Marine Invertebrates I

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Select Phyla of Marine Invertebrates

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Marine Invertebrates

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Phylum Porifera:  Sponges

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Phylum Porifera:  Sponges 1.  Non-moving (sessile) animals 2.  No nerves or muscles (no tissue differentiation) 3.  Mostly marine 4.  Filter feeders:  Collect food particles from water 5.  Most sponges are hermaphrodites. Hermaphrodites function as both male and female in sexual reproduction by producing eggs and sperm. **All other animals have true tissues

3 Basic Body Types of a Sponge:

3 Basic Body Types of a Sponge An ascon body type has a canal system that is basically like a sack filled with holes. A sycon body type's canal system is like the ascon type, but there is a slight folding of the sides of the sack. This folding provides much more surface area within the same space, benefiting the sponge by creating more places in which water can be filtered. A leucon body has a canal system that is like the sycon type, only the folded bag is folded again on itself, creating even greater surface area within the same volume.

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Phylum Porifera:  Sponges

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Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems. Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food, oxygen and remove wastes. They are called filter feeders because they feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Many sponges have a web-like skeleton of elastic protein fibers called spongin. This skeleton provides support for the sponge, but it is much more flexible than spicules. Species that just need a little support have skeletons made of only spongin. Others that need more support have skeletons made of only spicules. Finally, the species that need a lot of support have both spongin and spicules. The types of sponges you have used, including the one in the previous experiment, most likely have only spongin. You see, spicules are very rough and glassy and would scratch any surfaces being washed with the sponge. Thus, the kinds of sponges sold for our use rarely have spicules.

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Phylum Cnidarians

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Phylum Cnidarians Polyp and medusa forms of cnidarians. Radial symmetry with central digestive ( gastrovascular ) cavity. One opening in the gastrovascular cavity serves as both mouth and anus. Carnivores. Phylum name comes from specialized cells called cnidocytes. Cnidocytes are stinging cells used for defense and to capture prey.

Phylum Cnidarian Three Classes:

Phylum Cnidarian Three Classes

Phylum Cnidarian Class Anthozoa:

Phylum Cnidarian Class Anthozoa

Polyps: Sea anemones:

Polyps: Sea anemones

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Phylum Cnidarians Cnidarians display radial symmetry, having no true head, front, or back. The only differentiation in these animals is that they have a side with a mouth – an oral side, and a side opposite the mouth – an aboral side.

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Phylum Cnidarians Class Scyphozoa The body of an adult jellyfish consists of a bell shaped hood enclosing its internal structure and from which tentacles are suspended. Each tentacle is covered with cells called 'cnidocytes' (a type of venomous cell unique to the phylum 'Cnidaria'), that can sting or kill other animals.

Purple striped jelly, Pelagia panopyra:

Purple striped jelly, Pelagia panopyra Jellyfish lack basic sensory organs and a brain, however, their nervous systems and rhopalia (small sensory structures) allow them to perceive stimuli, such as light and odour and enable them to respond quickly. Learn more about the amazing “jellies” by watching this video.

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PHYLUM Cnidarian What is the purpose of the tentacles? Most jellyfish use these cells to secure prey or for defense. Nearly all of the cnidarians are carnivores, preying on other animals. Once they paralyze the prey, the tentacles move it to the central mouth and into the gastrovascular cavity, where digestion begins. When the material has been broken down to a certain point, the endodermal cells within the gastrovascular cavity can absorb it for further digestion. Because the cell layers of these animals are so thin, waste products can be removed directly from the body's endodermal and ectodermal cells to the surrounding water.

Phylum Cnidarain Class Hydrozoa:

Phylum Cnidarain Class Hydrozoa Most form colonies of tiny polyps. They attach to nearly any hard surface underwater including shells, plants, and coral formations. Some hydrozoans form drifting colonies of specialized polyps with flotation provided by a modified medusa that forms a “float.” Perhaps the most well-known of these is the Portuguese man-o-war. It is actually a well-defined colony of many individuals

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Phylum Cnidarians Reproduction

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Phylum Ctenophora The Comb jellies Resemble cnidarian medusas. Use cilia for locomotion. radially symmetric, gelatinous-bodied tentacles are not covered with nematocysts like those of cnidarians the tentacles are covered with cells called “lasso cells.” When the tentacles come into contact with the comb jelly's prey, the lasso cells burst open, releasing sticky threads that latch onto the hapless organism.

Phylum Platyhelminthes:  Flatworms:

Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

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Phylum Platyhelminthes:  Flatworms Sizes range from microscopic up to 20 meters long (tapeworms). Called flatworms because of their flattened shape Their dorsal and ventral sides are flat like a pancake. They have a simple brain – basically just a collection of nerves in the head – and many nerve cords running through the length of the body. They are mainly free-swimming carnivores. Many are parasites. They have a middle layer of tissue that forms muscles and contributes to other organs during development. There are three groups of flatworms: Class Turbellaria Group turbellarians Class Trematoda Group flukes Class Cestoidea Group Tapeworms

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria (flatworms) Mostly free-living (non-parasitic) Feed on small animals, dead animals Very flat for O 2 exchange.  They have no gas exchange organs.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria (flatworms)

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria These flatworms are mainly free-swimming carnivores. They are usually less than 10 centimeters long but are very often quite colorful. Turbellarians move with the help of cilia and mucus on their ventral side, which allow them to glide over the ocean bottom.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Trematoda Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes that contains two groups of parasitic flatworms, commonly referred to as "flukes". Live as parasites and usually harm their host. Trematodes form parasitic relationships with vertebrates. (For example, humans but often with intermediate hosts) In flukes, for example, the larval stage will inhabit clams, snails, or even fish. The adult fluke always inhabits a vertebrate, however, so a vertebrate must eat the organism that is host to the fluke's larva in order to become infected. Many fish and whales are hosts to adult flukes.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Trematoda The adult flatworms work their way through the food chain to infect humans or infect humans by direct contact.

