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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Secure Network Design: New Directions: Secure Network Design: New Directions Sumit Ghosh Hattrick Endowed Chaired Professor of Information Systems Engineering Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 E-mail: email@example.com Manifestation Des Jeunes Chercheurs Stic (MAJECSTIC) Conference 2003 Marseille, France October 29-31, 2003Slide2: What are Networks? Networks transport material or messages in electromagnetic (EM) form Increasingly networks carrying EM messages are gaining importance Messages represent Information Control Fundamental elements of networks Networking nodes providing computational intelligence Links representing medium of transport Control algorithms – unseen hand that makes networks work correctly Slide3: Why are Networks Important? Increasingly, civilization evolving from matter-based to abstract (cyber-based) All systems steadily evolving towards networked computational systems Networks underlie all systems and are therefore indispensable Networked systems parallel human civilization Idea originates in an individual(s) and processed by the brain Exchanged among different individuals and further processed Eventually develops into a whole new product, solution, organization Networked systems bring unique characteristics Extremely fast processing and transport Vast geographical coverage Simultaneously reaches many many individuals Slide4: Why is Security of a Network Important? Packets are encrypted, so how can they be vulnerable? First, fundamental weakness is finite distance between source and destination Millions of miles in space, or Few millimeters in a VLSI chip Packets exposed, not accompanied by either source or destination Second, fundamentally, networks are shared; therefore: Need to protect a user’s process from all other users’ processes Need to protect a user from network components, gone haywire Need to protect network elements from users’ processes Damage -- accidental (rm *.* in unix), intentional (malicious) Therefore, study of network security is here to stay It is not a here-today-gone-tomorrow type topic It is a very serious issueSlide5: Why is Security of a Network Node Important? Networking node provides all intelligence, including authentication, etc. Vulnerability from viruses and intrusions All data and information are susceptible If a perpetrator gains control, every activity can be misdirected A fundamental challenge Login procedure is fundamental – authenticates user and system Requires combination of user account name and password(s) Fundamental vulnerabilitySlide6: Security of Transport Links Vulnerability in a physical sense, i.e. being severe All data and information in transit are susceptible Slide7: Algorithm ties in nodes and links to achieve a desired objective Algorithm encapsulates complex interactions between three elements If algorithm is susceptible, nothing is trustworthy Example: Exploit TCP's retransmission to deliberately cause network overload Exemplified in World War II episodes Strategically, U-boat warfare most critical U-boat command and control utilized enigma encryption machine Key to allied success lay in the Nazi failure to understand the key importance of asynchronous distributed algorithms Unique example from history: Precision bombing run during WWII Control Algorithm Vulnerability?Slide8: Control Algorithm Vulnerability (Cont'd)? Britain Bombers Bomb drop Open bomb bay Beam 2 Beam 1 France Bombers BombersSlide9: Why is Security Gaining Such Importance? Increasingly, key national infrastructures are controlled by networks Telecommunications, power grid, financial services, etc. X-10 network for via power line communication in homes X-10 devices and controller Turn on A/C in Arizona remotely from cell phone Turn on outdoor pool following a sand storm in Arizona Check whether garage door accidentally left opened Monitor home following an alarm going off Perpetrator may set fire to a specific home by overheating appliances Worse, perpetrator may sacrifice many homes to destroy a target building Accessing a patient’s medical record, routine or emergency care Transmitting sensitive financial information Exchanging proprietary trade secrets among company sites – GM, Prudential Accessing individuals’ genetic map from gene analysis laboratories Uses limited only by imagination, while losses cause irreversible damagesSlide10: Security Guarantees Today In the Internet and IP networks, security assumes the forms Encryption – applied to information in storage and in transit Key management Firewall Fundamental challenges Recently