Energy Flow and Chemical cycles

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Environmental Science Course Number: SCI1101:

Environmental Science Course Number: SCI1101 McCann College Carlisle, PA Mrs. Owens

Opening Activity #1 October 17, 2016:

Opening Activity #1 October 17, 2016 Sign the Attendance Sheet Complete the Student Information Sheet Read the Course Syllabus

Opening Activity #2:

Opening Activity #2 Use this time to work on your project presentation of the Flow of Energy and Chemicals through the Environment. Read the Rubric or Score Tool for this assignment.

Opening Activity #2 August 15, 2017:

Opening Activity #2 August 15, 2017 Sign the Attendance Sheet Turn-in Chapters 1 and 2 Review homework Sign-up or Confirm 1 st and 2 nd Choice for Environmental Science Final Project You will need the app KAHOOT! For today’s lesson.

Course Schedule:

Course Schedule Meeting Days/Times: Monday 5:30 PM ­-10:30 PM Break 1: 7:00 – 7:30 PM Break 2: 9:00 – 9:15 PM

Course Textbook:

Course Textbook Essential Environment: The Science Behind the Stories Edition: 5 th Authors: Withgott & Laposata, Publisher: Pearson, 2015 ISBN: 9780321984579

Part I: Lesson Goals:

Part I: Lesson Goals Flow of Energy through the environment Food Chains Food Webs Energy Pyramids

Flow of Energy and Chemical through an Environment:

Flow of Energy and Chemical through an Environment Energy Pyramid Food Chain Food Web Water or Hydrologic Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorous Cycle

Energy Flow:

9 Energy Flow Energy in an ecosystem originally comes from the sun Energy flows through Ecosystems from producers to consumers Producers (make food) Consumers (use food by eating producers or other consumers) copyright cmassengale

Producers:

10 Producers Sunlight is the main source of energy for most life on earth. Producers contain chlorophyll & can use energy directly from the sun copyright cmassengale

Autotrophs:

11 Autotrophs An Autotroph is any organism that can produce its own food supply! Autotrophs are also called Producers Plants, algae, some protists, & some bacteria are examples copyright cmassengale

Niche of a Producer:

12 Niche of a Producer Captures energy and transforms it into organic, stored energy for the use of living organisms. May be photoautotrophs using light energy (e.g. plants ) May be chemoautotrophs using chemical energy (e.g. cyanobacteri a) copyright cmassengale

Photoautotroph:

13 Photoautotroph Producer That Captures Energy from the sun by: Photosynthesis Adds Oxygen to the atmosphere Removes Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere Algae copyright cmassengale

Habitat of Photoautotrophs:

14 On Land Plants In The Sea Algae Tidal Flats & Salt Marshes Cyanobacteria Habitat of Photoautotrophs copyright cmassengale

Photosynthesis Equation:

Photosynthesis Equation 15

Chemoautotrophs:

16 Chemoautotrophs Capture energy from the bonds of inorganic molecules such as Hydrogen Sulfide Process is called Chemosynthesis Often occurs in deep sea vents or gut of animals Called a Black smoker (thermal vent) copyright cmassengale

Tube Worms living in Black Smoker:

17 Tube Worms living in Black Smoker copyright cmassengale

Tube Worms living in Black Smokers:

18 Tube Worms living in Black Smokers

Chemosynthesis Equation:

Chemosynthesis Equation 19

Ecosystem Productivity:

20 GPP  Gross primary productivity is the amount of energy the producer actually gets from the sun Ecosystem Productivity

Ecosystem Productivity:

21 NPP  Net primary productivity is the amount of energy the producer actually gets minus the amount used for respiration Ecosystem Productivity

KAHOOT!: Flow of Energy through an Environment, Part1:

KAHOOT!: Flow of Energy through an Environment, Part1 Download the app KAHOOT! Enter Game Pin  378216 When instructed START by pressing “OK, go!” You have 30 seconds to answer the question https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/d0f8e23b-5b65-470a-a7fe-c03941c5a39c

Flow of Energy through an Environment:

Flow of Energy through an Environment Issue: The net primary productivity (NPP)of energy has dropped in an ecosystem. How is the net primary productivity of energy in an ecosystem determined?

Flow of Energy through an Environment:

Flow of Energy through an Environment Issue: The net primary productivity (NPP)of energy has dropped in an ecosystem. What is the NPP amount of energy in a producer?

Consumers:

26 Consumers Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. (e.g. animals ) Herbivores Eat Only Plants Carnivores Eat Only Other Animals copyright cmassengale

Consumers:

27 Consumers Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. Omnivores (Humans) Eat Plants & Animals Detritivores (Scavengers) Feed On Dead Plant & Animal Remains (buzzards) Decomposers Fungi & Bacteria copyright cmassengale

Feeding Relationships:

28 Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from producers to various levels of consumers copyright cmassengale

Feeding Relationships:

29 Feeding Relationships Food Chain Simple Energy path through an ecosystem Food Web More realistic path through an ecosystem made of many food chains copyright cmassengale

Food Chain:

30 Food Chain Producer ( trapped sunlight & stored food) 1 st order Consumer 2 nd Order Consumer 3 rd Order consumer 4 th Order Consumer copyright cmassengale

Name the Producer, Consumers & Decomposers in this food chain::

31 Name the Producer, Consumers & Decomposers in this food chain: copyright cmassengale

Slide32:

32 copyright cmassengale

Slide33:

33

Food Web:

34 Food Web copyright cmassengale

Slide35:

35

KAHOOT!: Food Webs and Food Chains:

KAHOOT!: Food Webs and Food Chains Download the app KAHOOT! Enter Game Pin  512238 When instructed START by pressing “OK, go!” You have 30 seconds to answer the question https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/d1be74cf-8b1d-4977-9a61-68b000a4e296

Trophic Levels:

37 Trophic Levels Each Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level . Producers Always The First Trophic Level How Energy Enters The System Herbivores Second Trophic Level copyright cmassengale

Trophic Levels:

38 Trophic Levels Carnivores/Omnivores Make Up The Remaining Trophic Levels Each level depends on the one below it for energy. copyright cmassengale

Ecological Pyramids:

39 Ecological Pyramids Graphic Representations Of The Relative Amounts of Energy or Matter At Each Trophic Level May be: Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers copyright cmassengale

Energy Pyramid:

Energy Pyramid 40

Energy Pyramid:

41 Energy Pyramid copyright cmassengale

Biomass Pyramid:

42 Biomass Pyramid copyright cmassengale

Pyramid of Numbers:

43 Pyramid of Numbers copyright cmassengale

Primary Production to Higher Trophic Levels:

Primary Production to Higher Trophic Levels Three hundred trout are needed to support one man for a year. The trout, in turn, must consume 90,000 frogs, that must consume 27 million grasshoppers that live off of 1,000 tons of grass. -- G. Tyler Miller, Jr., American Chemist (1971)

Ecological Efficiency:

Ecological Efficiency The amount of energy that flows through an ecosystem. J= joule Units of work or energy

Ecological Efficiency:

Ecological Efficiency The energy available at each trophic level is determined by the amount of energy available from the previous level.

Ecological Efficiency:

Ecological Efficiency % Energy available at 2 nd trophic level = C1/P x 100 %Energy at 3 rd level = C2/C1 %Energy at 4 th level = C3/C2 P C1 C2 C3 4.6% 29.7% 13.6%

Ecological Efficiency:

Ecological Efficiency What is the percentage of energy at trophic level 3 in this energy efficiency pyramid?

Part II: Lesson Goals:

Part II: Lesson Goals Ecosystem Services Biogeochemical cycles

Ecosystem Services:

Ecosystem Services The goods and services provided by the ecosystem. Keeps the ecosystem functioning normally A check and balance system that has inputs and out puts

What is a system?:

What is a system? System : a collection of matter, parts, or components which are included inside a specified, often arbitrary, boundary. Example: Ecosystem Systems often have inputs and outputs. For dynamic systems, by definition, one or more aspects of the system change with time. Example of a simple dynamic system: bathtub or your ‘bank’ account. The boundary of a dynamic system is chosen for convenient conceptual separation for the system Pool Flux

Ecosystem Services:

Ecosystem Services Regulate atmospheric gases Cycle C, N, P, S, and nutrients Regulate temp. and precipitation Provide habitat for organisms Store and regulate freshwater supplies Protect against storms, floods and droughts Filter waste, recover nutrients, control pollution Control pests Produce food we eat Supply lumber, fuel, metals, fodder and fibers Provide recreation Provide aesthetics

What are biogeochemical cycles?:

What are biogeochemical cycles? Earth system has four parts Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere Biogeochemical cycles : The chemical interactions (cycles) that exist between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Abiotic (physio-chemical) and biotic processes drive these cycles Focus on carbon and water cycles (but could include all necessary elements for life). N - cycle weakly touched on!

Biogeochemical Cycles:

Biogeochemical Cycles The flow of essential elements from the environment through living organisms and back into the environment. Often referred to as Nutrient cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles:

Biogeochemical Cycles Hydrological cycle Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle Potassium cycle

Slide56:

Hydrological Cycle

Hydrological Cycle (water cycle):

Hydrological Cycle (water cycle) 1. Reservoir – oceans, air (as water vapor), groundwater, lakes and glaciers; evaporation, wind and precipitation (rain) move water from oceans to land 2. Assimilation – plants absorb water from the ground, animals drink water or eat other organisms which are composed mostly of water 3. Release – plants transpire, animals breathe and expel liquid wastes

Hydrological Cycle:

Hydrological Cycle 1. Reservoir – oceans, air (as water vapor), groundwater, lakes and glaciers; evaporation, wind and precipitation (rain) move water from oceans to land. 2. Assimilation – plants absorb water from the ground, animals drink water or eat other organisms which are composed mostly of water. 3. Release – plants transpire, animals breathe and expel liquid wastes.

