effective teaching and critical thinking by Raheela Naveed

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Techniques for effective teaching:

Techniques for effective teaching By Raheela Naveed

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Starter Activity: 2 squares to 3 Move 4 matches to make 3 squares  

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2 Squares to 3 - Solution

Activity # 1. Enlist some traditional and effective methods of teaching you have being practicing in your classes? Time allowed 10 min :

Activity # 1. Enlist some traditional and effective methods of teaching you have being practicing in your classes? Time allowed 10 min


Pre-technology education context, the teacher is the sender or the source. The educational material is the information or message. The student is the receiver of the information. The delivery medium chalk-and- talk” method overhead projector (OHP) transparencies. In such a lecture students assume a purely passive role and their concentration fades off after 15-20 minutes. ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL METHOD OF TEACHING


LIMITATIONS Teaching in classroom using chalk and talk is “one way flow” of information Teachers often continuously talk for an hour without knowing students response and feedback. The material presented is only based on lecturer notes and textbooks. There is insufficient interaction with students in classroom. More emphasis has been given on theory without any practical and real life time situations. Learning from memorization but not understanding.

Innovative Methods of Teaching:

Innovative Methods of Teaching We think of the effective teachers we have had over the years with a sense of recognition, but those who have touched our humanity we remember with a deep sense of gratitude.

Effective Methods of Teaching:

Effective Methods of Teaching I hear and I forget. I see and I believe. I do and I understand . - Confucius The empires of the future are the empires of the mind.- Winston Churchill


MULTIMEDIA LEARNING PROCESS Text Images Audio Video Animation




MIND MAP Innovative way – Mind Map. Developed by Tony Buzan 1960. Making notes with keywords and images. visual and sensory tools at our disposal. Recollect information for long time.




TEACHING WITH SENSE OF HUMOUR Laughter is a natural, universal phenomenon, with beneficial effects, both physical and psychological. Everyone loves a teacher with an infectious sense of humor. Cordial relationship. Ability to relax people and reduce tension. Advertising strategy. Cartoon When there is a willingness to change, there is hope for progress in any field. Students enjoys humor in forms of funny anecdotes


ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING This approach attempts to explain the application part of a particular concept first. Strengths Makes a particular concept clear Students develop interest to know exactly the concept. Creates long lasting memory/correlation of a concept. Weaknesses Take quite long time for a teacher to introduce a concept Initial difficulty in understanding a particular concept will be encountered.



Concept Simulation - reenacts Galileo's experiment of two different objects falling at the same rate. :

Concept Simulation - reenacts Galileo's experiment of two different objects falling at the same rate.




MNEMMONICS - WORDS- WORDS –WORDS APPROACH Concept approach. Associated meaning. Increase word power Dictionary. ROLE PLAYING AND SCENARIO ANALYSIS BASED TEACHING Role playing Practical approach Theory supplemented by practical.

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Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate 5 E ’ s

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How Effective is Active Learning It is one of the most effective teaching approaches in education.• It increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the teaching and learning process.• Active learning strategies involve collaboration with peers, and provides a secure environment for growth and exploration of ideas.


TEACHER THE GREATEST INNOVATOR Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. To teach is to learn twice Teachers should guide without dictating, and participate without dominating The critical factor is not class size but rather the nature of the teaching as it affects learning. LEARNING NEVER ENDS

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Modes to develop critical thinking Raheela naveed raheelanaveed@hotmail.com


Question? Why do YOU study for a Degree?

Do You Agree With This Statement?:

Do You Agree With This Statement? “Some people study all their life and at their death they have learned everything except to THINK ” – Francois Domergue   Why?

Do You Agree? :

Do You Agree? Why is Imagination so Important? I Need input from you!

Module 1: Introduction to Critical Thinking:

Module 1: Introduction to Critical Thinking 1. What is Thinking? 6. Barriers to Critical Thinking 2. Types of Thinking 4. Critical Thinking Standards 5. Benefits of Critical Thinking 7. Characteristics of a Critical Thinker 3. What is Critical Thinking? Introduction

Why does we have this course?:

Why does we have this course? To help you improve your Thinking Skills  HOW TO THINK!

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What is Thinking?

1.1 What is Thinking?:

1.1 What is Thinking? Why doesn’t SHE like me? Why doesn’t HE like me? As you start asking questions and seek answers, you are in fact thinking.

1.1 What is Thinking? :

1.1 What is Thinking? Thinking is a purposeful, organized cognitive process that we use to make sense of our world.

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Types of Thinking

1.2 Types of Thinking:

1.2 Types of Thinking Problem Solving Decision Making Critical Thinking Analyzing Evaluating Reasoning New Ideas Creative Thinking Right Left

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What is Critical Thinking?

1.3 What is Critical Thinking?:

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? WARNING: THIS MAN IS NOT THINKING CRITICALLY!! Source: http://profmulder.home.att.net/introwhatis.htm

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (2):

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (2) “Critical thinking consists of a mental process of analyzing or evaluating information, particularly statements or propositions that people have offered as true. It forms a process of reflecting upon the meaning of statements, examining the offered evidence and reasoning, and forming judgments about the facts.” – Wikipedia “ Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. “ - Michael Scriven & Richard Paul More Definitions…

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (3):

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (3) Critical Thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive and intellectual skills needed to: Effectively identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments. Discover and overcome personal prejudices and biases. Formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions. Make reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do.

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (4) :

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (4) Problem Solving Decision Making Critical Thinking Analyzing Evaluating Reasoning Right Left Don’t need to memorize definitions! Just understand and practice the core critical thinking skills emphasized in this course.

