musculature fluid in body cavity, dropsy Really a lot not known about this and is a real problem

VI. Viral diseases : 

VI. Viral diseases

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) : 

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) Salmonids, NA & Europe High fingerling loss Over 6 in. are carriers Signs death rate up for healthy looking fish in fact some of best looking die first some spiral and roll tail chasing, darkening, popeye, dropsy internal also A small pathogen June and July worst months

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia : 

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Primarily Rainbow Trout Not bad on fry or adults - middles ones worse Not egg transmissible but Signs color, popeye hemorrhage at fin bases lethargic, seek edges internal also Late winter, early spring

Infectious Hemapoietic Necrosis (IHN) : 

Infectious Hemapoietic Necrosis (IHN) Rainbows and some other salmonids Not egg transmissible but a lot not known Ovarian fluid can do it Signs flagging dark, lethargic, popeye hemorrhaging tissue near vent and fins pale gills internal also April to June

Channel Catfish Viral Disease : 

Channel Catfish Viral Disease CCVD, CCV Signs when temperature reaches 70oF sudden increase in death spiralling or swimming abnormally convulsions just before death at surface with tail down fin base hemorrhage internal also Often obscured by columnaris Appears to be host specific for catfish

Lymphocystis : 

Lymphocystis Many fish but walleyes and centrarchids worse Mostly aesthetic, chronic Abnormal growth of connective tissue - wart like

Lymphocystis : 

Lymphocystis

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