10th American HistoryUnit IV- A Champion of Democracy: 10th American History Unit IV- A Champion of Democracy Chapter 13 – Section 1
The Rise of Dictators The Rise of Dictators: The Rise of Dictators The Main Idea
The shattering effects of World War I helped set the stage for a new, aggressive type of leader in Europe and Asia.
How did the aftermath of World War I contribute to political problems in Europe?
How did the problems facing Europe in the postwar years lead to the rise of totalitarian leaders?
What events exemplify the growing use of military force by totalitarian regimes in the 1930s?
What alarming actions did Adolf Hitler take in the mid-1930s? Jesse Owens and the Berlin Olympics of 1936: Jesse Owens and the Berlin Olympics of 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin provided Hitler with an opportunity to show the world the greatness of the German people (The Master Race) and the inferiority of certain other groups such as Africans.
The U.S. Olympic team included many African American athletes, such as Jesse Owens.
Owens captured gold medals in the 100 and 200 meter Dashes, the Long Jump and a relay. Living proof that Hitler’s views on race were wrong.
Germany did not learn the lesson of Owen’s example. Hitler preached a message of hate, anger and false pride which would rule in Germany. Jesse Owens (05:56) : Jesse Owens (05:56) Europe after World War I: Europe after World War I
World War I caused the deaths of millions and the destruction of numerous cities and farms. The European economy was in ruins.
The Treaty of Versailles left many European nations unhappy.
France thought the treaty was too easy on Germany.
Italy had been on the winning side of the war but was ignored during the peace talks. They had hoped to gain territory.
Germany was most affected by the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany gave up control of some of its land, including some important industrial areas.
German was forced to pay reparations to other countries, which led to a period of severe inflation.
The Weimer Republic was not a strong government.
It faced opposition from the Communists and the far right.
The German military was greatly reduced in size and power. Germany after WWI – 1:48: Germany after WWI – 1:48 Lingering Effects of World War I: Lingering Effects of World War I During World War I, European nations had borrowed more than $10 billion from the U.S.
Americans expected that Europe would pay the money back when the fighting ended, but this proved difficult.
The Fordney-McCumber Tariff made it hard for European farmers to sell their goods to the U.S., and they could not earn the debt money.
Instead they turned to Germany, demanding the Germans pay high reparations, or payments for war damages.
Germany was unable to pay what the Allies demanded, leaving the Allies unable to pay their debts.
To solve this problem, the U.S. lent money to Germany, assuming the role of banker to Europe.
This continued through the 1920s, until German reparations were highly reduced. World Finances- 1930: World Finances- 1930 The Depression of 1930 left a mark on foreign affairs. US banks had made large loans to European Banks. Many of these were on the verge of financial collapse after World War I.
Debt Moratorium- the US and banks would postpone for one year any payments by our former allies. Hoover asked the same for German reparation payments. This did not save the situation.
Nations gave up the gold standard.- the value of their money no longer tied to gold
Hoover would not just cancel the war debts.
All of the nations that owed us money defaulted on the loans except Finland.
Europeans felt their own depression was brought on worse by the war debts and high U.S. tariffs. The U.S. should be more charitable. Europe After World War I: Europe After World War I How did the Aftermath of World War I contribute to political problems in Europe?
Explain – Why were Italians unhappy with the terms of the Versailles Treaty?
Analyze – Why did the Weimar Republic face unhappiness from within the German military?
Elaborate- How does inflation create economic problems?
The Rise of Totalitarian Leaders: The Rise of Totalitarian Leaders
European struggles and dissatisfaction during the postwar years had a major effect on European politics.
Leaders who reflected the people’s bitterness and anger emerged.
These leaders promised a return to greatness.
This was very appealing to unhappy Europeans, and many were willing to give up basic freedoms in return for future glory. Benito Mussolini: Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini led the Italian government by 1922.
His vision of a strong, orderly Italy was appealing
He encouraged the use of violence against Socialists and Communists, whom many Italians blamed for the chaos of postwar Italy.
He gained wide support for his views.
Angry over the Treaty of Versailles, he founded the National Fascist Party.
Fascism stressed the glory of the state—the rights and concerns of individuals were of little importance.
Established a dictatorship that allowed no other political parties
Had total control over daily life in a totalitarian regime Italy (00:57) : Italy (00:57) Adolf Hitler: Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian who entered German politics because he was angry over the Treaty of Versailles.
Joined a small political party called the National Socialists, or Nazis
Tried to seize power in Germany by force in 1923; revolt failed and he was sent to prison
From prison, wrote Mein Kampf—a book that outlined his politicall ideas
Believed in the racial superiority of the German people
Blamed the Jews for many of Germany’s problems
Hitler became Germany’s chancellor in 1933.
