The Knee Joint

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Anatomy of the knee joint

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The Knee Joint: 

The Knee Joint Type : Synovial, modified hinge Articular surfaces : Lower end femur, upper end tibia, & posterior surface of the patella.

Capsule and Ligaments:: 

Capsule and Ligaments: The capsule is thin: 1- In front : It is absent and replaced by quadriceps tendon, patella, and ligamentum patellae.

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2- Behind : the capsule is thin, - It is thickened by the posterior oblique ligament (strong ligament, prevents hyper extension. - It is perforated by the popliteus muscle. Ligaments (outside the joint): 1- The patellar lig. (ant), 2- The posterior oblique lig. 3- The lateral collateral lig., 4- The medial collateral lig.

The synovial membrane: 

The synovial membrane 1- lines the capsule, 2- attaches to the margins of the articular surfaces, 3- attaches to the peripheral edges of the menisci (semilunar cartilages), 4- covers the front of the ant. cruciate ligament, and the back of posterior cruciate ligament. 5- communicates with: - suprapatellar bursa, - popliteus bursa, - semimembranosus burse, - gastrocnemius bursa.

Structures inside the knee joint:: 

Structures inside the knee joint: 1- The medial semilunar cartilage (Medial meniscus): C-shaped, fixed to the capsule of the knee joint and to the medial collateral ligament (liable to injury), its ant. Horn is attached to the most ant. part of the intercondylar area of the upper end tibia and connected to the lat. semilunar cartilage by the transverse lig. 2- The lateral semilunar cartilage (lat. Meniscus): Circular in shape, more mobile (separated from capsule and lat. collateral lig. by popliteus tendon, so it is more adaptive to twisting movement and less liable to injury.

Structures inside the knee joint (cont.): 

Structures inside the knee joint (cont.) 3- Anterior cruciate ligament: - From ant. intercondylar area of tibia --  upward, backward and laterally to the lat. condyle of the femur. - It is relaxed in knee flexion, tense in extension so it prevents hyper- extension. 4- Posterior cruciate ligament: - From post. Intercondylar area of tibia  upwards, forward and medially to ant. part of medial femoral condyle. - It is relaxed in extension, tense in flexion so it prevents hyperflexion and anterior femoral dislocation.

Movements of the knee joint:: 

Movements of the knee joint: 1- Flexion : By the Hamstring muscles + gracilis, gastrocnemius, sartorius, popliteus, plantaris 2- Extension : By the Quadriceps femoris + tensor fascia latae. 3- Locking of the knee joint = medial rotation of the femur on the tibia in full extension (or lateral rotation of the tibia) . It occurs by Biceps femoris. 4- Unlocking of the Knee : In standing (tibia fixed) = lateral rotation of femur on tibia, In supine or sitting (tibia free) = Medial rotation of tibia. By popliteus + sartorius, gracilis, semitendinosus and semimembrenosus .

Relations of the knee joint:: 

Relations of the knee joint:

Bursae related to the knee joint:: 

Bursae related to the knee joint: 1- Anterior to the knee: 1. supra-patellar bursa 2. prepatellar bursa 3. superficial infra-patellar bursa 4. deep infrapatellar bursa 2- Posterior to the knee: 1. popliteus bursa 2. semimembrenosus bursa 3. semitendinosus bursa 4. gastrocnemius bursa 5. gracilis bursa 6. biceps bursa 7. sartorius bursa

Structures inside the Knee joint:: 

Structures inside the Knee joint: 1- the 2 menisci (semilunar cartilages). 2- The cruciate ligaments. 3- Popliteus tendon. Nerve supply of the knee joint: Femoral, obturator, tibial, and common pernoneal nerves. Arterial supply of knee joint: From the anastomosis around knee.

Arterial supply of the knee:: 

Arterial supply of the knee:

Imaging of the knee joint:: 

Imaging of the knee joint: A- Plain X- Ray AP view. B- X- Ray of Patella (knee flexed). C- Transverse MRI Showing the patello- femoral joint.

Radiograph of the knee joint (cont.):: 

Radiograph of the knee joint (cont.):

Imaging of the knee joint (cont.):: 

Imaging of the knee joint (cont.): A. Coronal section through intercondylar notch of femur, and tibia. B. MRI through same level. C. MRI through femoral and tibial condyles.

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