Matter : Matter Slide 2: Matter
Matter is a term used to describe anything that occupies space and has mass States of Matter : States of Matter There are three states of matter (four, if you count plasma). Slide 4: Solids - fixed shape and volume Slide 5: 2. Liquids - fairly fixed volume, but shape varies with container Slide 6: 3. Gases - both volume and shape are variable Slide 7: 4. Plasma - ionized gas - both volume and shape are variable Matter can be divided into two categories:
Substances (or pure substances)
Mixtures Slide 8: Substances
Substances cannot be separated into different types of matter by any physical means. Atoms in a pure substance can be separated only by chemical changes.
Elements are pure substances that are made of only one type of matter.The smallest possible particle of an element is called an atom.Examples: Silver, copper, oxygen, carbon (as diamond or graphite), sulfur, etc.
Compounds are composed of more than one type of matter. The different substances cannot be separated without changing the substance.The smallest possible particle of a compound that retains the properties of a compound is called a molecule.
Table salt (sodium chloride). Salt is composed of two elements, sodium and chlorine. If you could separate salt into its two elements, it would no longer be salt.
Pure water (H2O).
Pure sucrose or sugar (C6H12O6).
Quartz (SiO2). Slide 9: Mixtures
A mixture is a material made up of two or more substances. Mixtures are composed of more than one kind of matter, or more than one pure substance. Composition can vary between different samples. Pure substances in the mixture can be physically separated from each other by physical changes. There are two types of mixtures:
Homogeneous mixtures - A homogeneous mixture has two or more substances in it, but you cannot see them. They appear to be the same throughout. They may not look like mixtures, but if tested, they can be determined to be composed of more than one type of substance. Examples: Cake batter (which is a mixture of butter, eggs, sugar, and flour), soft drinks, salt water, sugar water, tap water, and brass (which is a mixture of copper and zinc). Salt water (or sugar water) would be a homogeneous mixture since you cannot actually see the salt in the water. A homogeneous mixture is sometimes called a solution.
Heterogeneous mixtures - A heterogeneous mixture has two or more substances in it, and you can see what is inside of it. Different samples are not necessarily the same. These are easy to spot because they look like mixtures. They are clearly composed of more than one type of matter, and contain regions with different properties.Mixtures can be separated into different types of matter by some physical means, such as sorting, filtering, heating, cooling, freezing, melting, evaporation, settling, etc. Examples: Trail mix (which is a mixture of raisins, peanuts, and chocolate candy m & m's), crunchy peanut butter, chocolate chip cookies, vegetable soup, spaghetti sauce, concrete, granite, raisin bran. Heterogeneous mixtures that are liquids can be subdivided into two types: colloids and suspensions. Slide 10: A colloid consists of solid particles in a liquid. These particles are usually very small, often less than 0.01 mm in diameter. A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture in which the contents do not settle over a long time. They tend to stay combined together. Paint, orange juice, ketchup, and most salad dressings are colloids. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the contents settle over a short period of time. Some examples of this may be muddy water or Italian salad dressing. Slide 12: Prepared by:
Exconde, Rodessa R.