Ecology

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Growth and Reproduction

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-the process of enlargement and conversion of simple buildings materials into typical structure parts. -a way to generate the materials for reproduction. -the ability to produce offspring. -a way to make a new organisms that can grow. Growth Reproduction

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What is the difference between the fish and the rock? The fish is a living organism but the rock is not. There are five characteristics of life that the fish has, which the rock does not have.  It is made up of cells It obtains and uses energy It grows It reproduces It responds to changes in its environment.

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Living organisms are made up of cells The first characteristic of a living thing is that, they are made up of cells. A cell is the basic building block of all organisms. It is the smallest unit of organization in a living thing. They contain the organism’s hereditary information (DNA) and can make copies of themselves in a process called mitosis. Cells are made up of a nucleus and a cytoplasm, enclosed by a thin wall called a membrane, which separates it from its surrounding. Plant cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a cell membrane too. The main difference between a plant and an animal cell is that, plant cells have a vacuole, chloroplast and a cell wall. 

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Unicellular organism: An organism with only one cell is called a unicellular organism. Unicellular organisms can be complex too, even though they are simply a one-cell organism. They include bacteria, yeast, amoeba and paramecia. Multicellular organism: These are organisms that are made up of more than one cell. These organisms have very clear cell structures, with many cell types performing different specialized functions. For example, blood cells only specialize in blood production, and hair cells only specialize in hair growth and repair. In a multicellular organism, organization of the cells are very IMPORTANT .

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A group of cells can form a tissue—A group of tissues can make up an organ (such as lung) —A set or organs can make up a system (such as a respiratory system)—and the systems can MAKE UP THE        organism.

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Living things obtain and use energy Cells cannot survive on their own. They need power to stay alive. They need energy to perform functions such as growth, maintaining balance, repair, reproduction, movement and defense. This means all living organisms must obtain and use energy to live. Energy is the power to do things. This power comes in many ways and forms, but they can all be linked to the sun. It is the source of all energy.

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Living things grow and develop Every living organism begins life as a single cell. Unicellular organisms may stay as one cell but they grow too. Multicellular organisms add more and more cells to form more tissues and organs as they grow.  Growth and development of living organisms are not the same things. Growth is the increase in size and mass of that organism. Development involves transformation of the organism as it goes through the growth process. Think of a newly born baby. It has all the features of a fully-grown adult, but they are very tiny. As the years go by, they become big and become a young person like you, and later on, into a fully grown adult, maintaining all the features that they are born with. This is growth. But in their mummy’s tummy, they started off as a single cell, and transformed onto a zygote, and into a fetus before transforming into a tiny baby. In some organisms, growing involves drastic transformation. Think of a butterfly for instance. It starts off as a cell (egg). Then it transforms into a caterpillar, then into a pupa (chrysalis), and then pops out as a beautiful butterfly.

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Plants often start from a tiny seed, and grow into a big tree. One thing common to all organisms is that they grow or develop to look just like their parent species, even though there may be some slight variations resulting from the mixing of cells by the parents. Cell growth and development include its repair. As cells grow old, they wear off. Sometimes they suffer injury and bruises, but they are able to repair themselves by growing new cells in a process called Mitosis. As living things grow, they undergo a process called aging (age). As they get close to the end of their lifespan, their ability to carry out life functions reduce. Eventually, they die to end the process of life.

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Living things reproduce Reproduction is the process by which new organisms ( offsprings ) are generated . A living organism does not need reproduction to survive, but as a species, they need that for continuity and to ensure that they are not extinct.  Sexual Reproduction: This involves two individuals of the same species, usually a male and female. Here the male and female sex cells come together for fertilization to take place. After this the newly fertilized cell goes on to become a new organism, the offspring. Asexual reproduction: This form of reproduction occurs without the involvement of another. Asexual reproduction is very common in single cell organisms and in many plants. There are many forms of asexual reproduction. Fission, budding, fragmentation, and vegetative reproduction are all examples of asexual reproduction. In unicellular organisms, the parent cell just divides to produce two daughter cells. The term for kind of cell division is  Mitosis.

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MITOSIS - Is a process where a single divides into two identical daughter cells ( cell division) During mitosis one cell divides  once  to form two identical cells. The major purpose of mitosis is for growth and to replace worn out cells. If not corrected in time, mistakes made during mitosis can result in changes in the DNA that can potentially lead togenetic disorders ? .

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Mitosis divided into phases: Prophase Metaphase  Anaphase Telophase

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