Chapter 3

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World Population and Global Inequality

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Chapter 3:

Chapter 3 World Population and Global Inequality

Global Inequality:

Global Inequality Countries of the world vary widely in levels of material conditions Some nations are well off with ample resources, while others are disproportionately poor

“Most livable” and “Least livable” countries based on life expectancy, educational attainment, and real income:

“Most livable” and “Least livable” countries based on life expectancy, educational attainment, and real income

“Most livable” and “Least livable” countries based on life expectancy, educational attainment, and real income:

“Most livable” and “Least livable” countries based on life expectancy, educational attainment, and real income

World Population Growth:

World Population Growth Currently the world population is over 6.8 billion people It is estimated the world population will reach 9 billion people by 2050 99 percent of population growth occurs in the less-developed nations

Estimated World Population Growth:

Estimated World Population Growth

Consequences of Population Growth:

Consequences of Population Growth The greater the proportion of a given population living in poverty, the higher the fertility rate Less-developed nations already have problems with poverty, hunger, and infectious disease Strain on the resources of housing, fuel, food, and medical services

Three Ways to Reduce Fertility:

Three Ways to Reduce Fertility Economic development Family-planning programs Social change

1. Economic Development:

1. Economic Development As nations become more urban and modernized, their population growth slows. This modern demographic transition typically has 3 stages: Agricultural stage Transition stage Modern stage

2. Family Planning:

2. Family Planning It is estimated that it would take $8 billion to make birth control readily available on a global basis. International organizations began incorporating reproductive health into their missions in the 1960s. National governments (like India) have had some success in reducing fertility rates.

3. Societal Changes:

3. Societal Changes Cultural values Religious beliefs Women’s roles Education

Poverty:

Poverty The World Bank defines the global poverty line as living on less than $1.25 per day 1.4 billion people live below this line Extreme poverty is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa The gap between rich and poor countries is increasing

Food and Hunger:

Food and Hunger The world’s agriculture produces enough food to feed the global population, yet: 9 million people die of malnutrition each year 1 in 6 people are malnourished 1 in 3 people are food insecure

Sickness and Disease:

Sickness and Disease Chronic malnutrition results in High infant mortality rates Shorter life expectancy A stunting of physical and mental capacities Lack of safe water and unsanitary conditions AIDS pandemic

The New Slavery:

The New Slavery Estimated 27 million slaves in the world today Extreme poverty sometimes forces people into slavery. Prostitution, domestic workers, plantation workers are examples International traffic in slavery

Concentration of Misery in Cities:

Concentration of Misery in Cities There are five cities in the developing world with populations over 20 million. These cities cannot handle the numbers of people in terms of housing, employment, schools, sanitation, water, and food.

U.S. Relations with the Developing World:

U.S. Relations with the Developing World Economic mechanisms and political policies promote the dependency of developing countries: Transnational corporations Growing public and private debt Arms sales Corporate dumping

United States in the Global Village:

United States in the Global Village Wealthy nations can provide humanitarian aid to developing nations with three conditions: Aid is truly humanitarian. Aid reaches intended targets. Governments develop sensible plans to utilize aid.

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