Perfect Tenses 1: Perfect Tenses 1 I have guided travelers my entire career. I have been rock climbing for 10 years. These things continue up to the present and may continue into the future. have guided have been rock climbing past now future Use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive to talk about things that started in the past, but were not completed. Remember!: Remember! Non-action (stative) verbs are not usually used in the progressive. I ’ve been knowing how to rock climb since I was young. I ’ve known how to rock climb since I was young. Perfect Tenses 2: for six years Perfect Tenses 2 We often use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive with for and since . Use for to show how long something has been true and since to show when something started. I have trained for six years to take this trip. He has been guiding trips since 2000. since 2000 for six years past now future have trained since 2000. has been guiding Be Careful!: Be Careful! Don’t use specific time expressions with the present perfect except after since . She took skydiving lessons last year. She has taken skydiving lessons last year. She has taken skydiving lessons since 2004. last year . last year . since 2004. Present Perfect 2: Present Perfect 2 The present perfect without for or since shows that an activity is finished. We often say how many or how many times with this use of the present perfect. He has visited Machu Picchu three times. past now future three times. Present Perfect Progressive: for five hours Present Perfect Progressive The present perfect progressive shows that an activity is unfinished. We often say how long with the present perfect progressive. They have been climbing for five hours. past now future for five hours. have been climbing The activity is not finished. They’re still climbing. Present Perfect & Simple Past: She traveled to Alaska twice this month. She ’s traveled to Alaska twice this month. Present Perfect & Simple Past Use the present perfect or the simple past with unfinished time periods such as today , this week , this month , and this year . Notice the difference in meaning . this month. this month. The month isn’t over, but she probably won’t travel again this month. The month isn’t over. She might travel again. Practice 2: a. I have taken many first-aid courses. b. I have been taking many first-aid courses. 2. a. She rafted down the Nile River last week. b. She has rafted down the Nile River. 3. a. We lived in Nepal for two years. b. We have lived in Nepal for two years. c. We have been living in Nepal for two years. Practice 2 Look at the groups of sentences. Discuss the differences in meaning with a partner. Example: I have visited Kenya three times this year. I visited Kenya three times this year. visited have visited The year isn’t over. The use of the present perfect means that she might return again to Kenya. The year isn’t over, but the use of the simple past means that she probably won’t return to Kenya.