Chapter 23“Functional Groups”: Chapter 23 “Functional Groups” Pre-AP Chemistry
Charles Page High School
Stephen L. Cotton Section 23.1 - Introduction to Functional Groups: Section 23.1 - Introduction to Functional Groups OBJECTIVES:
Explain how organic compounds are classified. Section 23.1 - Introduction to Functional Groups: Section 23.1 - Introduction to Functional Groups OBJECTIVES:
Identify halocarbons and the IUPAC rules for naming halocarbons. Section 23.1 - Introduction to Functional Groups: Section 23.1 - Introduction to Functional Groups OBJECTIVES:
Describe how halocarbons can be prepared. Functional Groups: Functional Groups Most organic chemistry involves substituents
often contain O, N, S, or P
also called “functional groups”- they are the chemically functional part of the molecule, and are the non-hydrocarbon part Functional Groups: Functional Groups Functional group - a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound, that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions.
What is the best way to classify organic compounds? By their functional groups. Functional Groups: Functional Groups The symbol “R” is used to represent any carbon chains or rings
Important: Table 23.1, page 726 -- shows some of the major categories, and their functional groups - KNOW THESE.
Table 23.2, p. 727 - alkyl groups Halogen Substituents: Halogen Substituents Halocarbons - class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine
General formula: R-X (X = halogen)
Naming? Name parent as normal, add the halogen as a substituent (or prefix) - Examples on page 726 Halogen Substituents: Halogen Substituents Common names…p.726
The more highly halogenated the compound is, the higher the b.p. (see Table 23.3, page 728)
Few halocarbons found in nature
but, readily prepared and used
halothane (Fig. 23.3, p.727) and also the hydrofluorocarbons Substitution Reactions: Substitution Reactions Organic reactions often much slower than inorganic reactions
must break strong covalent bond
trying to find new catalysts to use
Substitution - an atom (or group of atoms) replaces another atom or group of atoms Substitution Reactions: Substitution Reactions A halogen (shown as “X”) can replace a hydrogen to make a halocarbon:
R-H + X2 R-X + HX
Sunlight is often a sufficient catalyst:
CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl UV light Substitution Reactions: Substitution Reactions Treating benzene with a halogen? Examples on Page 729
Halogens on carbon chains are readily displaced by hydroxide ions (OH1-) to make an alcohol + a salt:
R-X + OH1- R-OH + X1-
CH3-Cl + NaOH CH3-OH + NaCl Methanol + sodium chloride Substitution Reactions: Substitution Reactions CH3-I + KOH CH3-OH + KI
CH3CH2Br + NaOH CH3CH2OH + NaBr Iodomethane Methanol Bromoethane Ethanol Section 23.2Alcohols and Ethers: Section 23.2 Alcohols and Ethers OBJECTIVES:
Identify how alcohols are classified and named. Section 23.2Alcohols and Ethers: Section 23.2 Alcohols and Ethers OBJECTIVES:
Predict how the solubility of an alcohol varies with the length of its carbon chain. Section 23.2Alcohols and Ethers: Section 23.2 Alcohols and Ethers OBJECTIVES:
Name the reactions of alkenes that may be used to introduce functional groups. Section 23.2Alcohols and Ethers: Section 23.2 Alcohols and Ethers OBJECTIVES:
Construct the general structure of an ether and describe how ethers are named. Alcohols: Alcohols Alcohols - a class of organic compounds with an -OH group
The -OH functional group in alcohols is called a “hydroxyl” group; thus R-OH is the formula
How is this different from the hydroxide ion? (covalent bonding with the carbon- not ionic with a metal like bases) Alcohols: Alcohols Aliphatic alcohols classified into categories according to the number of R groups attached to the carbon with the hydroxyl
1 R group: primary alcohol
2 R groups: secondary alcohol
3 R groups: tertiary alcohol
Note drawings on page 730 Alcohols: Alcohols Both IUPAC and common names
drop the -e ending of the parent alkane name; add ending of -ol, number the position of -OH
parent is the longest chain that contains the carbon with the hydroxyl attached. Alcohols: Alcohols The hydroxyl is given the lowest position number
Alcohols containing 2, 3, and 4 of the -OH substituents are named diols, triols, and tetrols respectively
Examples on page 731 Alcohols: Alcohols Common names:
similar to halocarbons, meaning name the alkyl group, then followed by the word alcohol
One carbon alcohol = methyl alcohol Alcohols: Alcohols More than one -OH substituents are called glycols (ethylene glycol?)
