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  Edward T. O'Neill, OCLC, Dublin, OH Lois Mai Chan, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY ALA Annual 2004 FAST A Faceted LCSH-Based Subject Vocabulary

FAST Team : 


Need for New Approach to Subject Vocabulary for Electronic Resources: 

Need for New Approach to Subject Vocabulary for Electronic Resources Phenomenal growth of electronic resources, Emergence of numerous metadata schemes, Need for a new approach to subject access, OCLC’s search for a subject access system for Dublin Core metadata records.

Schema Requirements : 

Schema Requirements Simple in structure and syntax, Usable by non-catalogers and in non-library environments, Optimal access points, Semantic interoperability to enable users to search across discipline boundaries, Compatible with MARC, Dublin Core, and other popular metadata schemas, Easy to maintain and amenable to automatic authority control and computer manipulation.


Options Three basic choices in selecting an indexing/subject heading schema for Internet resources: Develop a new schema, Use an existing schema(s), Adapt or modify an existing schema. (cf. ALA/Subcommittee on Metadata and Subject Analysis(1997-2001)

Advantages of LCSH: 

Advantages of LCSH Rich vocabulary covering all subject areas Synonym and homograph control Extensive hierarchical and associative references among terms De facto standard controlled vocabulary, extensively used by libraries, contained in millions of bibliographic records. Long and well-documented history, Strong institutional support of the Library of Congress.

LCSH in the Electronic Environment: 

LCSH in the Electronic Environment Syntax based on pre-coordination requires trained and skilled personnel Does not lend itself to automatic indexing or authority control Many pre-coordinated headings assigned to catalog records do not appear in the list

FAST schema: 

FAST schema LCSH vocabulary Simplified syntax Designed for an online environment A post-coordinated faceted vocabulary Hierarchy is retained within facets Retains the advantages of a controlled vocabulary

Eight Facets: 

Eight Facets Topical -Sailing—Safety ---measures Personal Names Dewey, Melvil, 1851 -1931 Geographic Florida—Orlando Form (Genre) Bibliography Chronological 1939 - 1945 Corporate Names American Library ---Association Conference/Meetings Uniform Titles

Authority Records: 

Authority Records FAST will use MARC 21 formats The MARC 21 bibliographic and authority formats were revised to accommodate FAST by authorizing the x48 (Chronological) fields Authority records will be created for all FAST headings except chronological— chronological authority record will be created only when required for references

Topical Headings: 

Topical Headings Secret service Urbanization Hospitals—Administration—Data processing Cataloging—Analytical entry Photoconductivity—Measurement Woodwind trios (English horn, oboes (2)) Sailing—Safety measures

Topical Authority Record: 

Topical Authority Record 001    1171252 003    OCoLC 005    20021209141603.0 008    021209nneanz||babn n ana d 040    OCoLC $b eng $c OCoLC $f fast 150    Sailing $x Safety measures 688    LC usage 7 (1999) 688 WC usage 25 (1999) 750  0 Sailing $0(DLC)sh 85116532

FACET: Geographic: 

Geographic names will be established and applied in indirect order, [Florida—Orlando not Orlando (Florida)] First level geographic names will be limited to names from the Geographic Area Codes table (e.g., Ohio, France, Great Lakes, etc.) Other names will be entered as subdivisions under the smallest first level name in which it is fully contained (Europe—Curzon Line) Geographic Area Codes are included in all authority records for geographic names FACET: Geographic

Geographic Headings: 

Geographic Headings Great Lakes [nl] Germany [e-gx] Mars [zma] Japan—Tokyo Metropolitan Area [a-ja] Maryland—Worcester County [n-us-md] Slovenia—Maribor [e-xv] England—Chilton (Oxfordshire) [e-uk-en] India—Limbdi (Princely State) [a-ii] Califorina—San Francisco—Chinatown [n-us-ca] Alaska—Rowan Bay (Bay) [n-us-ak]

Geographic Authority Record: 

