From 'Brain drain' to 'Brain circulation' Global trends in internation

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The landscape of scientific research and publishing is fast changing. Scientific research is becoming increasingly global, and is no longer dominated only by the three science superpowers USA, Europe, and Japan.

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From Brain drain to Brain circulation: Global trends in international collaboration and researcher mobility The landscape of scientific research and publishing is fast changing. Scientific research is becoming increasingly global and is no longer dominated only by the three science superpowers USA Europe and Japan. With China Singapore India Brazil South Africa and the Middle Eastern countries increasing their RD expenditure new global scientific powers are emerging. With technology bringing the world closer scientists are collaborating with each other internationally and are showing a readiness to relocate to a different country motivated by their desire to get the best of facilities with an excellent team of scientists and an environment of shared knowledge. The concepts of knowledge sharing collaboration research networks and researcher mobility are gaining more importance than ever before. Therefore to get a clear picture of the changing face of global science we need to understand the changing patterns in collaboration and researcher mobility. Collaborations are leading to hyperauthorship According to a recently published report by The International Association of Scientific Technical and Medical Publishers STM collaboration is a definitive trend with international collaboration co-authorship and multi-author papers seeing a steady growth over the last few decades. In the recent yearsthe average number of authors per article increased from 3.8 in 2007 to 4.5 in 2011. Today more than two-thirds of all research articles are co-authored. A more recent trend in collaborative research is hyperauthorship: papers with a large number of authors sometimes even more than 1000 with the recent record-breaking 5000 author-paper on the Higgs boson published in Nature. If multi-author papers are taken as a parameter for measuring collaboration the growth has been enormous. As per the STM report the highest number of authors on a paper indexed by ISI going up to 3791 in 2011 from 118 in 1981. International collaboration has also seen a steady growth: 15 years ago 25 of all published articles were internationally collaborative today the figure has gone up to 35. Internationally co-authored articles grew from 16 of the global output in 1997 to 25 in 2012. Collaboration increases citations There is a strong positive correlation between collaboration and citations and papers with international collaborations receive a higher number of citations. The STM report mentions that the average number of citations received per article increases with each additional collaborating country and articles with collaborators from 5 countries receive nearly three times as many citations as those with no international collaboration. Jonathan Adams in his article Collaborations: the rise of research networks says that this holds true even for collaboration at the institutional level for instance Harvard University gets a boost in citations from papers written in collaboration with the University of Cambridge. Papers with industrial collaboration also receive more citations for example when the University of Oxford collaborates with

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GlaxoSmithKline the papers are cited roughly four times as often as the world average for their field. Citations per article versus number of collaborating countries Source: Royal Society Report 2011 The rise of collaborative research networks With the increase in multi-author papers collaboration has become more extensive creating research collaboration networks. Research collaboration networks work very much like social networking sites. If two scientists A and B collaborate on or co-author a paper they are considered connected. By virtue of this connection all the authors that Scientist A has collaborated with on other publications and those with whom Scientist B has collaborated form a network of scientists who cite each other’s works and find potential collaborators for their projects. With every collaborative or co- authored work this network grows. Many of the emerging collaborative networks are regional. Adams provides some interesting facts in his article:  Almost every country in Europe collaborates with every other country in the region. UK and Germany are the most prolific collaborator countries in Europe with around 10000 joint publications in 2011.  China’s collaboration ties with countries in the region have seen a stupendous increase since 1999: fourfold with Japan eightfold with Taiwan and tenfold with South Korea.  India has an increasing research collaboration network with Japan South Korea and Taiwan.

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 The Middle East is also witnessing the growth of a regional collaborative network with Egypt and Saudi Arabia being the main players and neighboring countries like Tunisia and Algeria gradually becoming a part of it.  Latin America also has an emerging research network centered round Brazil with Argentina Chile and Mexico being the main collaborators.  Africa has three distinct networks: one in southern Africa the second in the French- speaking countries in West Africa and the third in the English-speaking nations in East Africa. Thus the concept of scientific superpowers is gradually giving way to a multipolar global landscape for scientific research. Collaboration boosts researcher mobility How does the collaborative nature of science benefit the individual researcher It provides access to funding resources opportunities to work in international teams and increase in citations. These act as incentives for individual researchers to crisscross the globe to work on collaborative projects. Today researchers are willing to migrate to other countries to have a fruitful research experience. According to Elsevier’s latest report for the UK government the mobility of scientists varies by region and by country. Most European researchers are mobile and UK tops the list with almost 72 of active UK researchers having published articles while affiliated with non-UK institutions. As per the STM report the UK and Canada have the lowest proportion of “sedentary” researchers who have not published outside their home country in the period 1996-2012 at 27 compared to 60 in Japan and 71 in China. The US is the top destination country for expatriate scientists across nations and 38 of US scientists have a foreign origin. According to the GlobSci survey published in Nature when it comes to the proportion of foreign scientists working in a particular region Switzerland heads the list at 57 followed by Canada 46.9 and Australia 44.5. According to the survey geographical location is sometimes a deciding factor for mobility patterns among scientists. For many countries their “neighbors” are the main source of foreign talent: Germany is in most cases the source country for immigrants in the neighboring Netherlands Belgium Denmark Sweden and Switzerland. Likewise Brazil sources its foreign talent mostly from Argentina Colombia and Peru. The US is the country of origin of scientists working or studying in Canada. China and South Korea are the source countries for immigrant scientists in Japan. Language and cultural similarity also matter: the United Kingdom is the predominant source country for Australia and Canada and Argentina is the major source country for Spain. However these factors though present in many countries do not always dominate: the top country of origin for foreign scientists in the US is China the major source countries for the UK are Germany and Italy. Brain circulation: Bringing home the diaspora Academics and institutions have experienced the benefits of collaboration and researcher mobility and the earlier concept of “brain drain” has been replaced with the more fluid concept of “brain circulation” where the home countries of emigrants also