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (5):

1.3 What is Critical Thinking? (5) CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS Analyzing Reasoning Evaluating Decision Making Problem Solving

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Critical Thinking Standards

1.4 Critical Thinking Standards (CTS):

1.4 Critical Thinking Standards (CTS) The most significant critical (intellectual) thinking standards: Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logic Fairness

1.4 CTS - Clarity:

1.4 CTS - Clarity Could you elaborate further on that point? Could you express that point in another way? Could you give me an illustration? Could you give me an example? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf Clarity is the gateway standard Help you I can, yes.

1.4 CTS – Accuracy :

1.4 CTS – Accuracy Is that really true? How could we check that? How could we find out if that is true? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf This chicken weighs over 300 pounds. A statement can be clear but not accurate Powerful you have become, the dark side I sense in you.

1.4 CTS – Precision:

1.4 CTS – Precision Could you give more details? Could you be more specific? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf A statement can be both clear and accurate, but not precise Size matters not. Yao Ming is TALL !

1.4 CTS – Relevance:

1.4 CTS – Relevance How is that connected to the question? How does that bear on the issue? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf I studied hard all semester, therefore I should get A+. A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise, but not relevant to the question at issue. You must unlearn what you have learned.

1.4 CTS – Depth:

1.4 CTS – Depth How does your answer address the complexities in the question? How are you taking into account the problems in the question? Is that dealing with the most significant factors? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf Grave danger you are in. Impatient you are. A statement can be clear, accurate, precise, and relevant, but superficial.

1.4 CTS – Breadth:

1.4 CTS – Breadth Do we need to consider another point of view? Is there another way to look at this question? What would this look like from a conservative standpoint? What would this look like from the point of view of...? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf That is why you fail . A line of reasoning may be clear, accurate, precise, relevant, and deep, but lack breadth. Headache!!! You got 0 marks for “Participation”, because you didn’t participate in the class discussion at all.

1.4 CTS – Logic :

1.4 CTS – Logic Does this really make sense? Does that follow from what you said? How does that follow? But before you implied this and now you are saying that; how can both be true? Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf Superman sees through anything. Superman sees through walls. Superman sees through You. When the combination of thoughts are mutually supporting and make sense in combination, the thinking is "logical.“ May the force be with you.

1.4 CTS – Fairness:

1.4 CTS – Fairness Critical thinking demands that our thinking be fair. Open-minded Impartial Free of distorting biases and preconceptions Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf Difficult to achieve, but you must try! Fair-mindedness is an essential attribute of a Critical Thinker.

1.4 CTS – Good Thinking is…:

1.4 CTS – Good Thinking is… CLEAR ……….....rather than........UNCLEAR ACCURATE …....rather than…….INACCURATE PRECISE ……....rather than…….VAGUE RELEVANT …….rather than…….IRELEVANT CONSISTENT ….rather than……INCONSISTENT LOGICAL ……….rather than……ILLOGICAL COMPLETE ……rather than……INCOMPLETE FAIR …………….rather than…....BIASED Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf

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Benefits of Critical Thinking

1.5 Benefits of Critical Thinking:

1.5 Benefits of Critical Thinking Examples: Academic Performance understand the arguments and beliefs of others Critically evaluating those arguments and beliefs Develop and defend one's own well-supported arguments and beliefs. Workplace Helps us to reflect and get a deeper understanding of our own and others’ decisions Encourage open-mindedness to change Aid us in being more analytical in solving problems Daily life Helps us to avoid making foolish personal decisions. Promotes an informed and concerned citizenry capable of making good decisions on important social, political and economic issues. Aids in the development of autonomous thinkers capable of examining their assumptions, dogmas, and prejudices.

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Barriers to Critical Thinking

1.6 Barriers to Critical Thinking:

1.6 Barriers to Critical Thinking If Critical Thinking is so important, why is it that uncritical thinking is so common ? Why is that so many people including many highly educated and intelligent people find critical thinking so difficult?

1.6 Barriers to Critical Thinking:

1.6 Barriers to Critical Thinking Lack of relevant background information Poor reading skills Poor listening skills Bias Prejudice Superstition Egocentrism Socio-centrism Peer pressure Mindless Conformism Mindless non-conformism Provincialism Narrow-mindedness Closed-mindedness Distrust of reason Stereotyping Unwarranted assumptions and stereotypes Relativistic thinking Scapegoating Rationalization Wishful thinking Short-term thinking Selective perception / attention Selective memory Overpowering emotions Self-deception Face-saving Fear of change Common Barriers

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Characteristics of a Critical Thinker

1.7 Characteristics of a Critical Thinker :

1.7 Characteristics of a Critical Thinker Are you OPEN MINDED about other people’s view? Are you HONEST to yourself (or others) when you are wrong? Do you have the COURAGE and PASSION to take initiative and confront problems and meet challenges? Are you AWARE of your own biases and preconceptions? Do you WELCOME CRITICISM from other people? Do you have INDEPENDENT opinions and are not afraid to disagree? The Force, I sense is with you.

Group Activity:

Group Activity Break into groups of 4-5, and then discuss, identify and rank the Top 10 characteristics/traits /behaviours of an EXCELLENT : LECTURER STUDENT Choose one member of your group to take notes and be the group reporter. 10 min Brainstorm together and identify 10 characteristics for each item above. (e.g. try to remember the best lecturer(s) you have ever had and then identify their characteristics…). . 5 min Prioritize and rank the chosen characteristics of each item above according to importance (e.g. Top 10). 15 min Group presentation & discussion - The Group reporter must submit their findings in hard copy format after the class (use template) or soft-copy format to the lecturer before next class. Dr. Yoda was an excellent teacher, because he engaged our mind, had activities, etc.

Any Questions? :

Any Questions?

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