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Dana Center University of Texas email@example.com www.utdanacenter.orgMy Perspective Influenced By My Background : My Perspective Influenced By My Background Born 1941 of Italian immigrants First of the family to attend college Taught high school math and physics Earned MS in Education Administration (Algebra dissertation) IBM career of 29 years (MBA) IBM’s interface with public education Served on two state panels for Texas education Adjunct Professor in Business School- 25 years Charles A. Dana Center for 8 years Format of the presentation: Format of the presentation Review each decade from 1940 to 2005 Major events of the decade The drivers of the economy and society Characterization of Education and science teaching Some PerspectivesThe 1940’s: The 1940’s Events Ending of the war-”The Bomb” Women move into the workforce in large numbers due to the war Thousands of servicemen return, get educated and fuel the greatest economic growth period (GI Bill) Transistor invented Jackie Robinson becomes first Black to play major league baseball Average salary $2992 Labor force male/female 5:2 Bread cost $0.14 Drivers of the economy and society 1940’s: Drivers of the economy and society 1940’s Industrialization increased from war effort College graduates increase from returning servicemen USA is the world’s largest manufacturing engine Exports and rebuilding of Europe First computer ENIAC -first electronic calculator (18,000 vacuum tubes) Economy begins to grow in late 40’s Characterization of Science teaching-1940’s: Characterization of Science teaching-1940’s A select few took Chemistry and Physics (~15%) Science teaching based on college teaching pedagogy Textbook driven, lecture, homework Majority of students took “Biology Derivative” courses Education model based on the Industrial Revolution model 1950’s: 1950’s Events Industrial revolution is maturing, moving into the service economy Nuclear applications begin First cake mix introduced Drive in Movies Automobile opens up travel Digital programming of computers Greatest industrial nation—no other country even close Drivers of economy and society 1950’s: Drivers of economy and society 1950’s Integrated circuit invented Transcontinental TV begins McCarthy Hearings –Communism Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a public bus Sputnik-First satellite orbits the earth US launches Explorer I Economy expansion is significant Radio prime information and entertainment media in the home Salk vaccine developed to halt polio epidemic Characterization of Science teaching-1950’s: Characterization of Science teaching-1950’s “Separate but Equal” education being challenged Brown vs. Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court Decision- “separate facilities for blacks is wrong!” Science teaching still much the same as it was in the 40’s Higher level math and science courses for only the brightest students—traditional teaching- whole group Sputnik causes the country to focus on mathematics and science education, many people have ideas of what to change- A great amount of rhetoric 1960’s: 1960’s Events Viet Nam war Civil Rights movement becomes a center piece of society Civil Rights Act of 1964 John Glenn orbits the earth 3 times NASA established TI handheld calculator $2500 Cuba “Bay of Pigs” and missile crisis JFK assassinatedDrivers of economy and society -1960’s: Drivers of economy and society -1960’s Space research and engineering Apollo program Building of the USA infrastructure Consumer products TV in most homes Most all products- American made Computers making significant inroads into business IBM, HP, Cray, Apple Computer Science as a discipline TV is main media in home for entertainment and news (3-5 channels) Characterization of Science teaching-1960’s: Characterization of Science teaching-1960’s “New Math” introduced into schools via NSF-focus on concepts, set theory, functions and diagrams Science education-no action, just talk Public and teachers rebel and went back to traditional teaching of mathematics Programmed instruction introduced Segregation still common Much rhetoric about improving schools Integration begins in public schools ~40% of students graduate from H.S.1970’s: 1970’s Events Roe Vs Wade Prayer in school unconstitutional Impeachment proceedings of a President- Nixon Viet Nam war divides the country Affirmative Action becomes key elements for business in hiring “Glass Ceiling” concept is popularized Drivers of the economy and society 1970’s : Drivers of the economy and society 1970’s Travel- Jumbo Jets Genetic engineering born- first test tube baby Intel’s microprocessor Apollo18 and USSR’s Soyuz 19 linked Entertainment-VCRs First “Star Wars” movie, Godfather, Jaws, American Graffiti, Grease Significant Stock Market decline