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Introduction to the On-Demand Lecture Matt Bonham Professor of Political Science Maxwell School of Syracuse University Specializations: international political communications and applications of computer technology to the study of policy decision-making : 

Introduction to the On-Demand Lecture Matt Bonham Professor of Political Science Maxwell School of Syracuse University Specializations: international political communications and applications of computer technology to the study of policy decision-making Slide 1 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors

1. Review of my cyber lecture on figurative language 2. Role of figures of speech in everyday life: metonymy and metaphor 3. The “spring” metaphor as applied to Eastern Europe 4. Further analysis of the metaphor: garbage 5. The metaphorical nature of our everyday activities: 

1. Review of my cyber lecture on figurative language 2. Role of figures of speech in everyday life: metonymy and metaphor 3. The “spring” metaphor as applied to Eastern Europe 4. Further analysis of the metaphor: garbage 5. The metaphorical nature of our everyday activities Slide 2 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Outline of the Cyber Lecture

>>Are familiar and easily recognized. >>Evoke the recognition of equivalences to which we are committed, e.g., “the war on terror,” or >>Suggest new more challenging equivalences, e.g., the “Axis of Evil.”: 

>>Are familiar and easily recognized. >>Evoke the recognition of equivalences to which we are committed, e.g., “the war on terror,” or >>Suggest new more challenging equivalences, e.g., the “Axis of Evil.” Slide 3 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Review: Figures of Speech

Derrida’s analysis shows us that inherent in figures of speech are philosophical commitments and theories of value >>These figures of speech are venerable and thus familiar. >>They do their partisan work under the guise of “neutrality.” >>They usually pass for the literal: 

Derrida’s analysis shows us that inherent in figures of speech are philosophical commitments and theories of value >>These figures of speech are venerable and thus familiar. >>They do their partisan work under the guise of “neutrality.” >>They usually pass for the literal Slide 4 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors

An attribute or feature is used to name or designate something else. Example: “The pen is mightier than the sword.” : 

Slide 5 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Figures of Speech: Metonymy An attribute or feature is used to name or designate something else. Example: “The pen is mightier than the sword.”

>>Metonymy “emphasizes the whole, the entire domain shared by two terms, and its success as a trope depends upon how fully this idea of wholeness can be conveyed.”[1] >>Metonymy “replaces or juxtaposes contiguous terms that occupy a distinct and separate place with what is considered a single semantic or perceptual domain.” e.g., Homer will often be used instead of the Iliad: “you will read in Homer.”[1] : 

>>Metonymy “emphasizes the whole, the entire domain shared by two terms, and its success as a trope depends upon how fully this idea of wholeness can be conveyed.”[1] >>Metonymy “replaces or juxtaposes contiguous terms that occupy a distinct and separate place with what is considered a single semantic or perceptual domain.” e.g., Homer will often be used instead of the Iliad: “you will read in Homer.”[1] Slide 6 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Figures of Speech: Metonymy (continued)

Metaphor “states an equivalence between terms taken from separate semantic domains,” e.g., “George the Lion,” when applied to a football player. : 

Metaphor “states an equivalence between terms taken from separate semantic domains,” e.g., “George the Lion,” when applied to a football player. Slide 7 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Figures of Speech: Metaphor

>>Metaphor may be used as a means to convince: This is a “rhetorical” use of this trope. >>Metaphor may also be used to produce new knowledge and improve one’s understanding of a situation: This is a cognitive use of this figure of speech. >>This use of metaphor is especially productive in situations of great uncertainty, such as politics, because it produces a certain degree of understanding [2] : 

>>Metaphor may be used as a means to convince: This is a “rhetorical” use of this trope. >>Metaphor may also be used to produce new knowledge and improve one’s understanding of a situation: This is a cognitive use of this figure of speech. >>This use of metaphor is especially productive in situations of great uncertainty, such as politics, because it produces a certain degree of understanding [2] Slide 8 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Uses of Metaphor

>> Like metonyms, metaphors “structure not just our language but also our thoughts, attitudes, and actions” [3] >>Metaphor is the first step in the construction of new understandings of the world. >> Such restructuring often begins with a vague idea, such as an “axis,” that has long been neglected. : 

>> Like metonyms, metaphors “structure not just our language but also our thoughts, attitudes, and actions” [3] >>Metaphor is the first step in the construction of new understandings of the world. >> Such restructuring often begins with a vague idea, such as an “axis,” that has long been neglected. Slide 9 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Figures of Speech: Metaphor (continued)

