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Different species of animals of different strains and use of laboratory animals in experiments.


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LABORATORY ANIMALS By D.Eswar Tony M.Pharmacy (Dept of Pharmacology) Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (CIPS) Guntur


Objectives To know and identify the commonly used laboratory animals in experimentation. Need of animals for research and teaching.


Introduction Laboratory animals are the animals which we are used for our research purposes to determine the different activities of Drugs. Mainly ; Developing and testing medicines and vaccines for humans and other animals Studying how animal’s and human’s bodies function. Assessing the safety of chemicals, such as pesticides, for their possible effects on human health or the environment.

Why Do We Need To Use Animals for Research & Teaching?:

The functions of cells and organs are basically the same in animals and humans. What we learn from animals is useful in human and animal medicine. Why Do We Need To Use Animals for Research & Teaching? An animal cell

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1964 Regulation of cholesterol discovered (Rat ) 1968 Rubella vaccine developed (Monkey ) 1970 Lithium approved (Rat, Guinea Pig ) 1973 Animal social and behavior patterns discovered (Bee, Fish, Bird )* 1975 Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material discovered (Monkey, Horse , Chicken, Mouse)* 1982 Treatment for leprosy developed (Armadillo ) 1984 Monoclonal antibodies developed (Mouse )* 1990 Organ transplantation techniques advanced (Dog, Sheep, Cow, Pig )* 1995 Gene transfer for cystic fibrosis developed (Mouse, Non-Human Primate ) 1997 Prionsdiscovered and characterized (Hamster, Mouse)* 1998 Nitric oxide as signaling molecule in cardiovascular system discovered (Rabbit)* 2000 Brain signal transduction discovered (Mouse, Rat, Sea Slug )* 2002 Mechanism of cell death discovered (Worm)* 2003 Non-invasive imaging methods (MRI) for medical diagnosis developed (Clam, Rat)* 2004 Odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system discovered (Mouse)* Source: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 2008 *Denotes Nobel prize winning research

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Research Acquisition of new Knowledge Use of animals in teaching Exercise Testing of compounds, Chemicals or devices safety and efficacy


Hamster Normal body temperature : 37.5 C or about 98 F Pulse Rate : 400/min Respiration rate : 250-500/min Gestation period : 16 days Weaning age : 3-4 weeks Mating age: 4-6 months Rectal temperature : 102ºF

Different Strains/types of animals:

Different Strains/types of animals

Types/Strains of Rats:

Types/Strains of Rats ACI Rat ALBINO Brown Norway DA Rat Hwy Rat IS Kyo Rat

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Khr rats Lec rat LEJ rat Lewis rat Lexf 1a rat Rcs Kyo rat

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SHR Kyo rat Tm Kyo rat Trm rat Zi rat

Different Types of Mouse:

Different Types of Mouse

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Black White Chocolate Fawn Blue Dove Champagne Lilac Black Tan Choclate Tan Dutch Broken Marked

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Agouti Silver Agouti Chinchilla Sable Cinnamon Argente Siamese Brindle Normal Satin Astrex Long Hair

Different types of Guinea Pigs:

Different types of Guinea Pigs

Skinny Pig:

Skinny Pig

Abyssinian Guinea Pig :

Abyssinian Guinea Pig Werewolf Skinny Pig

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Teddy Guinea Pig Texel Guinea Pig

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White-crested Guinea Pig Peruvian Satin Guinea Pig

Different Types of Hamsters:

Different Types of Hamsters Syrian Campbell Winter White Roborovski Chinese

Types of Rabbits:

Types of Rabbits

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Commercial Compact Cylindrical Fully Arched Semi-Arched

Russell and Burch The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques, 1959:

Russell and Burch The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques, 1959 R eplacement (alternatives?) R eduction (numbers?) R efinement (procedures?)

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“The successful implementation of the Three Rs heavily depends upon education and training of persons involved in animal experimentation.”

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EDUCATION Development of proper attitude TRAINING Acquisition of practical knowledge and skills needed for the design and conduct of animal experiments or for the replacement, reduction, refinement alternatives.

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Persons taking care of animals (Cat. A, animal caretaker) Persons carrying out experiments (Cat. B, animal technician) Persons responsible for design of experiments (Cat. C, scientist) Persons specialised at post-graduate level (Cat. D, animal welfare officer) EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN LAS

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Laboratory Animal Science Laboratory Animal Science societal demands needs of animals needs of scientists advising policy makers discussion with society teaching humane use welfare minimizing numbers reliability feasibility (economic) efficiency

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Supervision of health (welfare)

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Recognition of specific demands genetic manipulation behaviour strains age reproduction

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Bite/scratch Unrestrained animal Injecting or bleeding Improper sharps disposal

The Legal Obligations:

The Legal Obligations

A Historical Prospective on the Animal Welfare Regulations:

A Historical Prospective on the Animal Welfare Regulations 1965 (July) – Stolen Pets 1966 (Feb) – LIFE magazine article 1981 – Silver Spring Monkey Incident 1983 – PA University head injury study Resnick introduces bill to congress Lab Animal Welfare Act signed into law 1985 – revisions to the AWA (IACUC) and the Health Research Extension Act signed into law What Happened? In Response

Animal Welfare Act:

The Animal Welfare Act is a law that was passed to protect animals used in research, bred for commercial sale, exhibited to the public, or commercially transported. The Animal Welfare Act applies to dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters etc. Animal Welfare Act We have to be cared for properly. It’s the law!!!!!!!

Do scientists care about animals? Do they treat them well?:

You can’t get good data from unhealthy or mis -treated animals. It is in the best interest of researchers to treat lab animals well. Most animal research facilities have a dedicated staff of people whose job is to provide daily care for the animals in their charge. Research animals must be cared for 7 days a week, 365 days a year regardless of weather or holidays. Do scientists care about animals? Do they treat them well?

Is Your Animal Healthy?:

Is Your Animal Healthy ?


Conclusion Having the knowledge of laboratory animals, it becomes easy to do certain different experimentation techniques . It is very helpful in understanding the different sites of routes of administration and for a better bioavailability of drug. As they were helping us for our research, it is must that we people have to take care of them properly.

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“I’m so proud! All of my kids are going into research”

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REFERENCES S.K kulakarni ; Text book of experimental pharmacology. 2. 3. 4. 5. Unnecessary Fuss Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 , Part 4 , Part 5 , the video composed of footage taken from the lab by the

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