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Systems A system is a collection of related parts that interact in some organized way. Materials, energy and information that enter the system from outside are Inputs. Materials, energy, and information that leave are outputs


A system can be: made up of many sub-systems be part of a larger system. E.g. An automobile is a system made up many smaller systems like the engine system, brake system and a fuel system. Each of these systems are connected to one or more other systems. A change in one system will affect the others.

Earth Systems: 

Earth Systems Earth-Universe Biosphere Cryosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Solid Earth

Earth-universe system: 

Earth-universe system Earth is part of the solar system, which is part of the Milky Way galaxy, one of billions of galaxies in the Universe.


The sun is the source of nearly all the Earth’s energy. The amount of energy the Earth receives varies as it revolves around the sun


The Moon affects the Earth most notably through the tides These changes in sea level have a major impact on Earth systems


Extraterrestrial bodies can have a drastic impact on Earth Earth was formed from extraterrestrial material Some scientists believe life came from extraterrestrial bodies colliding with our Planet The impact-extinction theory states that an asteroid causes the mass extinction at the K-T boundary

The Atmosphere: : 

The Atmosphere: It surrounds the Earth & is one of the main reasons we have life on this planet. It contains gases that allow organisms to respire Regulates the flow of solar energy Transports heat and water vapor from region to region It also shields us from harmful radiation from the sun.


The Main gases in Earth’s Atmosphere are: Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 20% Argon 0.93% Carbon Dioxide 0.035% And other trace gases like: Helium, Methane, Nitrous oxides, hydrogen, ozone, Xenon

Hydrosphere: : 

Hydrosphere: This is what makes our planet unique in the solar system is that it contains liquid water. This water acts as a reservoir for heat and carbon dioxide It is the main agent in weathering and erosion. The hydrosphere along with the atmosphere is also one of the driving forces behind our weather and climate.

Cryosphere: : 

Cryosphere: This system contains all the frozen water on the planet. The amount of ice effects both sea levels and climates. For most of the Earth’s history, frozen water has not been present. 2% of the Earth’s water is frozen 1/10th of the Earth is covered by ice


Biosphere: This is the area occupied by living organisms. In resent years this has expanded with the finding of life deep underground. The biosphere has played a major role in the shaping of our planet and still has a major impact on climate, erosion and weather patterns.


Animals and plants have a major impact on our atmosphere Vegetation affects erosion, absorb of solar energy

Solid Earth: : 

Solid Earth: This includes all bulk of our planet, which is made of rock. The solid earth can be divided into a number of sub-systems which all play a major role on Earth’s climate, weather, magnetic field, atmosphere and the existence of life.


Volcanoes release massive amounts of gases into the atmosphere

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