cohesion

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Coherence/cohesion: 

Coherence/cohesion In order to be understood, messages are divided into chunks chunks are linked Coherence: The relationships which link the meanings of utterances in a discourse Development of an idea .. The plot The meaning A: Phone!! B: I’m in the bath .

Cohesion: 

Cohesion The grammatical and lexical relationships between the different elements of the text. Coherent: Watford Junction: Not coherent: Colourless green ideas sleep furiously Jabberwock?

jabberwock : 

jabberwock ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!”

Slide4: 

He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought— So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought. And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back.

Slide5: 

“And, hast thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!” He chortled in his joy. ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. By Lewis Caroll

Information chunks are linked: 

Information chunks are linked Jabbawock in a coherent order?… Superordinate Topic: What text is about Topic: main participants Subordinate topic: the details, relationships Who did what to whom

Argumentative text structure: 

Argumentative text structure Situation (introduces background material) Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification) Solution (statement of the desirable condition, induction) Evaluation (implementation)

Theme: 

Theme The point of departure/linked to context The first clause constituent Coincides (unmarked)with expected element: Subject Also part of theme: Conjunctions (and, but, or) Conjuncts (however) Disjuncts (personally)

Theme/rheme: 

Theme/rheme The greenhouse effect is ….. Topic/Given Dependent on Immediate Co(n)text new Prepares the ground for the…

Prepare the speaker for: 

Prepare the speaker for I (declarative) Can (interrogative) There No information Once upon a time

Signal to hearer the speaker’s angle: 

Signal to hearer the speaker’s angle THEME I The noise It’s the noise What I can’t stand The noise, RHEME can’t stand the noise I can’t stand I can’t stand is the noise I can’t stand it

And assumptions about what the reader knows: 

And assumptions about what the reader knows I can’t stand the noise Nothing (there is a noise) The noise I can’t stand Implies contrast with something else (though they’re nice people) It’s the noise I can’t stand Shared understanding that “I can’t stand something” What I can’t stand is the noise Restricts/modifies what the listener thought The noise, I can’t stand it In answer to a question about the noise

Fronting/inversion of theme-rheme: 

Fronting/inversion of theme-rheme SVOA I stopped work at 4 At 4 I stopped work

Cohesive link : 

Cohesive link He planned to complete the painting in time for the opening ceremony. This he did, but only just in time He planned to complete the painting in time for the opening ceremony. He did this, but only just in time They looked out to sea. On the horizon he could see a number of ships They looked out to sea. He could see a number of ships on the horizon

Dramatic effect (formal, theatrical): 

Dramatic effect (formal, theatrical) SVOA I have no idea where he went. Where he went, I have no idea My ambition is to read all Shakespeare’s plays To read all Shakespeare’s plays is my ambition

Dummy theme, to move theme to rheme: 

Dummy theme, to move theme to rheme My ambition is to read all Shakespeare’s plays It is my ambition to read all Shakespeare’s plays I haven’t got any money The fact is.. The point is The problem is

Problem areas - conjuncts: 

Problem areas - conjuncts On the other hand Balances 2 facts, ideas that contrast, but do not contradict each other: Arranged marriages are still common in Pakistan. In Britain, on the other hand, they are unheard of I like the mountains whereas/while she likes the sea

Emphasise a contrast: 

Emphasise a contrast However, nevertheless, still, yet, in spite of this Britain came last in the event. However/Neverthess we did have one success Afterthought .. I don’t like the job much. Still, the money’s ok. Surprising contrast He’s a communist, yet dresses at the height of fashion I managed to get to the meeting in spite of the delay

Counter argument: 

Counter argument However, even so, but, nevertheless, nonetheless, all the same, still 1. Speaker argues in 1 direction 2. Speaker agrees with general counter point 3. Dismisses it and returns to point 1

Concession and counter-argument: 

Concession and counter-argument It is true (what you say) even so (what I say Certainly ( “ ) All the same… Of course Nonetheless… It’s true Still …

Adding: 

Adding Moreover – v. formal Furthermore – formal What is more – informal Besides In any case

moreover: 

moreover It was a good car, and moreover the price was extremely fair The PM is unwilling to admit any errors. Moreover, …

Besides/in any case: 

Besides/in any case Adds an extra more conclusive fact or argument. Why are you trying to get a job as a web designer? You hardly know what a web page looks like, and besides you hate computers

Logical conseguence: 

Logical conseguence Show what is said follows logically from what was said before = As a result/for that reason/because of that We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project I missed the last flight and therefore was obliged to spend the night at the airport

So (neutral to informal): 

So (neutral to informal) Conjunction - therefore I was getting tired, so … During the race my knees started hurting, so… I was lost, so …

Conjunction – sentence beginning: 

Conjunction – sentence beginning Checking So, we leave at 0800 So, you get the shopping, while I Discovery So, that’s where you’ve been So, that’s why you never returned my message Anaphoric … So, there I was, standing on the corner… So, to return to what I was saying Cataphoric …(intro. Subject) So, when did you get back?