>>This use of metaphor “creates new cognitive structures to interpret or re-interpret different aspects of social reality.” >>The new cognitive structures change the entire picture of a situation, especially an uncertain one. >>This, in turn, allows for “the development of policies which previously hardly could have been thinkable.” [4]: 

>>This use of metaphor “creates new cognitive structures to interpret or re-interpret different aspects of social reality.” >>The new cognitive structures change the entire picture of a situation, especially an uncertain one. >>This, in turn, allows for “the development of policies which previously hardly could have been thinkable.” [4] Slide 10 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Figures of Speech: Metaphor (continued)

>>Since the 1950’s different seasons metaphors have been used to explain changes in Eastern Europe. >>For example, “thaw” and “spring” have been used, e.g., Prague “spring”: 

>>Since the 1950’s different seasons metaphors have been used to explain changes in Eastern Europe. >>For example, “thaw” and “spring” have been used, e.g., Prague “spring” Slide 11 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

>>The meaning of this metaphors can be described by decomposing the semantic elements and comparing the different domains, e.g., the weather and the political situation. >>Lakoff and Johnson used these technique in their book, Metaphors We Live By [5]: IDEAS ARE FOOD LOVE IS WAR LIFE IS A CONTAINER: 

>>The meaning of this metaphors can be described by decomposing the semantic elements and comparing the different domains, e.g., the weather and the political situation. >>Lakoff and Johnson used these technique in their book, Metaphors We Live By [5]: IDEAS ARE FOOD LOVE IS WAR LIFE IS A CONTAINER Slide 12 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

The Thaw in Russia is not a spring, not even the beginning of a spring. A layer of snow still covers the ground The sunlight makes the layer thin, but plants can not grow.: 

The Thaw in Russia is not a spring, not even the beginning of a spring. A layer of snow still covers the ground The sunlight makes the layer thin, but plants can not grow. Slide 13 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

>> Spring comes and liberates the natural forces of growth These forces produce food and the possibility of human survival >> Note the hidden meaning here: Spring comes, not because of human will, but because the appropriate time has arrived. >> Natural biological forces, which push up the plants, are not the result of human activity. : 

>> Spring comes and liberates the natural forces of growth These forces produce food and the possibility of human survival >> Note the hidden meaning here: Spring comes, not because of human will, but because the appropriate time has arrived. >> Natural biological forces, which push up the plants, are not the result of human activity. Slide 14 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

>>Spring and the thaw are not a product of conscious human activity. >>People simply use the products of the processes initiated by nature forces. >>This suggests the hidden assumption of the inability of people to govern political processes.: 

>>Spring and the thaw are not a product of conscious human activity. >>People simply use the products of the processes initiated by nature forces. >>This suggests the hidden assumption of the inability of people to govern political processes. Slide 15 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

In the case of Czechoslovakia in 1968, we can identify four roles: 1. The frost role belongs to the Soviet Union 2. The sunlight and warmth role belongs to the West 3. The “growth of plants” is a growth of democratic institutions 4. The people role is played by the people of the country: 

In the case of Czechoslovakia in 1968, we can identify four roles: 1. The frost role belongs to the Soviet Union 2. The sunlight and warmth role belongs to the West 3. The “growth of plants” is a growth of democratic institutions 4. The people role is played by the people of the country Slide 16 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

>>There is an exciting aspect of the “spring” metaphor that is known to East Europeans. >>The beginning of the spring is the worst season. >>All garbage, which has been hidden by the snow, comes to the surface.: 

>>There is an exciting aspect of the “spring” metaphor that is known to East Europeans. >>The beginning of the spring is the worst season. >>All garbage, which has been hidden by the snow, comes to the surface. Slide 17 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

>>Projecting this insight on to political activity: >>The first results of spring are not flowers but old garbage that must be removed. : 

>>Projecting this insight on to political activity: >>The first results of spring are not flowers but old garbage that must be removed. Slide 18 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

Thus the criminal spin off of political change predicted by the metaphor is the exposure and removal of criminal forces (“garbage”) This example shows the power of metaphorical thinking.: 

Thus the criminal spin off of political change predicted by the metaphor is the exposure and removal of criminal forces (“garbage”) This example shows the power of metaphorical thinking. Slide 18 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors The “Spring” Metaphor in Politics (continued) This discussion is based on V. M. Sergeev, “Metaphor as an Instrument of Ontological Changes: ‘Seasons’ and ‘Weather’ in International Discourses,” paper prepared for presentation at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, 2005.

