TQM - TQM introduction - Final year ECE

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TQM - TQM introduction - Final year ECE

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Dr.K.Baranidharan:

Dr.K.Baranidharan Present by…

Total Quality Management:

T otal Q uality M anagement T Q M 2 1 January 2008

QUQLITY:

QUQLITY The simplest way to answer the question “what is quality?” is to look it up in a dictionary. According to Webster’s II New Revised University Dictionary, quality is essential character: nature, an ingredient or distinguishing attribute : property, a character trait, superiority of kind, degree of grade or excellence . The term “quality” is derived from the Latin ( qualitas ) and means attribute , characteristic, property, condition

QUALITY means to PEOPLE:

QUALITY means to PEOPLE peoples’ perception of the value of a product or service under consideration and their expectation of performance , durability, reliability, etc. of that product or service . Therefore,quality means different things to different people.

Quality - Definitions:

Quality - Definitions Quality is excellence that is better than a minimum standard. It is conformance to standards and ‘fitness of purpose’ ISO 9000:2000 definition of quality- It is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requiremen ts . Quality is ‘ fitness for use ‘ of the product –Joseph Juran .

DIFINITION OF QUALITY :

DIFINITION OF QUALITY The concept and vocabulary of quality are elusive. Different people interpret quality differently . Few can define quality in measurable terms that can be proved operationalized . When asked what differentiates their product or service; The banker will answer” service ” The healthcare worker will answer “ quality health care” The hotel employee will answer “customer satisfaction” The manufacturer will simply answer “quality product”

Introduction::

Introduction: What is Quality? Some definitions that have gained wide acceptance in the corporate world “ Meeting or exceeding customer expectations ” Juran, one of the quality qurus, defined quality as; Fitness for Use

Quality and customer expectations:

Quality and customer expectations Quality is also defined as excellence in the product or service that fulfills or exceeds the expectations of the customer . There are 9 dimensions of quality that may be found in products that produce customer-satisfaction. Though quality is an abstract perception,it has a quantitative measure- Q= (P / E ) , where Q=quality, P= performance(as measured by the Mfgr .), and E = expectations( of the customer).

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Quality is not fine-tuning your product at the final stage of manufacturing,before packaging and shipping . Quality is in-built into the product at every stage from conceiving –specification & design stages to prototyping –testing and manufacturing stages. TQM philosophy and guiding principles continuously improve the Organisation processes and result in customer satisfaction.

Why care about quality:

Why care about quality increase productivity expand market share raise customer loyalty enhance competitiveness of the firm at a minimum, serve as a price of entry

Evolution of Quality Management: Quality Gurus:

Evolution of Quality Management: Quality Gurus Walter Shewart In 1920s, developed control charts Introduced term “ quality assurance” W. Edwards Deming Developed courses during World War II to teach statistical quality-control techniques to engineers and executives of companies that were military suppliers After war, began teaching statistical quality control to Japanese companies Joseph M. Juran Followed Deming to Japan in 1954 Focused on strategic quality planning Quality improvement achieved by focusing on projects to solve problems and securing breakthrough solutions Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2- 12

Evolution of Quality Management: Quality Gurus (cont.):

Evolution of Quality Management: Quality Gurus (cont.) Armand V. Feigenbaum In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality control and continuous quality improvement Philip Crosby In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far outweigh cost of preventing poor quality In 1984, defined absolutes of quality management—conformance to requirements, prevention, and “zero defects” Kaoru Ishikawa Promoted use of quality circles Developed “fishbone” diagram Emphasized importance of internal customer Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2- 13

The Three Quality Gurus:

The Three Quality Gurus Deming: the best known of the “early” pioneers, is credited with popularizing quality control in Japan in early 1950s.Today, he is regarded as a national hero in that country and is the father of the world famous Deming prize for quality.

JURAN:

JURAN Juran , like Deming was invited to Japan in 1954 by the union of Japanese Scientists and engineers. Juran defines quality as fitness for use in terms of design, conformance, availability, safety and field use. He focuses on top-down management and technical methods rather than worker pride and satisfaction.

Philip Crosby: author of popular book Quality is Free. His absolutes of quality are: :

Philip Crosby : author of popular book Quality is Free. His absolutes of quality are: Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not “goodness” The system for achieving quality is prevention, not appraisal. The performance standard is zero defects, not “that’s close enough” The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance, not indexes.

Dimensions of Quality:

Dimensions of Quality Dimension Meaning Performance Primary product characteristics Features Added features Conformance Meeting standards Reliability Consistency of performance Durability Useful life Service Resolution of complaints Response Human to human interface Aesthetics Sensory characteristics Reputation Past performance 1/1/2008 Sourabh Jain 17

Dimensions of Service Quality:

Dimensions of Service Quality Reliability : Perform promised service dependably and accurately. Example : receive mail at same time each day. Responsiveness : Willingness to help customers promptly. Example : avoid keeping customers waiting for no apparent reason.

Dimensions of Service Quality:

Dimensions of Service Quality Assurance : Ability to convey trust and confidence. Example : being polite and showing respect for customer. Empathy : Ability to be approachable. Example : being a good listener. T angibles : Physical facilities and facilitating goods. Example : cleanliness.