** Examples on page 731 **
Phenols - compounds in which a hydroxyl group is attached directly to an aromatic ring. Cresol is the common name of o, m, and p isomers of methylphenol Properties of Alcohols: Properties of Alcohols Much like water, alcohols are capable of hydrogen bonding between molecules
this means they will boil at a higher temp. than alkanes and halocarbons with a comparable number of atoms Properties of Alcohols: Properties of Alcohols Alcohols are derivates of water; the -OH comes from water, and thus are somewhat soluble
Alcohols of up to 4 carbons are soluble in water in all proportions; more than 4 carbons are usually less soluble, because the longer carbon chain is more nonpolar Properties of Alcohols: Properties of Alcohols Many aliphatic alcohols used in laboratories, clinics, and industry
Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) is rubbing alcohol; used as antiseptic, and a base for perfume, creams, lotions, and other cosmetics
Ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol) - commonly sold as “antifreeze” Properties of Alcohols: Properties of Alcohols Glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) - used as a moistening agent in cosmetics, foods, and drugs; also a component of fats and oils
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) used in the intoxicating beverages; also an important industrial solvent Properties of Alcohols: Properties of Alcohols Denatured alcohol- means it has been made poisonous by the addition of other chemicals, often methyl alcohol (methanol, or wood alcohol).
As little as 10 mL of methanol has been known to cause permanent blindness, and 30 ml has resulted in death! Addition Reactions: Addition Reactions The carbon-carbon single bond is not easy to break
In double bonded alkenes, it is easier to break a bond
Addition reaction- substance is added at the double or triple bond location, after it is broken Addition Reactions: Addition Reactions Addition of water to an alkene is a hydration reaction - usually occurs with heat and an acid (such as HCl or H2SO4 acting as a catalyst)
Note sample at top of page 734 for the formation of ethanol from ethene + water Addition Reactions: Addition Reactions If a halogen is added in an addition reaction, the result is a halocarbon that is disubstituted - middle p. 734
The addition of bromine is often used as a test for saturation - p.734
Addition of a hydrogen halide? -called monosubstituted halocarbon Addition Reactions: Addition Reactions Addition of hydrogen to produce an alkane is a hydrogenation reaction, which usually involves a catalyst such as Pt or Pd
common application is the manufacture of margarine from unsaturated vegetable oils (making them solid from a liquid) Addition Reactions: Addition Reactions The hydrogenation of a double bond is a reduction reaction, which in one sense is defined as the “gain of H”
Top- page 735, ethene is “reduced” to ethane; cyclohexene is “reduced” to cyclohexane Ethers: Ethers A class of organic compounds in which oxygen is bonded to 2 carbon groups: R-O-R is formula
Naming? The two R groups are alphabetized, and followed by ether
Two R groups the same? Use the prefix di- Examples on page 735 Ethers: Ethers Diethyl ether is the one commonly called just “ether”
was the first reliable general anesthetic
dangerous- highly flammable, also causes nausea
ethers are fairly soluble in water
Alcohol used for fuel in the future? Section 23.3Carbonyl Compounds: Section 23.3 Carbonyl Compounds OBJECTIVES:
Identify the structure of a carbonyl group as found in aldehydes and ketones. Section 23.3Carbonyl Compounds: Section 23.3 Carbonyl Compounds OBJECTIVES:
Construct the general formula for carboxylic acids and explain how they are named. Section 23.3Carbonyl Compounds: Section 23.3 Carbonyl Compounds OBJECTIVES:
Describe an ester. Section 23.3Carbonyl Compounds: Section 23.3 Carbonyl Compounds OBJECTIVES:
Explain how dehydrogenation is an oxidation reaction. Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones Review:
alcohol has an oxygen bonded to a carbon group and a hydrogen
ether has an oxygen bonded to two carbon groups
An oxygen can also be bonded to a single carbon by a double bond Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones The C=O group is called the “carbonyl group”
it is the functional group in both aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes - carbonyl group always joined to at least one hydrogen (meaning it is always on the end!) Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones Ketones - the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to two other carbons (meaning it is never on the end)
Structures - bottom of page 737 Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones Naming?
