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Chapter 11 Lesson 2:

Chapter 11 Lesson 2 Theories , Approaches, Guiding Principles and Methods of Teaching Science

Educational theories:

Educational theories The framework is supported by the following underlying Learning Educational Theories: Constructivism Social cognition Bandura’s (1986) Social learning states that learning is a cognitive process takes place in a social context and can occur through observation or direct instruction

Slide 3:

Learning styles theory Explains that students have preferential individual learning styles and therefore people may vary in their response to learning opportunities and how they learn (Kolb, 1984; Honey and Mumford, 1992). Brain based learning theory Another theory in which Science teaching in K to 12 Curriculum is founded. Brain – based learning is the purposeful engagement of strategies based on how brain works.

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SOME BRAIN BASED LEARNING PRINCIPLES: The brain is a parallel processor The search for meaning is innate The search for meaning occurs through patterning The emotions are critical to patterning Learning is enhanced by a challenge and inhibited by threat. “ Experiential learning is learning that occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences” – David Kolb 1975 “Situated learning is learning in the same context in which concepts and theories are applied.” -Lave and Wenger 1990

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“ Reflective Learning refers to learning that facilitated by reflective thinking. It is not enough that learners encounter real- life situations.” “Discovery learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his/her own experience and prior knowledge to solve a problem.” Cooperative learning and inquiry based are explained thoroughly in chapter 5 on research based instructional strategies.

Guiding principles in the teaching of science:

Constructivist principle – Give contextual setting for lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity. Discovery principle – Learning by doing principle. Brain based principle – teach for meaning. Make students work together - encourage collaborative learning. Consider multiple intelligences and learning styles – make use of varied teaching methods and activities. Guiding principles in the teaching of science

The inquiry based approach:

Inquiry (scientific inquiry to be specific) refers to the “diverse ways” in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work. -Inquiry and National Science Education Standards (NRC, 2000) The inquiry based approach

Essential features of inquiry ::

Learners engages in scientifically oriented questions – teachers and students ask “why?” questions. Learners gives priority to evidence in responding to questions – Science uses evidence from evidence from observations as the basis for explanations about how the natural world is. Learners formulates explanation from evidence – Scientific explanations are based on reason. Learners connects explanations to scientific evidence – Explanations can be revised or even discarded as new evidence is uncovered. Learners communicates and justifies explanations – through scientific journals. “ By providing time for students to share their answers, explanations, others can ask questions, examine the evidence, identify the errors and point out alternative explanations or conclusions that are not justified by evidence - just as real as scientists do.” Essential features of inquiry :

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Different Levels of Inquiry in the Classroom : OPEN GUIDED STRUCTURED

Different Levels of Inquiry in the Classroom : :

STRUCTURED - Teacher gives students problems to investigate during hands-on activities as well as procedures and materials. Students determine the outcomes. Here, teacher specifies laboratory activities, materials, and questions. GUIDED - The teacher gives the students the problem or question and materials. Students have to determine the processes and outcomes. OPEN - Students determine the problems, investigations, procedures and outcomes. Different Levels of Inquiry in the Classroom :

Science Process skills::

Science Process skills : Observing - observe objects or events in a variety of ways, using one or more senses. Classifying – identify properties useful for classifying objects. Inferring – suggests explanations for events based on observation. Predicting – forecast a future event based on prior experience, e.g., observations, or experiments. Measuring – compare and order objects by length, area, weight, volume, etc. Communicating – construct and use written reports, diagrams, graphs, or charts to transmit information learned by from science experiences. Using space/ time relations – describe an object’s position in relation to other objects.

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8. Defining operationally – state definitions of objects or events in terms of what the object is doing or what is occurring in the event. 9. Formulating hypothesis – identify questions or statements which can and cannot be stated. 10. Experimenting – design an investigation to test the hypothesis. 11. Recognizing variables – identify manipulated (independent) variable, responding (dependent) variable, and variables-held-constant in an experiment. 12. Interpreting data – organize and state in his or her own words information derived from science investigation. 13. Formulating models – create a mental, physical or verbal representation of an idea, object or event.


Summary “ For effective Science teaching, employ, teaching approaches, and methods that are rooted on the principles of constructivism, experiential learning, situated learning, learning by doing, discovery learning, brain-based learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning. Teacher must also consider the nature of the learner, his/her multiple intelligences and learning styles.” “ The inquiry approach and science process skills will be most appropriate in the development of students scientific literacy- the goal of Science teaching. The Science teacher needs to demonstrate and model the science processes since students learn also by observation.”

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