Characterization of science teaching 1970’s: Characterization of science teaching 1970’s Relatively little has changed in teaching science from 1960’s—some believe education lost the impetus of the 1960’s School integration in full gear Schools must address the “handicapped” Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)- becomes part of business training, i.e. next phase of programmed instruction Significant rhetoric about public Education1980’s: 1980’s Events Business hostile takeovers and mega mergers AIDS becomes significant issue Berlin wall comes down Credit buying becomes the norm Rescue mission to Iran fails First Space Shuttle – Columbia U. S. Hockey Team beats Russia Sandra Day O’Connor appointed to Supreme Court Drivers of the economy and society 1980’s: Drivers of the economy and society 1980’s Personal Computers become legitimate tools in business “Microsoft Windows” introduced by IBM Imports gaining large market share in automobiles and consumer electronics Inflation 13+%--Prime rate 21% Internet opens up to publicCharacterization of mathematics teaching 1980’s: Characterization of mathematics teaching 1980’s A Nation at Risk report--If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves. We have even squandered the gains in student achievement made in the wake of the Sputnik challenge. Moreover, we have dismantled essential support systems which helped make those gains possible. We have, in effect, been committing an act of unthinking, unilateral educational disarmament. Characterization of science teaching -1980’s: Characterization of science teaching -1980’s Reform in Texas—Perot report 1984 Essential Elements TABS “Stand and Deliver”-Jamie Escalante work at Garfield high school Significant rhetoric about public education Report on Pre-college education in Math, Science and Technology—”The nation that dramatically and boldly lead the world into the age of technology is failing to provide its own children with intellectual tools needed for the 21st century” We continue to lead due to our best students and our universities What is needed is a new set of “basics” – communications, problem solving, technology literacy The teaching of science in some states is beginning to be based on a set of standards-pedagogy changes little 1990’s : 1990’s Events Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Brady Bill—gun control Gulf war Social security, gun control and health care were significant issues Famous trials-Rodney King & O.J. Simpson Columbine Shooting Drivers of the economy and society 1990’s: Drivers of the economy and society 1990’s World Wide Web grew from 2-100 million users Imports still making gains Out-sourcing jobs Importing skills HB-1 visa program Stock market decline Cell phones becoming a “must” for everyone Medical technology is racing with many new applications, CAT scans, Pacemakers, less invasive surgeries- Physicians jobs and health care change dramatically.Characterization of science teaching -1990’s: Characterization of science teaching -1990’s The decade of Brain research: Previous research- cognition and behavior New research- cognitive thinking styles, Preference for sense/senses, personality/emotional factors, environmental & emotional factors, physiology/genetics, physical health, comfort and developmental stages Brain is a malleable organ Governor's Education summit-The US will be first in math and science by 2000—More rhetoric President Clinton "We know, purely and simply, that every single child must have access to a computer, must understand it, must have access to good software and good teachers and to the Internet, so that every person will have the opportunity to make the most of his or her own life." Characterization of science teaching -1990’s: Characterization of science teaching -1990’s Standards based curriculum becoming the norm The “wars” - Direct vs. Conceptual In Texas the EE’s replaced by the TEKS, and TAAS introduced The teaching of science changes with allocated labs and the introduction of technology and the use of more manipulatives Texas 4th graders 5th the country (NAEP), 8th graders in the middle and 11th graders lower third. Characterizations of science teaching 1990’s: Characterizations of science teaching 1990’s 83% of students graduate from high school Elementary and Secondary Education Act Distance Education Year round school Dual or Concurrent Credit School to work and Tech Prep Reforms taking place—Standards based education beginning in early grades Characterization of science teaching 1990’s: Characterization of science teaching 1990’s Majority of students taking Biology, some chemistry and physics with higher level math courses Hand held calculators introduce in significant numbers in schools Education ideology wars creates confusion among educators and public Ritalin