Lecture201205_Wind Energy_Quality or Quantity

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This lecture is part of the BEST international students week. Professor Birol Kilkis will focus on the importance of the useful work potential of energy (aka exergy) in achieving solid steps towards sustainability. The direct relationship between exergy destruction and CO2 emissions will be explored. Two green buildings with onsite wind turbines will be introduced and explained in detail. The goal is to give participants a quick overview of the wind energy sector and its current size, as well as any issues.

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Wind Energy: Quality or Quantity?:

Wind Energy: Quality or Quantity ? Prof. Dr. Birol KILKIŞ Başkent University BEST International Students Week Energy Club Lunch Lecture May 3, 2012

A Picture Worth a Thousand Words:

A Picture Worth a Thousand Words Is energy aka “exergy” being wasted ? Does this represent avoidable emissions ? ? How is wind energy challenging conventional energy resources? ? How can environmental impacts be reduced? ? ? How could we transition to a more sustainable economy ? ? Şan Kılkış © 2012

Useful Work Potential of Energy:

Useful Work Potential of Energy All energy resources have a “ useful work potential ” This level differs, e.g. some produce electricity while others may not An Energy System Comparison * 1980’s Today CHP (centralized) CHP (decentralized) Wind energy Some energy systems use this useful work potential better than others . It is up to “us” as a society to make to be best of this useful work potential (exergy) and to “ steer” the energy system towards better choices… * Denmark’s past and present

A Critical Look at the Energy Source:

vs. A Critical Look at the Energy Source 1 kWh from fossil fuels Is more rational to produce 1 kWh of electricity from wind energy or from fossil fuels? Ground temperature (K) 283 K Resource temperature (K) 2000 K CO 2 content of the resource 0.23 kg CO 2 /kWh * Ground temperature (K) 283 K Resource temperature (K) * 471 K CO 2 content of the resource 0 kg CO 2 /kWh * For natural gas based on IPCC ( 2009). (Reference) ground temperature (K) Resource temperature as the combustion or equivalent * temperature (K) 1 kWh from wind energy Carnot F actor ( CF )

Exergy of Wind Energy (Resource):

Exergy of Wind Energy (Resource) Equivalent temperature of wind energy : Unknown variable From Betz’ Law: In actual cases: Solving with the theoretical limit gives 671 K T r = 471 K

A Critical Look at the Energy Source:

vs. A Critical Look at the Energy Source 1 kWh from fossil fuels Is more rational to produce 1 kWh of electricity from wind energy or from fossil fuels? Ground temperature (K) 283 K Resource temperature (K) 2000 K CO 2 content of the resource 0.23 kg CO 2 /kWh * Ground temperature (K) 283 K Resource temperature (K) 471 K CO 2 content of the resource 0 kg CO 2 /kWh * For natural gas based on IPCC ( 2009). 1 kWh from wind energy A lower exergy resource is used to produce 1 kWh e

Exergy Spending Per 1 kWh Energy:

Exergy Spending Per 1 kWh Energy Fossil fuels: 0.86 kWh exergy for every 1 kWh energy Wind energy: 0.40 kWh exergy for every 1 kWh energy Exergy rationale on the supply side: Use lower exergy resources for each unit of energy

Energy/Exergy Output of a Turbine:

Energy/Exergy Output of a Turbine A swept v ρ C p E k → E m Energy output of a wind turbine: The Carnot factor (CF) of electric energy , once produced, is commonly take n to be 1 * * Theoretically, all electric energy may be converted in to “ useful work, ” see EA ECBCS Annex 49. Summary Report: Low Exergy Systems for High-Performance Buildings and Communities; Schmidt, D., Torío, H., Eds.; Fraunhofer- IBP: Stuttgart, (2011).

Low-Velocity Sensitive Wind Turbines :

Low-Velocity Sensitive Wind Turbines Doing “more with less” energy and exergy. 2 m 6 blade “Energy Plant” … Optimizing the Venturi effect Photo credit TU Delft

Premier Green Buildings - 1:

Premier Green Buildings - 1 OSTIM Green Building A building that a d dresses the four dimensions of sustainability

Premier Green Buildings - 2:

Premier Green Buildings - 2 Additional views from the educational energy park ( A philanthropic initiative next to the building ) The first LEED Platinum building in Turkey and the region with full points in “ Innovation in Design ” Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Reduced energy loads and exergy matches

Premier Campus- Baskent University Wind Energy Driven Funicular System:

Premier Campus- Baskent University Wind Energy Driven Funicular System From Kinetic Energy To Mechanical Energy

Avoidable CO2 Emissions:

Avoidable CO 2 Emissions Values range between zero (poor match) and one (best match) Rational Exergy Management Efficiency Use electricity only for demands that have no alternative energy supply

Our Action Plan for Sustainability:

Our Action Plan for Sustainability Waste less energy an d exergy Curb CO 2 emissions ✓ ✓ Reduce impact s on the environment ✓ ✓ Choose sources that spend less exergy per kWh ✓ Get ready for a more sustainable future!

PowerPoint Presentation:

Innovative Green Buildings Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy

Community Energy Systems:

Community Energy Systems High exergy-low exergy match : C ircular Exergy Cogeneration and Trigeneration Waste Heat/ Cold Recovery and Energy Storage Recycling-reuse Public Transport Green Buildings Local Farms Local Horticulture Green Cultural Centers Techno Parks and Eco Parks Innovation Centers Green Educational Facilities Green Sports Arena etc ..

Community Energy Systems - 2:

? T T ? ? ? Community Energy Systems - 2 Siir KILKIS © 2011

The Wind Energy Sector:

The Wind Energy Sector Source : IEA Energy Technology Perspectives (2010), page 520 In 2010, installed capacity was 194 GW with about a 25% annual growth

The Wind Energy Sector - 2:

The Wind Energy Sector - 2 Source : World Energy Outlook (2011), page 534 Grid parity and beyond Faster increases in installed capacity means reaching grid parity sooner , e.g. EU

Factors Influencing Turbine Cost:

Factors Influencing Turbine Cost Source: EWEA Economics of Wind Energy, page 30

Trends in the Wind Energy Sector:

Trends in the Wind Energy Sector Professional soccer field 100 m Boeing 747 wing span 59,6 m Hub Height (m) Increasing rotor diameter (m) and rating (kW) Source: IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN), page 96 324 m

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prof. Dr. Birol KILKIŞ Başkent University bkilkis@baskent.edu.tr … Returne d with Energy … Returne d with E x ergy San Kilkis “Green Cities ” * * UNEP International Painting Competition on the Environment North America 4th Place © 2005 Questions

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