Geographic Authority Record 001    2130675 003    OCoLC 005 20040512160245.0 008    040512nneanz||babn n ana d 040    OCoLC   $b eng   $c OCoLC   $f fast 043    n-us-ak 151    Alaska   $z Rowan Bay (Bay) 670    GNIS, Feb. 10, 2004   $b (Rowan Bay; bay; 7 mi. N of Tebenkof Bay, on W coast of Kuiu I., Alex. Arch.; Wrangell- Petersburg Census Area, Alaska; 56º40'02" N, 134ºp14'34" W; another Rowan Bay, pop. place in Wrangell- Petersburg Census Area) 751  0 Rowan Bay (Alaska : Bay) $0 (DLC)sh2004005090

Form (Genre): 

Form (Genre) Case studies Abstracts Census Rules Dictionaries Folklore Bibliography—Union lists Periodicals Guidebooks

Form Authority Record: 

Form Authority Record 001    [unassigned] 003    OCoLC 005    20040609141603.0 008    040609nneanz||babn n ana d 040    OCoLC $b eng $c OCoLC $f fast 155 Guidebooks 455    Guides 455 Identification 455 Outdoor books 688    LC usage 69,842 (2004) 688 WC usage 335,129 (2004) 785 0 Guidebooks $0 (DLC) sh 99001297

Personal and Corporate Names : 

Personal and Corporate Names Headings for persons: Woodward, Bob Dewey, Melvil, 1851-1931 Kennedy family Edward II, King of England, 1284-1327 Headings for corporate bodies: OCLC Bayerische Motoren Werke United States. Coast Guard Bodleian Library

Chronological (Period): 

Chronological (Period) FAST chronological headings consist of only a single date or a date range Limited to a single chronological heading per bibliographic record Authority records will only be established when needed for references or linkages Headings consist of a starting and ending date but will be formatted for display: 1945 1942 – 1945 Since 1987 221 B.C. - 220 A.D. From 500 to 570 million years ago [Cambrian]

Chronological Events Subdivisions: 

Chronological Events Subdivisions In LCSH, it is common to include topical information in chronological ($y) subdivisions: Buffalo (N.Y.) $x History $y Civil War, 1861-1865 Grenada $x History $y American Invasion, 1983 For these subdivisions, a FAST topical heading is also created: American Invasion (Grenada, 1983) Civil War (United States, 1861-1865)

Faceting of LCSH: 

Faceting of LCSH

Authority Control: FAST vs. LCSH : 

Authority Control: FAST vs. LCSH In LCSH, while many headings are established; most assigned headings are synthesized by catalogers based on rules For FAST, all headings (except chronological) are established and only established headings can be assigned

Authority Control: FAST vs. LCSH : 

Authority Control: FAST vs. LCSH *http:\\

LCSH Topical Coverage: 

LCSH Topical Coverage Not established; Not used by LC Not established; Used by LC Established

Valid But Not Established LCSH: 

Valid But Not Established LCSH Established Main heading/free-floating subdivision(s): Burns and scalds—Patients—Family relationships Travel—Early works to 1800 Free-floating phrase headings Woodwind trios (English horn, oboes (2)) Geographic subdivisions Banks and banking—United States Multiples United States. Navy—History—War of 1812

LCSH Pattern Subdivisions: 

LCSH Pattern Subdivisions Free-floating subdivisions controlled by pattern headings are one example of how an established heading can be expanded. The scope of patterns is limited to particular types (patterns) of headings. Burns and scalds $x Family relationships $x Patients By establishing the complete heading in FAST, the complexity of rules under which they were originally established is effectively hidden.


Database: Available as an OCLC SiteSearch database The authority file is currently an alpha version—it is incomplete, contained known errors, and will be frequently updated and corrected The database may be unavailable for extended periods The current version of FAST is not yet sufficiently developed for use in any type of application; Beta version expected in July

Future Development Plans: 

Future Development Plans Update and resynchronize all FAST headings with LCSH Develop the conference/meetings facet Develop the uniform titles facet Expand the geographic names based on usage data Add information from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Revise and expand the form (genre) facet

Advantages of FAST: 

Advantages of FAST Simple syntax A tiered approach to allow different levels of subject representation Accommodate different retrieval models Able to accommodate both precoordinate and postcoordinate indexing and retrieval More amenable to computer-assisted indexing Facilitate computer-assisted authority control Easier and more economical to maintain than a highly enumerated vocabulary Facilitate mapping of subject data and cross-domain searching


Summary LCSH Vocabulary Faceted Hierarchical Fully established Compatible with LCSH



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