Aldehydes: identify longest chain containing the carbonyl group, then the -e ending replaced by -al, such as methanal, ethanal, etc.
Ketones: longest chain w/carbonyl, then new ending of -one; number it?
propanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones Table 23.4, page 738 examples
Neither can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds, thus a much lower b.p. than corresponding alcohols
wide variety have been isolated from plants and animals; possible fragrant odor or taste; many common names Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones Benzaldehyde
Methanal (the common name is: formaldehyde)
40% in water is formalin, a preservative Aldehydes and Ketones: Aldehydes and Ketones Propanone (common: acetone) is a good solvent; miscible with water in all proportions
why is it a good substance used in nail-polish removers? (a powerful solvent-able to dissolve both polar & nonpolar) The Carboxylic Acids…: The Carboxylic Acids… Also have a carbonyl group (C=O), but is also attached to a hydroxyl group (-OH) = “carboxyl” group
general formula: R-COOH
weak acids (ionize slightly)
Named by replacing -e with -oic and followed by the word acid
methanoic acid; ethanoic acid Carboxylic Acids: Carboxylic Acids Abundant and widely distributed in nature, many having a Greek or Latin word describing their origin
acetic acid (ethanoic acid) from acetum, meaning vinegar
many that were isolated from fats are called fatty acids
Table 23.6 page 741 The Esters…: The Esters… General formula: RCOOR
Derivatives of the carboxylic acids, in which the -OH from the carboxyl group is replaced by an -OR from an alcohol:
carboxylic acid + alcohol ester + water
many esters have pleasant, fruity odors- banana, pineapple, perfumes Esters: Esters Although polar, they do not form hydrogen bonds (reason: there is no hydrogen bonded to a highly electronegative atom!)
thus, much lower b.p. than the hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids they came from Esters: Esters Can be prepared from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol; usually a trace of mineral acid added as catalyst (because acids are dehydrating agents)
Note equation on bottom p. 742 Esters: Esters Naming? It has 2 words:
1st: alkyl attached to single bonded oxygen from alcohol
2nd: take the acid name, remove the -ic acid, add -ate
example on top of page 743 Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions All of the previous classes of organic compounds are related by oxidation and reduction reactions
What is oxidation-reduction?