drug of choice for ADD/ADHD2000’s: 2000’s Events Communications integration, Cell phones, internet and digital TV Genetic engineering Fossil fuels demand outstripping supply 9/11—war on terrorists $100 in 1940 is same as $1322 today Average salary $37,000 vs. $2992 in 1940 Labor force male: female 1:1 vs. 5:2 in 1940 $1.00 cost of loaf of bread vs. $0.14 in 1940 Drivers of the economy and society 2000’s: Drivers of the economy and society 2000’s Consumer spending key to economy Housing sector strong New technologies in communications Oil prices steadily increasing Social issues revolve around social security, education, personal security and health care Iraq warCharacterization of science teaching 2000’s : Characterization of science teaching 2000’s Science teaching has not changed much from the 1990s 2003 task force on education 4 graders competitive internationally 8th graders lose 40 points and are average 12 graders are at the very bottom “More rhetoric” Characterization of science teaching 2000’s: Characterization of science teaching 2000’s 21st Century Summit: What students need: Digital-age literacy Inventive Thinking Literacy in all Problem solving technologies using tools Effective Communications High Productivity Collaborate Planning Interactive Use of tools Social responsibility Produce products Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives Americans have wanted schools to serve different and often contradictory purposes for their own children To socialize them to be obedient, yet to teach them to be critical thinkers, To pass on the best academic knowledge that the past has to offer, yet also teach marketable and practical skills, To cultivate cooperation, yet to teach students to compete with one another in school and later life, To stress basic skills but also encourage creativity and higher order thinking skills, To focus on academic “basics” yet permit a wide range of choice of courses.Some perspectives: Some perspectives How fast is technology moving???? 38 years for radio to get to 50 million users 13 years for TV to get to 50 million users 16 years for PC’s to get to 50 million users 4 years for Internet to get to 50 million users Life expectation has gone from 65 in 1940 to 80 for women by 2002 Robots operating on humans today!!Some perspectives: Some perspectives 20th Century had many education reforms: New America Schools Essential Schools Accelerated Schools American Choice Basic Education Direct Instruction Engaged Learning Purpose Centered Atlas Co-NECT Success for All ???????????? More Rhetoric! Major barriers: 3 million teachers 50 million students In TX 250,000 teachers 4 million students Governance Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives In the 1940 science teaching was based on text books and chalk boards the “Industrial Model” In 2005 science teaching is based on ??? Textbooks???? Chalk/white boards??? Technology??? Laboratory investigations Conceptual Understanding??? Standards?????? What???????? Have we changed enough to reflect the changes that occurred in society to meet society’s need? I don’t think so. Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives Change Society Public Education TimeSome Perspectives: Some Perspectives We lack vision as a profession of where we need to go. We are victims of society, government, unenlightened school leadership and OURSELVES!! Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives How do we start????? Start Simple and then progress to the complex Let’s look at the research---Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives The essentials for improving student achievement are: All students must have access to the same viable curriculum in every classroom- ”guaranteed” High Yield instructional strategies have significant impact on student achievement Teachers must collaborate to make this happen-we are all in this together, let’s build a system!! In Texas, the TEKS are the basics, go beyond them, use them as building blocks. Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives Is our current Industrial Model of Education what we need in the 21st Century? NO!!!! Let’s all start looking at new ways of doing things. I believe you have many of the answers, but need to have the opportunity and responsibility to begin to revolutionize the teaching of science.Some Perspectives: Some Perspectives Why do it? For our next generations of leaders, workers, members of society To maintain our economic leadership The next generations are our “KIDS” that are in school now!! Will the science Teaching enter the 21st Century?: Will the science Teaching enter the 21st Century? Sam J. Zigrossi Program Director Charles A. Dana Center University of Texas firstname.lastname@example.org www.utdanacenter.org You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.