Set up a totalitarian dictatorship
Secretly began to build up the German military Adolph Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party (02:50) : Adolph Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party (02:50) History of the Swastika: History of the Swastika Today most Americans think of the swastika as the symbol of the Nazi Party or neo-Nazi organizations.
While the origin of the swastika symbol is unknown, it has been used for thousands of years as a symbol of revolving sun, fire, infinity, or continuing re-creation in the Americas, China, Egypt, Greece and Scandinavia.
The swastika also has religious significance to several Eastern religions: to Buddhists, it represents resignation: to Hindus, it represents night and magic. Conditions in German that paved the way for Hitler.: Conditions in German that paved the way for Hitler. The people had little faith in the weak existing democratic government.
A multiparty system hindered the growth of a strong “center” party.
Fear of the Communists was widespread (this is very important).
Many Germans wanted to avenge the defeat they had suffered in World War I.
Germany was plagued by unemployment, severe inflation, and depression- all of which the Nazis promised to remedy.
The German middle class hungered for stability, even at the cost of liberty.
The police and military high command offered no serious opposition when the Nazis used strong arm methods to gain control. Hitler comes to power: Hitler comes to power Hitler and Nazi’s take over gov’t
German parliament with many parties. Split
Government made him chancellor before he could take over on his own.
Hitler master of radio.
Thugs, SA and SS
Hitler is a german god.
Concentration Camps Threats to Peace: Threats to Peace The rise of Hitler
Austrian drop out and failed artist
WWI- German soldier wounded and gassed.
Joins Social Workers party and reshapes it into NAZI.
1923 Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria- Hitler goes to jail and writes Mein Kampf. 800 page Nazi bible
Third Riech- Germany that would last a thousand years. Totalitarian Leaders Arise: Totalitarian Leaders Arise How did the problems facing Europe in the postwar years lead to the rise of totalitarian leaders?
Identify – Name three things that Mussolini and Hitler had in common.
Summarize – What is the myth of the Aryan master race?
Evaluate - Why do you think there was not more support for democratic governments in Italy and Germany? Totalitarian Leaders Arise: Totalitarian Leaders Arise Recall – What other countries had powerful and nationalistic regimes prior to World War II?
Contrast – What was the major difference between the totalitarian regimes in the Soviet Union and those in Italy and Germany? Other Totalitarian Regimes: Spain
Spain erupted into civil war during the 1930s.
General Francisco Franco came to power during this conflict.
He was a fascist. Soviet Union
Communism and fascism represent opposite political extremes.
Yet, under Joseph Stalin, communism was similar to fascism. He crushed all political opposition.
Stalin dominated all areas of Soviet life.
One of the era’s most notorious totalitarian dictators Other Totalitarian Regimes Japan
Torn apart by political and economic conflict
Military leaders used violence to gain control over the government.
They were inspired by nationalistic dreams of Japanese greatness. Totalitarian Governments : Totalitarian Governments In 1935 Italy invaded the East African nation of Ethiopia.
Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie asked the League of Nations for help. However, the international community was unwilling to take a stand against aggression. Japan/
Manchuria Without government approval, some Japanese generals invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria to gain land and resources for Japan.
This demonstrated the weakness of the Japanese government and the strength of Japanese nationalists.
Ethiopia Conflict between Communists and the Fascists and Nationalists led to civil war in 1936.
Other countries in Europe and North America helped one side or the other during this conflict. Franco’s Nationalists won. Spanish
War Spanish Civil War: Spanish Civil War Approximately 3,000 Americans joined the fight against fascism.
Although these Americans came from every part of the United States, most of them came from urban, industrial areas where they been exposed to radical political ideas.
The Americans, many of whom fought in a group called the Abraham Lincoln Battalion, were not well-trained soldiers.
They suffered high casualty rates; about 1/3 of the American volunteers were killed. War Ends In Spain (01:09) : War Ends In Spain (01:09) Other world powers: Other world powers Stalin - USSR
Labor camps in Siberia
Oppression and purges
Japan- army leaders take over control bent on expanding the country.
Japan in Korea and Manchuria
Italians- Fascist Mussolini want to create a new Roman Empire.
1935- Invasion of Ethiopia
Italians and Germans support Spain- Fascist Franco.
Germany moves into Rhineland Russia (01:15) : Russia (01:15) Japan (00:51) : Japan (00:51) Japanese-American relations: Japanese-American relations Military leaders had taken over rule in Japan.
1931 Japan seizes Manchuria.
1937 attacks China, the bombing of Shanghai and the Nanjing Massacre. Western Democracies spoke up but did not act for fear of starting war.