Oxidation: the gain of oxygen, loss of hydrogen, or loss of e-1
Reduction: the loss of oxygen, gain of hydrogen, or gain of e-1 Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Oxidation and reduction reactions (sometimes called redox) are coupled- one does not occur without the other
The number of Oxygen and Hydrogen attached to Carbon indicates the degree of oxidation Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions The fewer the # of H on a C-C bond, the more oxidized the bond
Thus, a triple bond is more oxidized than a double bond and a single bond
An alkane is oxidized (loss of H) to an alkene, and then to an alkyne Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Loss of hydrogen is called a dehydrogenation reaction
may require strong heating and a catalyst
Note equations at the top on page 744 Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Methane can be oxidized in steps to carbon dioxide (middle p. 744):
methane methanol methanal methanoic acid CO2
the more reduced (more H) a carbon compound, the more energy it can release upon oxidation
Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Alcohols can also be oxidized into other products
“Dr. Al K. Hall Mr. Al D. Hyde”
Equations middle of page 745
Preparing aldehydes from a primary alcohol is a problem, because they are then easily oxidized to carboxylic acids Oxidation- Reduction Reactions: Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Benedict’s test and Fehling’s test are commonly used for aldehyde detection – Figure 23.19 p. 745 Section 23.4Polymerization: Section 23.4 Polymerization OBJECTIVES:
Describe how addition polymers are formed. Section 23.4Polymerization: Section 23.4 Polymerization OBJECTIVES:
Describe how condensation polymers are formed. Addition Polymers: Addition Polymers Polymers are giant molecules, not small like the ones studied earlier in this chapter
examples are plastics
Polymer- large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of smaller molecules called monomers Polymers from Monomers: Polymers from Monomers Addition Polymers: Addition Polymers An addition polymer forms when unsaturated monomers react to form a polymer
ethene will form polyethylene, shown on page 747
polyethylene is easy to clean, chemically resistant- milk bottles, plastic wrap, refrigerator dishes High Density Polyethylene: High Density Polyethylene Addition Polymers: Addition Polymers Polypropylene is a stiffer polymer, used in utensils and containers
Polystyrene is formed from styrene (phenylethene), and is a poor heat conductor (styrofoam ® Dow Chemical)
molded coffee cups and picnic coolers, insulates homes
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used for pipes in plumbing Addition Polymers: Addition Polymers Polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE, or teflon ® DuPont) is very resistant to heat and chemical corrosion
found on nonstick cookware; coating on bearings and bushings used in chemical reactors Condensation Polymers: Condensation Polymers Condensation polymers are formed by the head-to-tail joining of monomer units
usually accompanied by the loss of water from the reacting monomers, and forming water as a product Condensation Polymers: Condensation Polymers Ex: polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
Dacron (® DuPont), Fortrel (® Wellman), Polyesters: permanent press clothing, tire cords
Sheets of polyester called Mylar (® DuPont), used as magnetic tape in tape recorders and computers, as well as balloons
Nylon: carpet, fishing line, hosiery Condensation Polymers: Condensation Polymers Examples:
aromatic rings form Nomex (® DuPont), which is a poor electrical conductor; makes parts for electrical fixtures; flame resistant clothing for race car drivers; flame resistant building materials
Kevlar (® DuPont): strong and flame resistant Slide71: Plastic container code system. What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 1 -- PETE (Polyethylene terephthalate)
PET (or PETE) is used in the production of soft drink bottles, peanut butter jars...
PET can be recycled into fiberfill for sleeping bags, carpet fibers, rope, pillows...
What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 2 -- HDPE (High-density polyethylene)
HDPE is found in milk jugs, butter tubs, detergent bottles, motor oil bottles...
HDPE can be recycled into flower pots, trash cans, traffic barrier cones, detergent bottles...
What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 3 -- V (Polyvinyl chloride)
PVC is used in shampoo bottles, cooking oil bottles, fast food service items...
PVC can be recycled into drainage and irrigation pipes...
What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 4 -- LDPE (Low-density polyethylene)
LDPE is found in grocery bags, bread bags, shrink wrap, margarine tub tops...
LDPE can be recycled into new grocery bags...
What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 5 -- PP (Polypropylene)
PP is used in most yogurt containers, straws, pancake syrup bottles, bottle caps....
PP can be recycled into plastic lumber, car battery cases, manhole steps...
What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 6 -- PS (Polystyrene)
PS is found in disposable hot cups, packaging materials (peanuts), and meat trays...
PS can be recycled into plastic lumber, cassette tape boxes, flower pots...
What Do the Numbers Mean?: What Do the Numbers Mean? 7 -- Other
This is usually a mixture of various plastics, like squeeze ketchup bottles, "microwaveable" dishes...
Timeline of Plastics: Timeline of Plastics 1862 – First man-made plastic
1866 – Celluloid makes it’s debut
1891 – Rayon is discovered
1907 – Bakelite is invented
1913 – Cellophane causes the plastics craze Timeline of Plastics: Timeline of Plastics 1926 – PVC is invented
1933 – Polyethylene is discovered
1933 – Saran makes it’s debut
1938 – Teflon is discovered
1939 – Nylon stockings hit market
1957 – Here comes velcro