Short Story Terminology

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Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Allegory – a story in which people, things and actions represent an idea or a generalization about life; often contains strong moral lessons Allusion – a reference in literature to a person, event, or literary work Apostrophe – the addressing of someone or something, usually not present, as though present (O Captain! My Captain!... Death, be not proud)

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Catastrophe – the concluding action of a drama, especially a classical tragedy, following the climax and containing a resolution of the plot. The finale even in a romance or a dramatic piece; a denoument, as a death in a tragedy, or a marriage in a comedy

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Character – a person or thing in a story Antagonist – is the person or thing working against the protagonist Dynamic – one that undergoes some type of change because of the action of the plot Flat – embodies one or two qualities, ideas, or traits that can be readily accessible to readers (could be stereotypes “dumb blonde” or “evil stepmother”) Main – central character to the story – see protagonist Minor – less important character in a literary work, but still is needed for explanation or development of plot

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Protagonist – central character who engages the reader’s interest and empathy Round – display inconsistencies and internal conflicts found in most real people Static – one that doesn’t change throughout the work, reader’s knowledge of character does not grow

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Tragic Hero – A tragic hero has the potential for greatness but is doomed to fail. He is trapped in a situation where he cannot win. He makes some sort of tragic flaw, and this causes his fall from greatness. Even though he is a fallen hero, he still wins a moral victory, and his spirit lives on. TRAGIC HEROES ARE:     BORN INTO NOBILITY: RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR OWN FATE ENDOWED WITH A TRAGIC FLAW DOOMED TO MAKE A SERIOUS ERROR IN JUDGEMENT EVENTUALLY, TRAGIC HEROES   FALL FROM GREAT HEIGHTS OR HIGH ESTEEM REALIZE THEY HAVE MADE AN IRREVERSIBLE MISTAKE FACES AND ACCEPTS DEATH WITH HONOR MEET A TRAGIC DEATH FOR ALL TRAGIC HEROES THE AUDIENCE IS AFFECTED BY PITY and/or FEAR

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Character Development – how a character develops throughout the story Character Sketch – short, but detailed description of a character Characterization – creation of characters for a play or story Direct – telling the audience/reader exactly what you want them to know about the characters (Killer is a really mean guy.) Indirect – showing the reader the character instead of telling them about the character

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Climax – high point of the story; is the turning point, and usually the most intense point in the story Conflict – the problem or struggle in a story that triggers the action. There are five basic types: person vs. person, person vs. society, person vs. self, person vs. nature, person vs. fate/God Connotation – creating associations while also using explicit definitions

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Denotation – dictionary definition Denouement – the outcome, solution, unraveling, or clarification of a plot in a drama; final revelation or outcome Dialect – a type of information diction, dialects are spoken by definable groups of people from a particular geographic region, economic group, or social class. Writers often use dialect to contrast and express differences in educational, class, social, and regional backgrounds of their characters

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Dialogue – the conversations carried on by the characters in a literary work Epiphany – in fiction, when a character suddenly experiences a deep realization about himself or herself; a truth which is grasped in an ordinary rather than melodramatic moment Flashback – going back to an earlier time in a story for the purpose of making something present clearer

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Foil – character in a work whose behavior and values contrast with those of another character in order to highlight the distinctive temperament of that character ( usually the protagonist) Foreshadowing – to be a sign of something to come; indicate or suggest before hand Imagery – the words of phrases a writer selects to create a certain picture in the reader’s mind, usually based on sensory detail.

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Irony – combination of circumstances or a result that is opposite of what is or might be expected or considered appropriate Dramatic – where the reader/audience sees a character’s mistake or misunderstandings, but the character does not Situational –there is a great difference between the purpose of a particular action and the result. Verbal – where the writer says one thing and means another

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Legend – an unverified story handed down from earlier times, especially one popularly believed to be historical Metaphor – a figure of speech containing an implied comparison, in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of one the applied to another ( all the world’s a stage) Mood – the feeling a piece of literature arouses in the reader; happiness, sadness, peacefulness

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Motif – an often-repeated idea or theme in literature Myth – a traditional story that attempts to explain a natural phenomenon or justify a certain practice of belief of a society Narrator – a person who relates a story or account; a person who reads descriptive or narrative passages, as between the scenes of a play

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Paradox – a statement that seems contrary to common sense, yet may, in fact, be true Plot – the action or sequence of events in a story; contains 5 basic elements: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and denouement

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Point of View – the vantage point from which the story is told 1st Person – point of view where a central character or another minor character tells the story using “I” 3rd Person – Point of view where a voice outside of the story tells the story using “he” or “she” to describe characters and actions Limited / Objective – when the narrator limits the action and information/or the reader receives to that which centers on and can be known by only one character in the story Omniscient – having infinite knowledge; knowing all things (usually 3rd person)

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Repetition – the act of repeating something over and over again Setting – to place in a given locale; to make up or arrange on the stage Simile – a comparison of two unlike things in which a word of companion (like or as) is used

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Stream of Consciousness – a style of writing in which the thoughts and feelings of the writer are recorded as they occur Symbol – a person, place, or thing or even used to represent something else Syntax – the ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns such as phrase, clause, and sentences; poets often manipulate syntax, changing conventional word order, to place certain emphasis on particular words

Short Story Terminology: 

Short Story Terminology Theme – the statement about life a particular work is trying to get across to the reader Tone – the overall feeling, or effect, created by a writer’s words. May be serious, mock-serious, humorous, or satirical