Japan sinks US gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China. Japan apologizes and paid $2 million.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere- 1940 Problems with Japan: Problems with Japan July 26, 1939- Because of the seizure of Manchuria by Japan in 1931, the attack of China in 1937, and the Panay Incident, the U.S. tells Japan:
U.S. would end the Japanese-American Commercial Treaty
U.S. will stop sale of war materials to Japan. Japan was invading China with those arms. Totalitarian Governments and Military Force: Totalitarian Governments and Military Force What events exemplify the growing use of military force by totalitarian regimes in the 1930’s?
Identify – What is Manchuria?
Analyze – Why do you think the Japanese Army was able to take over Manchuria?
Make Inferences - Why didn’t the League of Nations take action when Japan took control of Manchuria and Italy invaded Ethiopia? Adolf Hitler Gains Power: The Rhineland
Germany could not have troops in an area of the Rhine River valley along the French border.
This was meant to protect France against a possible German invasion.
Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland in 1936.
France and Britain were unwilling to stop this. The Anschluss
In 1938 Hitler tried to unite the ethnic Germans of Austria with those of Germany.
He tried to force the Austrian government to agree to Anschluss – union with Germany.
When the Austrian government refused, Hitler sent troops into the country.
No one stopped Hitler. Adolf Hitler Gains Power The Sudetenland
Hitler began plans to gain control of a German-speaking portion of Czechoslovakia.
He encouraged the Germans in the area to protest the Czech government and then threatened a military attack.
Neville Chamberlain and others allowed Hitler to annex the Sudetenland. The Clouds of War (03:36) : The Clouds of War (03:36) Hitler on the march: Hitler on the march Lebensraum- “Living Room”, -all people of German blood in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.
1938- March- Hitler invades Austria then Sudetenland. The Czech hoped other nations would aid them- did not happen.
Munich Conference- Chamberlain of England, Daladier of France met with Hitler and Mussolini at Munich, Germany. Sept. 28, 1938 they agreed to dismember Czechoslovakia and appease Hitler. Chamberlains said, “Peace in our time.”
November 1938- Hitler increases brutal treatment of Jews.
March 1939- Hitler seizes rest of Czechoslovakia- Appeasement failed.
April 7, 1939- Italy invades Albania.
Isolationists in Congress still block all of FDR attempts to aid the allies. SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN GERMANY: 1933-1945: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN GERMANY: 1933-1945 1933:
Jan. 30- Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
Apr 1- National boycott of Jewish stores
Apr 26- Creation of the Gestapo, secret police.
Nov 12- Reichstag elections: 93% vote for Nazis
Aug 19- Hitler's powers extended by vote of people.
Sept 15-Nuremberg Laws deprive Jews of German citizenship. Marriage between Jews and other Germans is made illegal.
Oct 25- Alliance formed with Italy and Japan
Dec 1- Law passed making Hitler Youth a State agency Hitler takes the Rhineland.
March - Hitler invades and annexes Austria. Occupies the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia.
Nov 9- "Kristallnacht"-Jewish synagogues and stores Destroyed. Jews fined heavily for damages. Jews expelled from German schools.
Dec 6- Non-aggression pact signed with Germany and France 1939:
March- Hitler seizes the rest of the Czechoslovakia.
Aug 23-Soviet-German non aggression pact signed.
Sept 1-Germany invades Poland, start WW II.
German Jews beginning to be taken into custody and deported to concentration camps.
Apr 9- Hitler invades Denmark and Norway.
June 14- Hitler seizes Paris and controls all of France.
Beginning of the "Final Solution". Jews may not leave their homes without police permission.
June 22- Germany invades Russia.
Jews forbidden to use public transportation.
Feb 2- Soviet army takes Stalingrad.
March- Germany loses control of N. Africa.
June 6- D-Day - Allies land in France.
Dec 16 Battle of the Bulge, German last try.
Apr 30- Hitler commits suicide.
May 8- END OF WW II
1946: Nuremburg Trials Munich Pact - Appeasement: Munich Pact - Appeasement Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact in Munich, Germany on September 29, 1938.
Hitler demanded for the secession of the German - speaking Sudetanland of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
Looking for any attempt to prevent further confrontations with Hitler, Great Britain and France accepted Hitler’s demands. France and Great Britain were devastated by World War I and would be willing to do anything to avoid more confrontation.
With Great Britain’s and France’s acceptance, Hitler promised not to claim any other European territory. Hitler Takes Action: Hitler Takes Action What alarming actions did Adolf Hitler take in the mid-1030’s?
Explain – How did Hitler justify rebuilding Germany’s military?
Define – What was Anschluss? Lebensraum?
Evaluate - Why do you think the British and French were so eager to avoid war that they allowed Hitler to violate the Treaty of Versailles and international law?