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Refinement and Reduction The use of laparoscopy and ultrasonography in animal studies: 

Refinement and Reduction The use of laparoscopy and ultrasonography in animal studies July 9, 2002 H. Borghys

Laparoscopy / Ultrasonography: 

Laparoscopy / Ultrasonography Techniques for visualization and sampling of fluids/ tissue in dogs

Laparoscopy: 

Laparoscopy - minimal invasive (keyhole technique) - general anesthesia (fentanyl/ACP + propofol) - samples/biopsies of different organs/tissues for histology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

Laparoscopy: 

Laparoscopy Liver

Laparoscopy: 

Laparoscopy Liver Intestines

Laparoscopy: 

Laparoscopy Liver Intestines Bile

Ultrasonography: 

Ultrasonography - non invasive - awake dogs - aid for biopsy

Ultrasonography: 

Ultrasonography Muscle

Ultrasonography: 

Ultrasonography Muscle Prostate

Ultrasonography: 

Ultrasonography Muscle Prostate Uterus

Laparoscopy / Ultrasonography: 

Laparoscopy / Ultrasonography Advantages - scientific - ethical: - minimal to non-invasive  less or no trauma - more efficient use of animals: own control, re-use 15% reduction of terminal dogs/year REFINEMENT REDUCTION

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