: NANOTECHNOLOGY GROUP# 09 EMRAAN INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY : INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY Things we will discuss:: T hings we will discuss : How big are nanostructures??? Scaling down to the nanoscale. How are nanostructures made ? Fabrication, synthesis, manufacturing. How do we see them? Imaging and property characterization. Why do we care ? Applications to science, technology and society. INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY : How big (small) are we talking about ? Understanding Size!!! MAXIMUM DISTANCE EVER COVERED BY A HUMAN BEING: MAXIMUM DISTANCE EVER COVERED BY A HUMAN BEING 10 9 meters = 1 000 000 000 meters . (1 BILLION) The moon's orbit around the Earth, the furthest humans have ever travelled. Understanding Size: 10 7 meters. Size of Earth. Understanding Size Understanding Size : Understanding Size 1 meter. This is, what we called one meter!!! Understanding Size: Understanding Size 1 0 centimeters A Fly. Understanding Size Understanding Size: Understanding Size 1 centimeter Understanding Size Understanding Size: Understanding Size 100 micrometers The fly's eye is made of hundreds of tiny facets, resembling a honeycomb. Understanding Size Understanding Size: Understanding Size 10 micrometers This image was taken using an electron microscope The fly's eye is made of hundreds of smaller eyes. Each facet is a small lens with light sensitive cells underneath. Understanding Size Understanding Size: Understanding Size 1 micrometer In between the facets are bristles which give sensory input from the surface of the eye. Understanding Size Understanding Size: Understanding Size 100 nanometers Understanding Size : 10 nanometers At the centre of the cell is a tightly coiled molecule called DNA. It contains genetic material needed to duplicate the fly. Understanding Size Understanding Size : Understanding Size 1 nanometer. 1 nanometer = 1 x 10 -9 m How small are nanostructures?: How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers ! 1 nanometer = one billionth (10 -9 ) meter Smaller still: Smaller still Hair . Red blood cell 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers Size Matters: Size Matters It’s not just how big you are. It’s what you can do with it. "NANO": "NANO" Nanoscale - at the 1-100 nm scale, roughly Nanostructure - an object that has nanoscale features Nanoscience - the behavior and properties of nanostructures Nanotechnology - the techniques for making and characterizing nanostructures and putting them to use Nanomanufacturing - methods for producing nanostructures in reliable and commercially viable ways How do we see nanostructures?: How do we see nanostructures? • A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm • An electron microscope? Has a long history of usefulness at the nanoscale • A scanning probe microscope? A newer tool that has advanced imaging PowerPoint Presentation: How Nanotechnology impacts our lives now ? Why do we want to make things small?: Why do we want to make things small? To make products smaller, cheaper, faster and better by "scaling" them down. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, life-science, etc) To introduce new physical phenomena for science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.) Applications of nanotechnology: Applications of nanotechnology Cryonics ( Nanorobots are expected to serve in the reconditioning brain tissue.) Environment (filtration). Energy Information and communication Heavy Industry (cont.) APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Medicine Consumer goods Cosmetics Nanotechnology Cancer Research and Development : One of the areas of medicine that will benefit from the research and development of nanotechnology is that of cancer treatment and detection. Nanotechnology cancer research and development is being actively funded and pursued to help people find better ways to diagnose and manage cancer as well as to treat it. The National Cancer Institute is aiming to decrease cancer deaths by the year 2015 and to do so with the help of the technology called nanotech. Nanotechnology Cancer Research and Development How Nanotechnology Can Help with Cancer : How Nanotechnology Can Help with Cancer Nanotechnology cancer-related research actually involves the use of nanodevices in clinical trials to help with the early detection of the problem, the finding of the cancerous cells within a patient’s body, and to accurately deliver drugs to treat these cancerous cells with. These clinical trials give doctors and researchers the kind of results they need to help create the kind of help people with cancer will require in the future to detect early on the signs of cancer, treat the cancerous cells, and even to prevent the onset or recurrence of the debilitating disorder. Some advantages and disadvantages: Some advantages and disadvantages ADVANTAGES:- In medical, change of body appearance. Make almost every manufactured product faster, lighter, stronger, smarter, safer and cleaner, and even more precise. DISADVANTAGES Very expensive. Atomic weapons will become more destructive. Very hard to make. Nanotechnology…bad?: Nanotechnology…bad? Why do some people think it is bad? Many nanoparticles show unique chemical, electrical, optical, and physical properties. The great diversity of nanoparticles types have made it difficult for scientists to make general statements about the potential safety hazards that nanoparticles might pose to living organisms. There has been a study showing that inhaled nanosized particles gather in the nasal cavities, lungs and brains of rats. Scientists believe this build-up could lead to harmful inflammation and risk of brain damage or central nervous system disorders. Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors: Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors ibm.com So who cares?: So who cares? The worldwide annual industrial production in the nanotech sectors is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10 - 15 years from now, which would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers. - M.C. Roco Chair, WH/NSTC/Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Subcommittee (NSEC), and Senior Advisor, NSF You May Now Ask Questions.: You May Now Ask Questions. Thank you!!!