invented primality algorithm from IIT Kanpur severely challenges fundamental mathematical assumptions of encryption keys Severe performance limitations Issues with a perpetrator intercepting data Current thought: Immediate value of data is time-bound Analysis of data may render it a timeless attribute, e.g. strategic thinkingSlide11: Fundamental Principles Underlying IP Store and forward End to end reasoning Consequences Quality of service (QoS) fundamentally difficult Differentiated services, etc. very difficult to realize Security incorporated as an afterthought Cannot prevent denial of service Cannot prevent overload of TCP retransmissions Cannot prevent network instability IP network unsuited for secure transmission of sensitive information Medical Financial Trade secretsSlide12: Static data stored at a node may be less than useful Example: Shiny new car sitting in the dealer's parking lot does not make money. The tell-tale sign of an efficient dealer is a sparse parking lot since the cars are sold as soon as they are delivered. Data, enhanced, modified, and exchanged dynamically, is increasingly valuable – (i) information vs. data and (ii) information is subjective Therefore, data in transit, is of the highest concern The Changing Nature of Networked Systems?Slide13: Unique philosophical insight – in this creation, nothing for which no opposite New networking principles Fundamental security framework to objectively analyze network security Adopted by NSA in NRM Translate security into a quality of service (QoS) metric Select and establish secure route (connection-oriented) prior to propagating traffic ATM, MPLS excellent candidates or design a new network (modified ATM) Security is an interdisciplinary challenge New approach and tools Understand fundamental principles in great depth Synthesize algorithm and threat scenarios Test and validate utilizing comprehensive metrics Behavior modeling Asynchronous distributed simulation on a network of workstations Representative traffic model New Directions in Secure Network DesignSlide17: Continental Military NetworkSlide18: Security as an Interdisciplinary Challenge Operating systems Notion of files and attributes Why can a perpetrator wipe out log files Viruses Executable file transfer BIOS attack Viruses combining autonomously, unstable mutation (SARS) Biological and computer virus – unique difference Ultra-fast viruses? Computer architectures Fundamental weakness across all computers Virus modifies instruction set, computer’s primary objectiveSlide19: Interdisciplinary Issues (Cont’d) Control algorithm attacks -- If algorithm is susceptible, nothing is trustworthy Precision bombing run during WWII Exploit TCP's retransmission to deliberately cause network overload Insider attacks – greatest threat in Financial Services Industry Coordinated attacks – physical and cyberattacks Elusive attacks – very slow in time and highly geographically distributed System attacks itself, autoimmune failure – accidentally modified autonomous agents Lessons from Nature and biology Hantavirus Quarantine only technique that works in infectious diseases, fundamentally weak for computer viruses – spreads at EM speed Bubonic plague bacterium and AIDS virus use identical two-prong attack strategy Sharks switch sensors while attacking prey Human immune system design and insight from nature of computational power Genetically imprinted immune system of bees versus adaptive in humansSlide20: Interdisciplinary Issues (Cont’d) Threat scenario design, rationale, and testing Requires depth and breadth Requires interdisciplinary knowledge in biology, law Law: Can privacy be protected on the Internet? Law enforcement: Identify original weapon (unique) for conviction? Encryption Continue mathematical research into improving performanceSlide21: Intrusion DetectionFundamental Challenges to Intrusion Detection: Fundamental Challenges to Intrusion Detection Intrusion detection is compute-intensive Scalability a fundamental issue with all networks ATM and variants holds promise Inherent promise quality of service IP networks based on store and forward principle Fundamental framework for security NSA adopted under NRM Comprehensive security mapped into a QoS metricBasic Network Intrusion Detection: Basic Network Intrusion Detection Minimum components: Sensors Assessment Engine Response AgentsSwitched Network Intrusion Detection: Switched Network Intrusion Detection Complications resulting from switched networks Unlike broadcast networks where sensors can “sniff” large portions of a network, switched networks use point-to-point connections. Switched (and particularly ATM) networks scale well to very large