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Chapter 11 : 

Chapter 11 Career and Employment Assessment

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Career assessment is a process that helps individuals: clarify goals and values explore career options make informed decisions about the future Career assessment may be necessary in all stages of one’s working life. What is Career Assessment?

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Interest inventories Values inventories Personality inventories Career development instruments Combined assessment programs Interviews Career Assessment Methods

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Most interest inventories measure how closely an individual’s interests match existing occupations. Some of the most widely used interest inventories include: Self-Directed Search Strong Interest Inventory Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS) Interest Inventories

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The Self-Directed Search (SDS): developed by John Holland. can be used with individuals 15 to 70. easy to use and can be taken online. The SDS uses Holland’s typology to generate a three letter code which reflects a combination of the test taker’s interests. Self-Directed Search

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Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Holland’s Typology

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The SDS has several forms for use with specific populations: Form R, Career Development: Helps individuals not yet in the work force gain insight into the world of work and match occupations with their interests and skills. Form E, Vocational Guidance: Assists individuals with limited reading skills as they explore vocational options. Form CP, Career Path Management: Focuses on the needs of individuals who have or aspire to have high levels of responsibility.

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The SII was designed for career counselors and academic advisors working with college and high school students who are making initial career choices, as well as all practitioners who help adults with making career decision (Harmon, Hansen, Borgen, & 1994). Strong Interest Inventory (SII)

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6 General Occupational Themes: interest patterns based on Holland’s RIASEC categories (i.e., realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional). 30 Basic Interest Scales: specific interest areas within the six General Occupational Themes 244 Occupational Scales: the individual’s interests related to satisfied workers within various occupations 5 Personal Style Scales: the individual’s preferences related to of work style, learning environment, leadership style, risk-taking, and team orientation.

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CISS measures interests and self-assessment of skills. Orientation Scales: broad themes of occupational interests and skills Basic Interest and Skill Scales: detailed subscales of the Orientation Scales Occupational Scales: compares the test taker’s interest and skill patterns with those of workers in a range of occupations. Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS)

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Career Assessment Inventory-Vocational Version (CAI-VV) Harrington-O’Shea Career Decision-Making System Revised (CDM-R) Interest Determination, Exploration, and Assessment System (IDEAS) Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (JVIS) Other Interest Inventories

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Clients change interests over time Adolescents lack experience to respond to interest inventories Job success is usually correlated more to abilities than interests. Many interest inventories are susceptible to faking, either intentional or unintentional. Clients may respond in socially desirable ways. Exploration of low scores is often neglected. Problems with Interest Inventories

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Societal interests may override personal interests. Socioeconomic class may affect the pattern of scores on an interest inventory. The inventories may be geared to the professions rather than skilled vocations. A profile may be flat and hard to interpret. Tests use different types of psychometric scoring procedures.

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Values are stable beliefs that can refer to others or oneself. Values are enduring but can change over time. Work values inventories are used to identify an individual’s work-related values in order to match that individual with a suitable job choice. Work Values Inventories

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Work values can include such dimensions as: prestige and recognition independence social interaction compensation working conditions

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Super’s Work Values Inventory-Revised (SWVI-R) Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) Salience Inventory (SI) Hall Occupational Orientation Inventory, Fourth Edition Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) Common Work Values Inventories

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Super’s Work Values Inventory-Revised: measures the relative importance of a number of work values considered most important in career decision-making. can be given to middle and high school students, college students, and adults who are planning to enter, continue, or leave a given educational program, occupation or job.

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Personality is defined as the enduring set of thoughts, behaviors and emotions that differentiate one person from another. When assessing personality for career counseling, personality assessments geared toward normal populations are used. Personality is a key factor in career choice and career success. Personality Inventories

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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Sixteen Personality Factor, Fifth Edition (16PF) NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) Eysenck Personality Inventory Common Personality Inventories

Abilities and Skills Assessment : 

Abilities and Skills Assessment Career assessment can help individuals identify current and potential abilities and skills related to career options. Abilities – one’s present-day, innate capabilities to perform a specific task. Skills – abilities that come from educational experiences, work experiences, and personal life experiences.

Abilities and Skills Assessment Instruments : 

Abilities and Skills Assessment Instruments Career Ability Placement Survey (CAPS) ASVAB Kuder Skills Assessments Ability Explorer

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Career development assessments: assess career awareness and knowledge. provide counselors with valuable information about the career development and educational needs of individual clients. can provide survey information to help in planning career guidance programs. Career Development Instruments

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Career Development Inventory – developed for k-12, college, and university populations. The inventory contains five scales: career planning, career exploration, decision making, world-of-work information, and knowledge of preferred occupational group. Career Factors Inventory (CFI) - designed to help people determine whether they are ready to engage in the career decision-making process. Career Maturity Inventory - was developed for grades 6 through 12 to measure the attitudes and competencies related to variables in the career choice process. Common Career Development Instruments

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Several assessments evaluate interests, values, and ability inventories. Career Occupational Preference System (COPS) Kuder Career Planning System DISCOVER Combined Assessment Programs

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The Career Occupational Preference System (COPS) is a comprehensive career assessment program that combines interests, abilities and values inventories: Career Occupational Preference System (COPS) Interest Inventory Career Ability Placement Survey (CAPS) Career Orientation Placement and Evaluation Survey (COPES) Career Occupational Preference System

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The Kuder Career Planning System is an Internet-based system that was developed based on the work of Dr. Frederick Kuder. The Kuder system includes an interest inventory, a skills assessment, and a values inventory, all available online: The Kuder Career Search The Kuder Skills, their ability is aligned to career clusters. The Super’s Work Values Inventory-revised (SWVI-r) Kuder Career Planning System

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The DISCOVER program collects information about individuals including interests, abilities, and values through self-assessment tools. The results are then matched to world of work information that can suggest specific majors needed for a particular career. The DISCOVER program also provides a World-of-Work Map that illustrates how interests, abilities, and work values relate to each other. DISCOVER

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Career counselors user interviews to gather information about the client’s: the client’s work experience education and training Interests leisure activities (Gysbers, Heppner, & Johnson, 2003) Interviews

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Sample questions might include (Gibson & Mitchell, 2006, p. 112) : Would you give me a brief review of your employment experiences? What is your educational background? Do you have any unique experience or interest that might be related to the choice o career, such as hobbies or special interests? Why have you decided, at this time, to change careers? Tell me about your ideas about a new or different career?

