2. What is REDD

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What is REDD ? Module 2:

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R educed E missions from D eforestation and forest D egradation

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Protect the livelihoods of communities dependant on forests Stabilise the climate Protect biodiversity

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Poor forest governance Poor recognition of forest people's rights Insufficient recognition of communities’ rights to land and resources. Factors making the problem worse: See Module 5: Communities and REDD

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Pay developing countries to keep their forests standing of REDD Concept in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

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Deforestation, decay of biomass etc. (17.4%) Fossil fuels (71%) Human-induced Greenhouse Gas Emissions REMEMBER

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The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ): 'the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries ... … the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof' REMEMBER

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UNFCCC negotiations at Kyoto: Rejected the idea of making payments to discourage deforestation and degradation, because of ‘fundamental’ problems with the concept.

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REDD schemes are being championed internationally. But these 'fundamental’ problems have not been resolved.

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Avoiding deforestation in one place may make it more likely that another, unprotected, forest will be destroyed instead – in another area or another country. Leakage Fundamental Problems with REDD

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Emissions savings must be measured against a guess about what might have happened otherwise, and are impossible to prove. Additionality Fundamental Problems with REDD

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Forest carbon is not permanently locked away – it will always return to the atmosphere when the trees die. This makes it fundamentally different to fossil carbon. Permanence Fundamental Problems with REDD

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It is very difficult to measure with certainty how much carbon is stored in forests, making it impossible to compare against countries’ reductions in fossil fuel emissions. Measurement UNFCCC's 'fundamental problems '

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None of these problems have been solved. Instead, REDD has become

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REDD plus emphasises potential positive effects beyond reduced deforestation: PLUS CONSERVATION (excluding communities?) PLUS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS (industrial logging?) PLUS ENHANCEMENT OF FOREST CARBON STOCKS (monoculture plantations?)

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Everybody agrees on the need for strong safeguards to protect against possible negative impacts of REDD+ on communities and others

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Indigenous peoples have struggled to have their rights recognised in UNFCCC REDD+ negotiations. They have had some success, such as reference to Free Prior and Informed Consent , although this is now under threat. Safeguards are meaningless if they’re not implemented. Without genuine respect for forest peoples’ rights, including land tenure reform where needed, REDD+ could cause real damage See Module 5: Communities and REDD

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This is the major outstanding issue in REDD+ See Module 3: What is Carbon Trading?

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Module 3: What is carbon trading? Module 4: Forests and carbon trading Module 2: What is REDD? Module 1: What is Climate Change? Module 5: REDD and communities Module 6: Lessons from FLEGT for REDD

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RECAP: REDD has been proposed to tackle deforestation Poor forest governance Poor recognition of forest people's rights No recognition of land tenure for local communities Factors making deforestation worse: