Chp 9: Drug Identification and Toxicology

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Slideshow of Chapter 9: Drug Identification and Toxicology from the Forensic Science: Fundamentals and Investigations textbook by Anthony Bertino.

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Chapter 9 Drug Identification and Toxicology By the end of this chapter you will be able to: :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 1 Chapter 9 Drug Identification and Toxicology By the end of this chapter you will be able to: Identify the five types of controlled substances Relate signs and symptoms of overdose with a specific class of drugs or toxins Describe the role of various types of toxins in causing death Discuss agents that may be used in bioterrorism Define and describe the goals and practice of toxicology All Rights Reserved South-Western / Cengage Learning © 2012, 2009

Introduction :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 2 Introduction Forensic toxicology helps determine cause-and-effect relationships between Exposure to a drug or other substance and Toxic or lethal effects from that exposure

Introduction :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 3 Introduction People can be exposed to toxic substances: intentionally— by treating illness or relieving pain accidentally— by harmful combinations or overdoses deliberately— by harming or killing others, or by suicide

Poison—Murder, Accidental Overdoses, and Drug Offences :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 4 Poison— Murder, Accidental Overdoses, and Drug Offences Poisoning causes less than ½ of 1% of all homicides Accidental drug overdoses are more common Drug offenders More than 50% of the federal prison population About 20% of the population in state prisons

Controlled Substances:

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 5 Controlled Substances Hallucinogens Narcotics Stimulants Anabolic steroids Depressants

Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens:

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 6 Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens Often derived from plants The effect and intensity of response to these drugs varies from person to person. Affects the user’s perceptions, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions

Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens:

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 7 Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens Affects of an overdose often include Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Panic attacks, anxiety, or psychosis

Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens:

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 8 Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens

Controlled Substances —Narcotics :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 9 Controlled Substances —Narcotics

Controlled Substances —Stimulants :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 10 Controlled Substances —Stimulants Increases feelings of energy and alertness Suppresses appetite Afterwards, depression often results Overdose affects include high blood pressure, agitation, confusion, seizures Stimulants tend to be highly addictive

Controlled Substances —Stimulants :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 11 Controlled Substances —Stimulants

Controlled Substances —Anabolic Steroids :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 12 Controlled Substances —Anabolic Steroids A chemical structure similar to testosterone Promote cell and tissue growth increasing bone mass and body muscle. Popular with weightlifters, bodybuilders, and other athletes What are some of the negative side effects?

Controlled Substances —Depressants:

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 13 Controlled Substances —Depressants Affects the central nervous system by increasing GABA activity, a neurotransmitter Increased GABA causes drowsiness and slowed brain activity Relieves anxiety and produces sleep Side effects include slurred speech and loss of coordination Mixing depressants with alcohol and other drugs increases potency and health risks

Controlled Substances —Alcohols :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 14 Controlled Substances —Alcohols In what way are alcohols toxic? How is grain alcohol produced? What are the classic symptoms of a hangover? What is the effect of alcohol on the central nervous system? What can chronic alcohol abuse cause?

Controlled Substances —Bacterial Toxins :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 15 Controlled Substances —Bacterial Toxins Tetanus (also called Lockjaw ) Produced by the Clostridium tetani bacteria Causes violent muscle spasms Botulism Produced by Clostridium botulinum—botulism Paralyzes muscles Causes irreversible damage to nerve endings Extremely deadly in very small amounts Most poisonous biological substance

Controlled Substances —Pesticides and Heavy Metals :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 16 Controlled Substances —Pesticides and Heavy Metals

Controlled Substances —Pesticides and Heavy Metals :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 17 Controlled Substances —Pesticides and Heavy Metals

Controlled Substances —Bioterrorism Agents :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 18 Controlled Substances —Bioterrorism Agents Ricin A poisonous protein in the castor bean Lethal in extremely small amounts Enters the body in various ways: inhaled as a mist or a powder ingested as food or drink injected into the body Causes death within a few hours

Controlled Substances—Bioterrorism Agents :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 19 Controlled Substances—Bioterrorism Agents Anthrax Bacillus anthracis, which forms endospores Spreads to humans from infected animals Enters the human body through: Inhalation; causing breathing problems that usually result in death Ingestion; becoming fatal in 25% to 60% of cases Absorption via the skin; leading to death in about 20% of untreated cases

. . . . . . . . . Summary. . . . . . . . :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 20 . . . . . . . . . Summary. . . . . . . . Forensic toxicology seeks to identify poisons or drugs in criminals and victims. Toxicology is important in studying cases of drug overdose and sporting violations.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . . . :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . . . Controlled substances fall into five main groups: Hallucinogens Narcotic Stimulants Steroids Depressants

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary :

Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary Poisons can be produced by living organisms. Pesticides and heavy metals are common poisons. Bioterrorism agents include ricin and anthrax.