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The life history of a blood fluke ( Schistosoma mansoni ).

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Cestoidea – Tapeworms Live as parasites Head contains suckers and hooks that lock onto the intestinal lining of the host. The rest of the body is mostly units called proglottids that are sex organs. Eggs transferred to new hosts by consuming fecal contaminated water.

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Anatomy of a tapeworm Cestoda is the name given to a class of parasitic flatworms, commonly called tapeworms, of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Its members live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults, and often in the bodies of various animals as juveniles.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Cestoidea – Tapeworms Size: Can grow up to 2ft and longer. Habitat: Dog tapeworms live in the intestines of meat-eating mammals, mainly dogs, wolves, and jackals. The larvae live in the liver, lungs, and muscles of plant-eating mammals such as sheep, cattle, camels, pigs, goats, and horses. The habitat includes areas where humans live and work, such as pastures, farms, and villages. Male and Female Differences: The tapeworm is hermaphroditic (both male and female) and it continues the life cycle by releasing egg-filled proglottids through the anus.

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Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Cestoidea – Tapeworms Life Cycle: They have life cycles that include an intermediate host. These hosts include fleas, fish, and domestic animals such as sheep and pigs. All of the adult forms of these tapeworms live in the cat’s or dog’s digestive system. It is interesting that tapeworms have no digestive systems themselves, but absorb nutrients through their skin from their host.

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Phylum Nemertea :  Proboscis (ribbon) worms These are commonly known as the ribbon worms or proboscis worms . They range in length from less than 0.5 cm to over 50 m. This is more than twice the average length of an adult blue whale. So at 50 m the ribbon worm is the world's longest animal. Up to 30 meters in length These worms have a hydraulically-operated proboscis that is used to capture prey. Closed circulatory system.

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Nemertea – Proboscis worms

Phylum Nematoda (round worms):

Phylum Nematoda (round worms) Though rarely seen, they are present in remarkably large quantities in the ocean sediments, feeding on bacteria and other organic matter. Many species are parasitic, residing in most groups of marine animals.

Phylum Nematoda (round worms):

It is the larvae from these species that are notorious for causing reactions among people eating raw fish Even though raw fish dishes may taste good, people should realize the possible risks from nematode larvae. Phylum Nematoda (round worms)

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Phylum Annelida:  Segmented worms Over 12,000 known species are grouped in three classes: the earthworms and freshwater worms (oligochaetes), the leeches (hirudineans), and the marine worms (polychaetes). Annelids are found throughout the world, from deep ocean bottoms to high mountain glaciers. They live in protected habitats such as mud, sand, and rock crevices, and in and among other invertebrate animals, such as sponges. Many live in tubes they secrete around themselves.

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Phylum Annelida:  Segmented worms Sizes range from 1 mm to 3 meters in length. Bilaterlly symmetrical Each segment contains a pair of excretory tubes called metanephridia . Annelids are hermaphrodites that cross-fertilize. Three classes: a.  Oligochaeta – earthworms b.  Polychaeta – mostly marine c.  Hirudinea – leeches

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Lophophorate Animals Animals that contain a lophophore, which is a horseshoe-shaped ciliated organ located near the mouth of brachiopods, bryozoans, and phoronids that is used to gather food.

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Phylum Bryozoa

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Phylum Ectoprocta The Bryozoa , also known as Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals [] , are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals

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Phylum Ectoprocta (bryozoans, moss animals)

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Membranipora membranacea Phylum Ectoprocta They are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia. Individuals in bryozoan (ectoproct) colonies are called zooids , since they are not fully independent animals. All colonies contain autozooids, which are responsible for feeding and excretion.

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Phylum Phoronida Phoronids (scientific name Phoronida) are a phylum of marine animals that filter-feed with a lophophore (a "crown" of tentacles), and build upright tubes of chitin to support and protect their soft bodies. They live in all the oceans and seas including the Arctic Ocean but excluding the Antarctic Ocean, and between the intertidal zone and about 400 meters down. Most adult phoronids are 2 cm long and about 1.5 mm wide, although the largest are 50 cm long.

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Phylum Phoronida Phoronis vancourverensis Phoronopsis californica The bottom end of the body is an ampulla (a flask-like swelling), which anchors the animal in the tube and enables it to retract its body very quickly when threatened. When the lophophore is extended at the top of the body, cilia (little hairs) on the sides of the tentacles draw food particles to the mouth, which is inside and slightly to one side of the base of the lophophore. Unwanted material can be excluded by closing a lid above the mouth or be rejected by the tentacles, whose cilia can switch into reverse.

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Phylum Phoronida

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Phylum Brachiopoda Lamp shells Brachiopods , phylum Brachiopoda , are marine animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs. Brachiopod valves are hinged at the rear end, while the front can be opened for feeding or closed for protection.

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Terebratalia transversa Phylum Brachiopoda Two major groups are recognized, articulate and inarticulate. Articulate brachiopods have toothed hinges and simple opening and closing muscles, while inarticulate brachiopods have untoothed hinges and a more complex system of muscles used to keep the two halves aligned. In a typical brachiopod a stalk-like pedicle projects from an opening in one of the valves, known as the pedicle valve, attaching the animal to the seabed but clear of silt that would obstruct the opening.

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Phylum Brachiopoda

Summary:

Summary

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