The Use of Articles: 06/28/12 1 The Use of Articles LTC Eastbourne: Martin Sketchley © 2012 Articles: 06/28/12 2 Articles Do you know what Articles are? When should Articles be used? What is the Zero Article? What are the rules of Articles? What are the Definite and Indefinite Articles? The Different Articles: 06/28/12 3 The Different Articles There are three types of articles in English: Definite Articles (‘the’) Indefinite Articles (‘a’ / ‘an’) Zero Articles (no article ‘ø’) The proper use of articles is difficult to master, especially when you get into advanced use of English. Often you have to work it out by what sounds right but this can be frustrating. Indefinite Articles: 06/28/12 4 Indefinite Articles Indefinite Articles refer to something not known by the person you are communicating with. It is also used before nouns to introduce something or someone which was not mentioned before. Example: “I saw a monkey this morning at the zoo. It was eating a banana.” Indefinite Articles are used to talk about your job. Example: “I’m an English teacher” OR “I am a builder”. Definite Articles: 06/28/12 5 Definite Articles Definite Articles are used when the speaker and listener knows or can figure out what you are talking about. Example: “I saw a monkey at the zoo today. The monkey ate a banana but the banana was rotten!” The definite article is usually used after the particular object or noun has been introduced. What’s the difference with the examples below? “The books are expensive!” “Books are expensive!” Zero Article (No Article): 06/28/12 6 Zero Article (No Article) We usually use no article to talk about things in general: Inflation is rising. People are worried about crime. We do not use an article when talking about sports: My son plays football. Tennis is difficult to pick up. Articles are generally not used with uncountable nouns: Information is important to any organisation. Coffee is bad for you. Countries do not use an article except where they indicate multiple areas or contain the words (state, kingdom, republic, union): The Netherlands, the UK, the USA, the Republic of Korea . Exceptions: 06/28/12 7 Exceptions There are many exceptions to the rules above and you need to learn from practice how best to use articles. Do you know when to use ‘ a ’ and ‘ an ’? Usually you use ‘ a ’ with consonants and ‘ an ’ with vowels. But do you say: “ a university ” or “ an university ”? “ a honest man ” or “ an honest man ”? Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 8 Choose The Correct Article ____ Himalayas ____ Mount Everest (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 9 Choose The Correct Article ____ Italy (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 10 Choose The Correct Article ____ UK (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 11 Choose The Correct Article ____ river is flooded. (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 12 Choose The Correct Article He was ____ accountant for five years. (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 13 Choose The Correct Article I enjoyed ____ course in ____ morning but by ____ midday it was ____ bit boring. (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 14 Choose The Correct Article I generally go to work by ____ bus. I generally take ____ bus to work. (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 15 Choose The Correct Article I shall see you in ____ New Year. (a / an / the / ø) Choose The Correct Article: 06/28/12 16 Choose The Correct Article ____ Pacific Ocean. (a / an / the / ø) Any Questions?: 06/28/12 17 Any Questions?