Dimensions of Quality: Services:

Dimensions of Quality: Services Time and timeliness how long must a customer wait for service, and is it completed on time? is an overnight package delivered overnight? Completeness : is everything customer asked for provided? is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered? Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2- 20

Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.):

Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.) Courtesy: how are customers treated by employees? are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? Consistency is same level of service provided to each customer each time? is your newspaper delivered on time every morning? Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2- 21

Dimensions of Quality: OTHER Service (cont.):

Dimensions of Quality: OTHER Service (cont.) Accessibility and convenience how easy is it to obtain service? does service representative answer you calls quickly? Accuracy is service performed right every time? is your bank or credit card statement correct every month? Responsiveness how well does company react to unusual situations? how well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customer’s questions? Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2- 22

INTRODUCTION TO TQM:

INTRODUCTION TO TQM What is TQM? TQM is the integration of all functions and processes within an organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services. The goal is customer satisfaction.

TQM:

TQM Total - made up of the whole Quality - degree of excellence a product or service provides Management - act, art or manner of planning, controlling, directing,…. Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence . Total Quality Management

What’s the goal of TQM?:

What’s the goal of TQM? “Do the right things right the first time, every time.” Total Quality Management

Basic Concepts of TQM:

Basic Concepts of TQM Customer Focus Continuous Process Improvement - Kaizen Employee Empowerment – Everyone is responsible for quality Quality is free - focus on defect prevention rather than defect detection for it is always cheaper to do it right the first time Benchmarking – Legally stealing other people’s ideas Customer-Supplier Partnerships Management by fact..by numbers..by data – Balanced scoreboard (financial, customer, process, learning)

Culture changes for TQM:

Culture changes for TQM Quality element OLD CULTURE TQM CULTURE Definition Product oriented Customer oriented Priorities Second to service and cost Equal to service and cost Decisions Short term Long term Emphasis Detection Prevention Errors Operations System Responsibility Quality Control Everyone Problem Solving Managers Teams Procurement Price Life cycle costs, Partnership Manager’s Role Plan, assign, control, enforce Delegate, coach, facilitate, mentor 1/1/2008 Sourabh Jain 27

CHARACTERISTICS OF TQM:

CHARACTERISTICS OF TQM TQM: is a management philosophy to guide a process of change. 2 :is a customer-oriented management system 3.Tqm starts at the top; it requires the leadership of top management and continuously inovolvment . 4.Tqm is a team work: it requires organisation wide involvement 5.Tqm call for planning 6.Tqm is a strategy for continuously improving performance at all levels and in all areas of responsibility. 7.Tqm is about achieving result by produces based approach 8.Tqm recognises internal customer-supplier relationships

PowerPoint Presentation:

29 Continuous Improvement Enhancing value through new products and services Reducing errors, defects, waste, and costs Increasing productivity and effectiveness Improving responsiveness and cycle time performance

Tools of TQM:

Tools of TQM Gurus Principles and Practices Tools and Techniques Products or Service Realization Customer Shewhart Deming Juran Feigenbaum Ishikawa Crosby Taguchi Benchmarking Information Technology Quality Management Systems Environmental Management System Quality function Deployment Quality by Design Failure Mode & Effect Analysis Products & Service Liability Total Productive Maintenance Management Tools Statistical Process Control Experimental Design Taguchi’s Quality Engineering People and Relationships: Approach: Leadership Continuous Process Improvement Customer Satisfaction Employee Involvement Measure: Supplier Partnership Performance Measures

Principles of TQM:

Principles of TQM 1.CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT must be met the first time, every time . 2.there must be agreed requirements for both internal and external customers 3.everybidy must involved from all levels and across all functions. 4 .regular communication (both formal and informal) with staff at all levels is must. 2 way communication at all levels must be promoted.

PowerPoint Presentation:

5.identifyinf training needs and relating them with individual capabilities and requirement is must . 6.top management participation and commitment is must. 7. a culture of continuous improvement must be established. 8.emphasis should be placed on purchasing and supplier management. 9.every job must add value.

PowerPoint Presentation:

10.quality improvement must eliminate waste and reduce total cost. 11.there must be a focus on the prevention of problems. 12.a culture of promoting creativity must be established . 13.performance measures is a must at organisation , department and individual levels. Ir helps to assess and meet objectives of quality. 14.there should be focus on team work.

Benefits of TQM:

Benefits of TQM Tangible Improved product quality Improved productivity Reduced quality cost Increased market and customer Increased profitability Reduced employee grievances Intangible Improved employee participation Improved Team work Improved working relationships Improved customer satisfaction Improved communication Enhancement of job interest Enhancement problem solving Better company image

Barriers of TQM:

B arriers of TQM 1. lack of management commitment 2. improper planning 3. lack of employees commitment 4. lack of effective communication 5. lack of interest 6 .non-application of proper tools and techniques 7. inadequate use of empowerment and team work

PowerPoint Presentation:

8.ineffective measurement techniques and lack of access to data and results . 9.misunderstanding about the concept of TQM 10.delay or non-implementation of quality improvement teams recommendations 11.inadequate attention to internal and external customers. 12.lack of faith in and support to TQM activities among management personnel .

Benefits of TQM:

Benefits of TQM Improved quality · Employees’ participation · Teamwork ·  Working relationships ·  Customers’ satisfaction ·  Employees’ satisfaction ·  Productivity ·     Communication ·      Profitability Market share

Dr.K.Baranidharan:

Dr.K.Baranidharan THANK YOU

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