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Employment assessments are used by employers to make recommendations or decisions about employees or job applicants. Businesses and organizations use several assessment methods, such as selection interviews, biographical information, and tests. Employment Assessment

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The purpose of the interview is to gain information about candidates’ qualifications and experiences relevant to the available job. More systematic, structured, job-related interviews tend to have higher validity. The situational interview, with specific questions based on job-related critical incidents, has also proven to be a valid assessment tool. Selection Interviews

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Factors that can influence the outcome of an interview include: Negative information > positive information Visual > verbal Halo Error Similarities with interviewer Interviewees are often compared to other interviewees

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Interviewers need training and instruction in these skills (Gatewood & Feild, 1990, p. 481): Creating an open-communication atmosphere Delivering questions consistently Maintaining control of the interview Developing good speech behavior Learning listening skills Taking appropriate notes Keeping the conversation flowing and avoiding leading or intimidating the interviewee Interpreting, ignoring, or controlling the nonverbal cues of the interview

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Research indicates that biographical information is a strong predictor of turnover and job success. Biographical data also have been valuable in assessing individuals and classifying them into subgroups for purposes of better placement and utilization. Biographical Information

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Gatewood and Feild (1990) identify three assumptions for the use of biographical data. The best predictor of applicants future behavior is what they have done in the past. Applicants’ life experiences provide an indirect measure of their motivational characteristics. Applicants are less defensive in describing their previous behaviors on the form than discussing their motivations for these behaviors.

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Employer inventories assess a wide range of factors, from job satisfaction and skills, to interests and personality. Effective inventories have the following elements: valid for the intended purpose the least discriminating tool for the decisions that need to be made. Inventories

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Personnel Selection Inventory (PSI) Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (CASI) Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB) Comprehensive Personality Profile (CPP) Employee Aptitude Survey Test Series (EAS) Employment Barrier Identification Scale Employee Reliability Inventory Job Effectiveness Prediction System Wesman Personnel Classification Test Wonderlic Personnel Test Common Employment Inventories

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Military Government Occupational and Professional Licensure Testing in Other Settings

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Job analysis is a purposeful, systematic process for documenting the particular duties and requirements of a job and the relative importance of these duties. Job analysis is conducted to: help determine the training requirements of a given job make decisions about compensation aid in selecting job applicants reviewing job performance. Job Analysis

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Read and review existing materials and data on the job to be analyzed. Have supervisors and experienced workers in the field meet together in a group and discuss the job requirements, producing a list of tasks and roles that are performed. Display the tasks and job characteristics identified so the group can react to what you have written. List outputs, knowledge, skills, and abilities, including use of machines, tools, equipment, and work aids needed to get the job done. Get agreement from the group on the tasks performed. Steps in Job Analysis

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Have the workers determine the percentage of time spent on each task or skill. Combine common tasks together. Have the workers tell how they know or recognize excellent, satisfactory, or poor performance of the tasks and the job. Construct an instrument to assess job performance and have supervisors and workers react to the tasks and performance standards identified.

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Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Information Input Mental Processes Work Output Relationships with Other Persons Job Context Other Job Characteristics WorkKeys Job profiling SkillMap WorkKeys Estimator Job Analysis Assessments

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Know the legal and ethical considerations thoroughly. Know basic measurement concepts. Know the steps in collecting evidence of criterion-referenced validity. Be able to analyze the skills, competencies, and personal qualities that relate to successful performance on the job. Consider practical factors, such as cost, number of employees involved, and time. Locate tests that purport to measure the characteristics identified for the job. Guidelines for Employee Selection

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Administer the tests to workers on the job as well as to new applicants. Observe the workers tested and have supervisors report on the performance of these workers. Analyze how the test scores and ratings relate to success on the job. If evidence is favorable, formulate an operational plan to utilize the data for selection purposes. If evidence is not favorable, select other instruments and get additional ratings. Systematically monitor and evaluate the system.

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Assessment centers are a group-oriented, standardized series of activities that provide a basis for judgments or predictions of human behaviors considered relevant to work performance in a particular organizational setting (Muchinsky, 2008). Assessment centers are used in human resource management to: decide who to select or promote diagnose strengths and weakness in work-related skills develop job-relevant skills (Thorton & Rupp, 2006). Assessment Centers

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Assessment should be based on clearly defined dimensions of the position or behavior in question. Multiple assessment techniques should be used. A variety of job-sampling techniques should be used. Familiarity with the job and the organization is needed; experience in the job or role is desirable. Thorough training in assessment center procedures is necessary for all observers and raters. Guidelines for Assessment Centers

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All pertinent behavior should be observed, recorded, and communicated to other raters and observers. Group discussion and decision-making procedures are used to integrate observations, rate dimensions, and make predictions. Clients should be assessed against clearly understood external norms, not against each other. Observers should guard against first impressions and other errors commonly made in rating and observation.

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Impact of technology Internet-based job centers Internet-based assessment Discrimination in employee assessments Honesty testing Current Issues in Employment Assessment

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