Constructivist Teaching

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Constructivist Teaching: Interactive, Collaborative, Integrative and Inquiry-based:

Constructivist Teaching : Interactive , Collaborative , Integrative and Inquiry-based


Features of Constructivist Teaching


Authentic activities and real-world environments Learning situations environments, skills, content and tasks are relevant, realistic, authentic and represent the natural complexities of the ‘real world’. Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-world complexity. Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching. learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks, skills and knowledge acquisition.


2. Multiple perspectives Learning environment “should support multiple perspectives or interpretations of reality, knowledge construction, and context-rich, experience-based activities” ( Jonassen , 1995). Activities, opportunities, tools and environments are provided to encourage metacognition, self-analysis, regulation, reflection and awareness.


3. Wholistic , integrative Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning.


4. Self-directed learners The student plays a central role in mediating and controlling learning. Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the teacher or the system. Exploration is a favored approach in order to encourage students to seek knowledge independently and to manage the pursuit of their goals. Scaffolding is facilitated to help students perform just beyond the limits of their ability.


5. Meaningful Learning Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasized. The learners’ previous knowledge constructions, beliefs and attitudes are considered in the knowledge construction process. Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students’ previous knowledge construction.


Interactive Teaching The word interactive reminds us of people with whom the learner interacts in order to learn . In the classroom, first, we have the teachers; second, are the other learners in class. Beyond the classroom are the school head and the non-teaching staff. The interaction can be collaborative and so we have collaborative teaching and learning.


This interaction can also be between the learner and learning material like a module, a film, a video clip , a poem, a map, a model of the digestive system. These learning materials are products of experts. Interacting with instructional ,materials is also interacting with people. Today we speak of interactive viewing.


Why do we promote interactive teaching?


Learning is an active process -Only the student can do the learning for himself. The more intense the involvement , the better the learning. Learning is also a social process - Vygotsky’s (1998) social learning theory states that we learn from others. No one has the monopoly of the truth. Then in must be good to listen to others’ perspectives in our search for answer, in our search for truth. Every student can serve as a resource person - Every student has so much to share. Just ask the right question. Many times, students have the appropriate answers but it seems some teachers don’t ask the question or if they do, they ask the wrong question.


Teacher’s Tasks in Interactive Teaching-Learning Teacher : 1. Must ask specific, non-intimidating feedback questions and HOTS question. ex. Why do some people go to drugs? 2. Must make the focus of interaction clear. The questions that guide the interaction are based on your intended learning targets or outcomes. 3. Must create the climate favorable for genuine interaction. Take time to genuinely listen to students’ responses. 4. Must do less talk so students talk more. Learn to “decrease” so students “increase”. Avoid being the non-stop talker.


Teacher’s Tasks in Collaborative Learning Teacher must: Begin with the conviction that every students can share something in the attainment of a goal. Collaborative learning operates on respect and trust. Karl Marx’s slogan- “ from each according to his ability , to each according to his need”. Make students realize that those who have been blessed with more are expected to contribute more and that the more they help, the more developed they become. The more you teach it, the more you master it. Structure tasks in such a way that the group goal, cannot be realized without the members collaborating. It is the matter of “sink-or-swim” together.


Make the goal clear to all . Ensure that guidelines on procedures are clear especially on how their performance is assessed. For instance, learning is a collaborative process but each student is accountable for his/her learning . Must make clear that at the end of the activity, they have to reflect together.


Integrative Teaching and Learning Integrate comes from the L atin word “integer” which means to make whole. Integrative teaching and learning means putting together separate disciplines to make whole. This affirms the “ boundarylessness ” of disciplines. Integrative teaching is interdisciplinary.


Transdisciplinary Teaching Integrative teaching is also transdisciplinary . This means connecting lifeless subject matter to life itself. When the subject matter gets connected to real life, it becomes alive and interesting. Remember “ there is no dull textbook, no dull subject matter, only dull teachers”


How can teachers connect subject matter to life?


Depart from teaching content for test purposes only. Learning is robbed of it’s joy and excitement when the only reason why students have to master something is it will be covered in the test. Reach the application phase of lesson development. If you apply the 4As ( Activity, Analysis, Abstraction, Application) in the development of your lesson, your application comes after your students have undergone an activity, analyzed the activity, and have come up with abstraction and generalization based on their analysis. This is an inductive teaching method.


Three-level Teaching Corpuz and Salandanan , Principles of Teaching 1, 3 rd edition 2013 v alues c oncepts, m ore c omplex skills f acts, skills


Integrative teaching is also done when you integrate knowledge, skills and values in a lesson. The three-level teaching is teaching information for formation and transformation. Whatever transformation a student learns must somehow form and transform his/her way of thinking, acting, and living. It is making teaching whole by integrating the cognitive, psychomotor and affective dimensions of teaching and learning.


Formation Transformation Multiple Intelligence-based and Learning Styles-based teaching If integrative teaching is making things whole , it also means putting together the multiple intelligences (MI) of the learner as identified by Howard Gardner. It is also considering varied learning styles (LS). This does not mean, however, that you will be overwhelmed with 9 different ways of teaching content at one time by making use of a variety of teaching activities to cater to these MIs and LSs.


Teacher’s Tasks in Integrative Teaching To do integrative teaching, a teacher needs a broad background for him/her to see really the entry points for interdisciplinary integration. A multi-specialist teacher will definitely have an advantage over that one with just one field of specialization . To do integrative teaching by transdisciplinary and 3-level teaching made, a teacher must be able to connect subject matter to values and to life as a whole. This calls for a grounding in the humanities. To be able to integrate MI and LS, the teacher must be familiar with Mis and LSs and must have a reservoir of teaching activities to be able to cater to students with diverse Mis and LSs.


Inquiry-Based Teaching Constructivist teaching is also inquiry-based. As the name implies this teaching that is focused on inquiry or question . But effective inquiry is more than simply answering questions or getting the right answers. It espouses investigation, exploration, search quest, research pursuit and study . It is enhanced by the i nvolvement with the community of learners, each learning from the other in social interaction.


Teacher’s Task In Inquiry-Based Teaching-Learning When using inquiry-based lessons, teachers are responsible for: Starting the inquiry process promoting student dialog transitioning between small groups and classroom discussions intervening to clear misconceptions or develop students’ understanding of content material Modeling scientific procedures and attitudes


Inquiry-Based Learning Activities Some specific learning processes that people engage in during inquiry-learning include: Creating questions of their own Obtaining supporting evidence to answer the questions Explaining the evidences collected Connecting the explanation to the knowledge obtained from the investigative process


Inquiry-based learning covers a range of activities to learning and teaching including Field-work Case studies Investigation Individual and group projects Research project


SUMMARY Constructivist approach to teaching has the following features: authentic activities and real world tasks, multiple perspectives, wholistic and integrative , self-directed learners, meaningful learning , collaborative and interactive learning. These features are found in interactive and collaborative, integrative and inquiry-based teaching-learning activities.

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