Slide59:

Carbon Cycle

Carbon Cycle (carbon is required for building organic compounds):

Carbon Cycle (carbon is required for building organic compounds) 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as CO 2 ), fossil fuels (oil, coal), durable organic materials (for example: cellulose). 2. Assimilation – plants use CO 2 in photosynthesis; animals consume plants. 3. Release – plants and animals release CO 2 through respiration and decomposition; CO 2 is released as wood and fossil fuels are burned.

Carbon Cycle:

Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as CO 2 ), fossil fuels (oil, coal), durable organic materials (for example: cellulose). 2. Assimilation – plants use CO 2 in photosynthesis; animals consume plants. 3. Release – plants and animals release CO 2 through respiration and decomposition; CO 2 is released as wood and fossil fuels are burned.

Slide63:

Nitrogen Cycle

Changes in Atmospheric C02 - 1:

Changes in Atmospheric C0 2 - 1 Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA/ESRL (www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/cgg/trends)

Changes in Atmospheric C02 - 2:

Changes in Atmospheric C0 2 - 2 http://www.whrc.org/resources/online_publications/warming_earth/scientific_evidence.htm

Key Aspects of the Carbon Cycle:

Key Aspects of the Carbon Cycle Carbon is the skeleton of all life. Carbon dioxide is a critical gas: Taken up by plants in photosynthesis Released by plants and animals in respiration Released during decomposition (and fires) Greenhouse gas (greenhouse effect - your car in the sun)

Nitrogen Cycle (Nitrogen is required for the manufacture of amino acids and nucleic acids):

Nitrogen Cycle (Nitrogen is required for the manufacture of amino acids and nucleic acids) 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as N 2 ); soil (as NH 4 + or ammonium, NH 3 or ammonia, N0 2 - or nitrite, N0 3 - or nitrate

Nitrogen Cycle:

2. Assimilation – plants absorb nitrogen as either NH 4 + or as N0 3 - , animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other animals. The stages in the assimilation of nitrogen are as follows: Nitrogen Fixation: N 2 to NH 4 + by nitrogen-fixing bacteria (prokaryotes in the soil and root nodules), N 2 to N0 3 - by lightning and UV radiation. Nitrification: NH 4 + to N0 2 - and N0 2 - to N0 3 - by various nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle:

3. Release – Denitrifying bacteria convert N0 3 - back to N 2 ( denitrification ); detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back to NH 4 + (ammonification); animals excrete NH 4 + (or NH 3 ) urea, or uric acid. Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle:

Nitrogen Cycle 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as N 2 ); soil (as NH 4 + or ammonium, NH 3 or ammonia, N0 2 - or nitrite, N0 3 - or nitrate 2. Assimilation – plants absorb nitrogen as either NH 4 + or as N0 3 - , animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other animals. 3. Release – Denitrifying bacteria convert N0 3 - back to N 2 ; detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back to NH 4 + ; animals excrete NH 4 + , urea, or uric acid.

Slide71:

Phosphorus Cycle

Phosphorus Cycle (Phosphorus is required for the manufacture of ATP and all nucleic acids):

Phosphorus Cycle (Phosphorus is required for the manufacture of ATP and all nucleic acids) 1. Reservoir – erosion transfers phosphorus to water and soil; sediments and rocks that accumulate on ocean floors return to the surface as a result of uplifting by geological processes 2. Assimilation – plants absorb inorganic PO 4 3- (phosphate) from soils; animals obtain organic phosphorus when they plants and other animals 3. Release – plants and animals release phosphorus when they decompose; animals excrete phosphorus in their waste products

Phosphorus Cycle:

Phosphorus Cycle Reservoir – erosion transfers phosphorus to water and soil; sediments and rocks that accumulate on ocean floors return to the surface as a result of uplifting by geological processes Assimilation – plants absorb inorganic PO 4 3- (phosphate) from soils; animals obtain organic phosphorus when they plants and other animals Release – plants and animals release phosphorus when they decompose; animals excrete phosphorus in their waste products

Potassium Cycle:

Potassium Cycle

Potassium Cycle:

Potassium Cycle

Homework:

Homework Read Chapter 3 Complete questions 1-10, “Testing Your Comprehension” page 64 Complete question 5, “Think it Through,” page 65 Read Chapter 4 Complete questions 1-10, “Testing Your Comprehension” page 88 Complete question 5, “Think it Through,” page 88

Teacher Contact Information:

Teacher Contact Information Instructor: Mrs. Dorvera Owens Email: dorvera.owens@faculty.mccann.edu Cell phone: 717-698-4850

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