INTERGRATED AGRO-AQUACULTURE CATFISH IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL REGIO

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CATFISH IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL REGION : 

CATFISH IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL REGION Author: FICKNARD ROWLAND(G.M) AQUACULTURE GRADUATE FROM SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE 2010 publication Author: Ficknard Rowland Department of animal science and Production: Sokoine University of Agriculture: Faculty of Agriculture P.O.Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania +255654890858 frmwaseba@gmail.com

CATFISH IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL REGION : 

CATFISH IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL REGION CONTENTS CARRIED Introduction Biology species known in tropical And Sub How they tend to grow Habitat Anatomy of clarias spp Courtship behavior Patterns or forms in natural propagation Appropriate techniques in artificial propagation Prons and even corns of each propagation

INTRODODUCTION : 

INTRODODUCTION Catfish belong to the fish order called siluriformes subdivided into the families ictaluridae, pangasidae , and clariidae and consist of both marine and fresh water fish species found in most parts of the world

BIOLOGY : 

BIOLOGY SPECIES FOUND The commonly classes found in tropical area are clarius gariepinus,, clarius ngamensis , clarius liocephalus , clarias alluaudi, clarias werneri, clarias theodorae . HABITAT Catfish are bottom dweller In general catfishes are found in fresh water especially in swamp ( papyrus, marginal ) and stream among rock ar vegetations ANATOMY catfish have either a naked skin or their skin is covered with bony plates . also have eye with free border. Sides of head behind eyes bony. Dorsal and anal fin separates from caudal fin , And then air breathing organs well developed. HOW IT GROW Average growth rates in pond of catfish is 500-1500gram (1st year) 1000-2500grams (2nd years) It is difficult to judge maximum growth with accuracy in catfish due to influence in many factor The growth is directly influenced by temperature, oxygen contents of the water and availability of the pelleted feeds. At early stage catfish grow faster

COURTSHIP BEHAVIOUR OF CATFISH : 

COURTSHIP BEHAVIOUR OF CATFISH Male catfish dig holes of about 20-30cm under the water surface then female inspect the holes before releasing the eggs Catfish also show pair spawning, which is characterized by degree of mating selection and behavior interaction

PATTERN OR FORMS OF NATURAL PROPAGATION IN CATFISH : 

PATTERN OR FORMS OF NATURAL PROPAGATION IN CATFISH Catfishes are oviparous seasonal spawners as they can propagate during a particular season of the years They depending on environmental factors like feed, water level, photoperiod, substrates

APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES IN ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION : 

APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES IN ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION This involves the human intervention skill on the natural propagation there are two techniques FRY COLLECTION FROM NATURAL WATER The equipments needed much are funnel shaped nets to collect the catfish’s eggs, larvae or fry. After the collection larvae are kept temporary on the earthen pit later are transferred to the nursery for further rearing POND BREEDING It starts with procurement of brood fish from the wild or captive Broodstock until they reach maturity. . The spawning season is generally during the rainy season NB: in some species like clarias pangasinus can not spawn in confined water until they are treated with the hormones

Continues……. : 

Continues……. INDUCEMENT OF SPAWNING BY HORMONES The brood fish is selected from the stock injected with the pituitary gland . After 40-12 hrs the female can be striped . Then eggs are fertilized from male milt incubation is carried out The egg hatching follows next 24-30 hrs, temperature range of 29-32oc. Yolk is absorbed fully within two days after hatching. Larvae grow to fry which will be taken to nursery for further.

PRONS AND CORNS OF BOTH NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION : 

PRONS AND CORNS OF BOTH NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION PRONS OF ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION PRONS OF ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION Better rate of fertilization and hatching Protection against enemies and unfavorable environmental condition Better condition for growth and survival CORNS OF ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION It is difficult to adopt It needs capital to undertake Prons of natural propagation Good area for survival adaptation Corns of natural propagation Poor rate of fertilization Poor rates of hatiching It cant provide enough stock for commercial culture

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