Signalling relations, what makes a text: Cohesion: 

Signalling relations, what makes a text: Cohesion Semantic relations holding between sentences or propositions Logical sequence relations Eg condition-consequence If the royal portrait were not used … then something else would be She lit the fire by rubbing 2 sticks together (achievement) (instrument)

Lexical signalling: 

Lexical signalling The most apparant means whereby a clause relation may be signalled to the reader/listener is by subordinators and conjuncts: Subordinator: because Conjuncts: And, but; So … …. (partial) repetition and deletion

Cohesive tie: 

Cohesive tie Substitution Reference anaphoric: George likes Mildred, and she likes him cataphoric: That’s the beautiful Mildred ellipsis… Do you like her? No (I don’t like her) Why not? (Why don’t you like her?) Conjunction …………..and……………..

Lexical relations: 

Lexical relations Same unit repetition Simple Writers do not hesitate. Writers communicate thoughts Derived Writers do not hesitate. They write down their thoughts

English repetition: 

English repetition In addition, European investors financed much of America’s boom and have since suffered big losses. As the dollar falls, those losses will swell. In Italian: explicit relative clause introduced by che: Inoltre, gli europei hanno finanziato gran parte del boom ameriano, soffrendo notevoli perdite, che sono aumentate e aumenteranno con la caduta del dollaro

Slide32: 

In othr words, Japan’s economy continues to shrink … may also damage Japan’s recovery Italian paraphrase In altre parole, l’economia del Giappone continua a contrarsi in termini nominali,.-..potrebbe danneggiare la ripresa del paese nipponico

Partial repetition: 

Partial repetition Starting with policy, the Bank of England is under a legal obligation to pursue an activist approach…the Bank treats economic weakness and … Italian superordinate (hypernym) and ellipsis. Per quanto riguarda la politica, la banca d’Inghilterra ha l’obbligo legale di di un approccio attivo…l’istituto considera una minaccia sia la debolezza economica

Different unit repetition: 

Different unit repetition Synonymy It’s healthy to exercise every day. After working out at the fitness centre I feel like a new man Simple They’ve built several bridges this year. This construction company is extremely efficient Derived Instantial relations The teacher laughed. I knew Kitty was a cheerful person Related sets table and chairs

Opposites/Antynomy: 

Opposites/Antynomy Simple Now Mildred hates George. Well , you can’t love all the time that’s the top and bottom of it Derived What Mildred now feels is hatred but she used to like him

Whole v part relations: 

Whole v part relations Tropes/figures of speech – words used in other than literal meaning are based on similarity Similarity: the two referents physically resemble one another in some way: Face and hands (part) of a clock (whole) Chip (part of potato) of wood (whole)

Similarity - Simile: 

Similarity - Simile Direct comparison with like/ as Quiet as a mouse Mad as a hatter Metaphor Implied comparison, using a word to mean something similar to literal meaning Mousy smile Pig! Worm! Monster! Angel!

Othello: Emilia : 

Othello: Emilia Tis not a year or two but show us a man, they are all stomachs and we all but food; They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, They belch us. (iii, iv) • word: stomach • object: men

Part/whole: 

Part/whole Contiguity. Not “resemblance” but actual relation in real world: spatial, tigers are animals A mother has many mouths to feed All hands on deck Boot someone out of the office 10 Downing Street issued a statement

Hyponomy: 

Hyponomy Not all birds sing – but cuckoos do the tiger is an endangered animal birds cuckoo animal tiger includes hypernym hyponym

Meronymy - Synedoche: 

Meronymy - Synedoche actual part/whole: Meronym actual relation, concept part of another concept knob – door I can’t use my hands. I’ve hurt my fingers. a button on the jacket Synedoche:\Part to describe whole All hands on deck Very nice motor. How does she handle? I got the boot Many mouths to feed

Figurative: attribute, proximity: 

Figurative: attribute, proximity Metonym figurative attribute, physical proximity The crown refering to the monarch At Number 10 the news was bad. The prime minister looked shocked Labour isn’t working

Intertextual punning: 

Intertextual punning Nineteen ninety two is not a year I shall look back on with undiluted pleasure. In the words of one of my more sympathetic correspondents, it has turned out to be an ‘Annus Horribilis’. (24/2/93) Anaphoric ….

Philip Larkin Annus Mirabilispoetry anthology (1922-1985) : 

Philip Larkin Annus Mirabilispoetry anthology (1922-1985) Annus Mirabilis Sexual intercourse began In nineteen sixty-three (which was rather late for me) - Between the end of the "Chatterley" ban And the Beatles' first LP.

Slide45: 

Up to then there'd only been/A sort of bargaining, A wrangle for the ring,/A shame that started at sixteen And spread to everything. Then all at once the quarrel sank:/Everyone felt the same, And every life became/A brilliant breaking of the bank, A quite unlosable game. So life was never better than In nineteen sixty-three (Though just too late for me) - Between the end of the "Chatterley" ban And the Beatles' first LP.

Intertextual: 

Intertextual Even before the close of February, the Italian government is already well into its own “annus horribilis”. Mr Amato’s political mentor and Socialist Party leader Bettino Craxi, finally resigned after an eighth cautionary warrant from judges in the Milan scandal. The Guardian Object: Italian politics Image: annus horribilis

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