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stand to benefit when expatriates return equipped with the skill and knowledge gained in foreign countries. However how likely are scientists who have left their home countries in search of better research opportunities to return to their home According to the GlobSci survey migrant scientists from Sweden and Canada show the highest possibility of returning home with one in three scientists saying they will return. With less than one in five scientists saying they will return migrants from the UK Italy Denmark and Belgium are less likely to return. Indians working outside the country are the least likely to return among all the 16 countries surveyed. Job prospects are a deciding factor in the return of emigrant scientists from the Netherlands Japan Italy Spain France Germany and Switzerland. Likelihood of return of migrant scientists to their home country by country of origin Source: GlobSci survey report 2011 Some governments appreciate the value of ‘brain circulation’ and frame policies or allocate resources to attract national talent back home. The Chinese Government’s ‘The Thousand Talents Program’ established in 2008 has been successful in bringing back many expatriate academics to China. Likewise the Indian government has established the Ministry of Overseas Indians to frame policies relaxing citizenship requirements to favor the return of emigrants. Malaysia has set up a new ‘Talent Corporation’ to attract the diaspora communities. Ecuador has also announced a US1.7 million ‘Prometheus Old Wiseman’ plan to attract senior scientists back to Ecuador. The mobility of scientists and researchers the increasingly collaborative nature of science and the formation of research networks clearly indicate that research is transcending national and regional boundaries. Governments are viewing these developments in a more positive light and trying to frame policies around them to facilitate a two-way flow of knowledge skills and technology that will be beneficial to

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all. Going forward the face of science might change and national priorities might give way to global ones hopefully we believe in the best interests of science and humanity.

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Scientific writing: Difference between "to reveal" "to show" and "to indicate" Under Grammar and Writing Constructions like "the data reveal that" "Table 1 shows that" or Figure 2 indicates that are coo enough in research papers—and all are commonly used to connect a source data a table a figure etc. to a statement supported by that source however the three verbs are not exactly synonyms but differ subtly in meaning. "Show" is perhaps the plainest of the three. Use it when the statement obviously follows from the source as in "Table 1 shows that of the six months December was the coldest." A glance at the source is all that is needed to know the truth of the statement. "Reveal" on the other hand means that the conclusion is not obvious but requires some thinking on the part of the reader—as it did on the part of the writer. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines "reveal" asmake previously unknown or secret information known to others. Therefore use "reveal" to convey that it took some analysis or interpretation of the data to arrive at the conclusion. "Indicate" is similar to "show" but introduces a note of uncertainty: that the data leads you to suspect something but you cant be sure. Use "indicate" when you want to avoid a definitive statement. However do not use the word "indicate" too often if you do your findings may be considered too tentative for publication. To gain confidence in using synonyms and confusable words read this short article.

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Writing for science journals: Tips tricks and a learning plan Under Books Resources and Tools Reading a book running to more than 600 pages can be a daunting task. But the book Im referring to Writing for Science Journals: tips tricks and a learning plan 1 should be used as a manual. Readers can dip into it as required more so because the structure of the book and the comprehensive index facilitate such use. It is this attitude of helping the authors of research papers which shines through the pages of the book that makes the book special. But first let me highlight the author’s qualifications. This book is authored by Geoffrey Hart a scientist who turned to scientific editing—from studying how trees survive in Canada’s boreal forests to studying how research papers and their authors survive in the forests of journal publishing and 25 years and editing 5700 research papers later mastered the intricacies of the writing process from the stage at which a researcher contemplates publication all the way to eventual acceptance of the manuscript. The author not only states his purpose in writing the book but also makes it clear what he has left out namely presentations theses science writing for magazines and writing academic books. The book seeks “to teach you the thought process involved in planning preparing writing revising and publishing a paper in a peer-reviewed science journal. To do so I’ll teach you what you need to know to turn your data into a published journal paper. Along the way I’ll try to reveal some of the dirty tricks and unspoken secrets involved in this line of work—things that everyone takes for granted and therefore forgets to pass on to their younger colleagues or graduate students.” In 24 chapters the book covers all aspects of turning research into published papers including publishing ethics design of experiments and statistical analysis. Specific chapters deal with specific components of a typical research paper: thus a chapter each is devoted to 1 titles author information abstracts and keywords 2 introduction 3 materials and methods 4 results and 5 discussion and conclusions. These chapters are followed by two more one on acknowledgements and conflicts of interest and one on citations and references. Even online supplemental material – now increasingly common – has a separate chapter. Whereas many books on research writing touch upon writing style and common errors in writing English this book also devotes a chapter to using word processors for writing. The concluding chapters deal with the review process and acceptance and publication which includes advice on proof-reading securing permissions and relevant aspects of copyright.

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All in all Writing for Science Journals: tips tricks and a learning plan is an eminently useful reference book that aspiring authors should consult as they work their way through the maze that is publishing a research paper. 1 Hart G. 2014. Writing for Science Journals: tips tricks and a learning plan. Pointe-Claire Quebec Canada: Diaskeuasis Publishing. 634 pp. www.geoff-hart.com/books/journals/journal-book.htm

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