>>The analysis of “seasons” metaphors also reveals a view of politics that differs from thinking in the Western Europe and the USA >>In the West, people tend to have a structural view: relations between states of affairs are described in terms of causal linkages—Event A causes Event B >>Change is seen as a result of the concrete actions of persons, actors who have a direct impact on events.: 

>>The analysis of “seasons” metaphors also reveals a view of politics that differs from thinking in the Western Europe and the USA >>In the West, people tend to have a structural view: relations between states of affairs are described in terms of causal linkages—Event A causes Event B >>Change is seen as a result of the concrete actions of persons, actors who have a direct impact on events. Slide 20 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Structural Thinking

>>Actors are in the middle of a situation. >>Actors are responsible for change. : 

>>Actors are in the middle of a situation. >>Actors are responsible for change. Slide 21 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Structural Thinking >>To support this type of representation, numerous metaphors of causation are used.

>>Victor Sergeev and I have studied thinking a reasoning in non-Western Cultures, such as the former Soviet Union, Iran, and China. >>When we began to study non-Western cultures with our analytical tools, we discovered something very strange. : 

>>Victor Sergeev and I have studied thinking a reasoning in non-Western Cultures, such as the former Soviet Union, Iran, and China. >>When we began to study non-Western cultures with our analytical tools, we discovered something very strange. Slide 22 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Holistic Thinking Victor Sergeev

>> Here is Professor Sergeev describing what he discovered, for example, when he studied the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 Play Recording : 

>> Here is Professor Sergeev describing what he discovered, for example, when he studied the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 Play Recording Slide 23 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Holistic Thinking (continued)

“When we started our study of cognitive mapping, we considered it a great advantage, because it was possible to represent all sorts of political texts just in the same way. But after some reflection on the nature of these texts, I understood there is a great difference between American and Soviet texts. It’s possible to represent both types of texts using cognitive mapping, but you will find a very strange picture: Russian texts will be very simple. It would be practically impossible to follow the chains of causal relations…because all is separate.”: 

“When we started our study of cognitive mapping, we considered it a great advantage, because it was possible to represent all sorts of political texts just in the same way. But after some reflection on the nature of these texts, I understood there is a great difference between American and Soviet texts. It’s possible to represent both types of texts using cognitive mapping, but you will find a very strange picture: Russian texts will be very simple. It would be practically impossible to follow the chains of causal relations…because all is separate.” Slide 24 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Holistic Thinking (continued)

>>After analyzing non-Western texts, we concluded that one had to take into account the ontological assumptions or “preunderstandings” that stand behind political texts. >>For example, many Russian texts, as well as Maoist and Iranian texts, are based on “holistic” thinking. >>In holistic thinking, a change of a political situation is seen in terms of a continuous process, without any intermediate steps. >>Creative metaphors are widely used by the author. : 

>>After analyzing non-Western texts, we concluded that one had to take into account the ontological assumptions or “preunderstandings” that stand behind political texts. >>For example, many Russian texts, as well as Maoist and Iranian texts, are based on “holistic” thinking. >>In holistic thinking, a change of a political situation is seen in terms of a continuous process, without any intermediate steps. >>Creative metaphors are widely used by the author. Slide 25 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Holistic Thinking (Continued)

In this view, the main controllable variable is the intensity of the process. Actors can intensify or inhibit the process through their actions, but their role is much less important than for structural thinking. Here is Sergeev, again: Play Recording. : 

In this view, the main controllable variable is the intensity of the process. Actors can intensify or inhibit the process through their actions, but their role is much less important than for structural thinking. Here is Sergeev, again: Play Recording. Slide 26 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Holistic Thinking (Continued)

“I tried to understand the semantic nature of ‘processual’ thinking. It seems to me this is a kind of deep holistic view of reality. And the processes are usually considered as a kind of entity in which you can include some actions. If you act in a certain way you can participate in the processes. And this is your involvement-- involvement in the holistic structure. That is extremely different from the point of view of rational action theory, where is a strong distinction between [external] reality, mind, and action.”: 

“I tried to understand the semantic nature of ‘processual’ thinking. It seems to me this is a kind of deep holistic view of reality. And the processes are usually considered as a kind of entity in which you can include some actions. If you act in a certain way you can participate in the processes. And this is your involvement-- involvement in the holistic structure. That is extremely different from the point of view of rational action theory, where is a strong distinction between [external] reality, mind, and action.” Slide 27 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors

As a result of this research we have learned the following: 1. Cognitive structures affect our view of the world. 2. Such cognitive structures are cultural in nature. 3. Lying behind these structures is a pre-understanding about the world. 4. Preunderstandings are also cultural: In the West they are based on assumptions of causal relations which actors can manipulate to achieve desired goals. 5. Outside of the West, they are based on the assumptions of complex process that actors cannot influence directly.: 

As a result of this research we have learned the following: 1. Cognitive structures affect our view of the world. 2. Such cognitive structures are cultural in nature. 3. Lying behind these structures is a pre-understanding about the world. 4. Preunderstandings are also cultural: In the West they are based on assumptions of causal relations which actors can manipulate to achieve desired goals. 5. Outside of the West, they are based on the assumptions of complex process that actors cannot influence directly. Slide 28 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Play Recording

“A pre-understanding is a kind of cognitive structure, but it is not an individual cognitive structure. It is a socially approved cognitive structure—really part of the culture. What type of …there is a rather strict rule about what type of cognitive structure you use in certain situations. There is a kind of typology of situations—usually a certain type of cognitive structure is connected, which is a kind of ‘program’ to deal with concrete data….It is not a conscious thing but it’s a cultural pattern. So it’s very difficult for people who are in certain situations to change, consciously, the type of pre-understanding. Usually, he is accustomed to think in this situation in terms, in certain ways….This is a kind of subculture—it may be a groups subculture or a national subculture. I different cases it seems to be very different.”: 

“A pre-understanding is a kind of cognitive structure, but it is not an individual cognitive structure. It is a socially approved cognitive structure—really part of the culture. What type of …there is a rather strict rule about what type of cognitive structure you use in certain situations. There is a kind of typology of situations—usually a certain type of cognitive structure is connected, which is a kind of ‘program’ to deal with concrete data….It is not a conscious thing but it’s a cultural pattern. So it’s very difficult for people who are in certain situations to change, consciously, the type of pre-understanding. Usually, he is accustomed to think in this situation in terms, in certain ways….This is a kind of subculture—it may be a groups subculture or a national subculture. I different cases it seems to be very different.” Slide 29 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors

1. We reviewed the previous lecture on figurative language. 2. We discovered from Derrida that inherent in figurative language are philosophical commitments and theories of value. 3. We defined metonymy and compared it to metaphor.: 

1. We reviewed the previous lecture on figurative language. 2. We discovered from Derrida that inherent in figurative language are philosophical commitments and theories of value. 3. We defined metonymy and compared it to metaphor. Slide 30 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Summary of the Lecture

4. We described uses of metaphor—both rhetorical and productive. 5. We talked about metaphor as the first step in the construction of new understandings of the world. 6. We explored the “spring” metaphor and its use to describe political developments in Eastern Europe.: 

4. We described uses of metaphor—both rhetorical and productive. 5. We talked about metaphor as the first step in the construction of new understandings of the world. 6. We explored the “spring” metaphor and its use to describe political developments in Eastern Europe. Slide 31 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Summary of the Lecture (Continued)

7. We decomposed the semantic elements of the “spring” metaphor. 8. We found the hidden assumption in this metaphor: the inability of people to govern political processes. 9. We discovered a creative idea in this metaphor: in the spring the “garbage” comes to the surface and has to be cleared away.: 

7. We decomposed the semantic elements of the “spring” metaphor. 8. We found the hidden assumption in this metaphor: the inability of people to govern political processes. 9. We discovered a creative idea in this metaphor: in the spring the “garbage” comes to the surface and has to be cleared away. Slide 32 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Summary of the Lecture (Continued)

10. We found that this metaphor has to be understood as an example of holistic, rather than structural thinking, which predominates in the West. 11. In the case of holistic thinking, actors can do little to change the situation—they can only try to intensify or slow the underlying process.: 

10. We found that this metaphor has to be understood as an example of holistic, rather than structural thinking, which predominates in the West. 11. In the case of holistic thinking, actors can do little to change the situation—they can only try to intensify or slow the underlying process. Slide 33 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Summary of the Lecture (Continued)

Metaphors are used commonly in everyday life, but the also help us to understand political life. However, the analysis of political metaphor sometimes requires us to go beyond the metaphor to examine the ontological “pre-understandings” upon which they rest.: 

Metaphors are used commonly in everyday life, but the also help us to understand political life. However, the analysis of political metaphor sometimes requires us to go beyond the metaphor to examine the ontological “pre-understandings” upon which they rest. Slide 34 Figurative Language: “Seasons” Metaphors Conclusion

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