sizes Requires many more sensors Overloads the assessment engine A new intrusion detection architecture is needed for large, switched networksUnderlying Motivations: Underlying Motivations Practical, scaleable intrusion detection architecture for ATM Networks. Attacks against the PNNI protocol develop very quickly Processes and events within ATM switches occur over very short intervals of time ATM networks can grow quite large using hierarchical peer groups Previous research has shown that decentralized military command and control models allow faster reaction times, resulting in faster convergence on the enemy and higher kill rates, with fewer casualties But, a purely decentralized approach may not be compatible with ATM peer groups Architecture that would apply to other switched networks (e.g. MPLS)Inspiration -- Human Immune System Design: Inspiration -- Human Immune System Design Nature designed and tested over millions of years Nature's primary objectives Key elements of the design Evolutionary nature of the design Spectacular failures of nature The notions of computational energy and limits of computational powerHierarchical Intrusion Assessment: Hierarchical Intrusion Assessment Sensors are assigned to various assessment engines, arranged hierarchically Manages load for assessment engines Scaleable solution Allows both tactical and strategic assessmentTactical and Strategic Assessment: Tactical and Strategic Assessment Tactical assessment facilitates fast local responses, necessary in high-speed switched networks Strategic assessment gives overall picture of distributed or slow-to-develop attacks Assessment engines appear as sensors or response agents to assessment engines at other levels of the hierarchy Detailed View: Detailed View Tactical sentinels Hardware embodiment of one or more sensors and an assessment engine Monitors fabric of associated switch Response is limited to ports, elements, and UNI traffic of associated switch Report observations, events, and actions to strategic assessment at peer group level Execute local responses as directed by the peer group level strategic assessment engine Change its behavior via reprogramming by the strategic assessment engine at the peer group levelDetailed View (continued): Detailed View (continued) Strategic assessment (level 1) Hardware/software entities Distinct from the nodes of the peer group Analyze all anomalies within the peer group, taken in the context of recent history Reprogram tactical sentinels Initiate other responses (beyond the scope of a single switch) Report “conclusions” and responses to level 2 assessment Strategic assessment (level 2) Likely software implementations Assess network behavior Compute long-term decisions within the context of network history Initiate responsesNew Approach and Tools: New Approach and Tools Synthesize high-level asynchronous distributed algorithm Synthesize comprehensive metrics Test and validate algorithm through modeling and simulation Accurate asynchronous, distributed PNNI simulator Representative traffic modelSlide32: As networks evolve, newer forms of attacks will emerge Interdisciplinary thinking and proposed approach are our key weapons Pure energy computers? Quantum entanglement? Ultimate Future?Slide33: Source Material for the Tutorial & Further Reading 1. 1. Sumit Ghosh, Principles of Secure Network Systems Design, Springer Verlag, 0-387-95213-6, April 2002. 2. Thomas D. Tarman and Edward L. Witzke, Implementing Security for ATM Networks, Artech House, Boston, ISBN 1-58053-293-4. 2002. 3. Sumit Ghosh, "Computer Virus Attacks on the Rise: Causes, Mitigation, and the Future," Financial IT Decisions 2002, Vol. 1, a Bi-Annual Technology Publication of the Wall Street Technology Association, Red Bank, New Jersey, http://www.wsta.org, Feb/Mar 2002, pp. 16-17, ISBN 1-85938-369-6. 4. Ed Witzke, Tom Tarman, Gerald Woodard, and Sumit Ghosh, "A Novel Scaleable Architecture for Intrusion Detection and Mitigation in Switched Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE Milcom 2002, Oct 7-10, 2002, The Disneyland Resort, Anaheim, CA. 5. Sumit Ghosh, "Future Advances in Networked Systems and New Forms of Cyberattacks," chapter in "Cybercrimes," Edited by Elliot Turrini (Asst. US Attorney) and Jessica R. Herrera (Federal Prosecutor, CCIPS, US DoJ), Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, CA., August 2002.Thank youQuestions, Suggestions, & Criticismsemail: firstname.lastname@example.org http://attila.stevens-tech.edu/~sghosh2: Thank you Questions, Suggestions, & Criticisms email: email@example.com http://attila.stevens-tech.edu/~sghosh2 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.