Fichner Rathus CH09

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Chapter 9: 

Chapter 9 Sculpture

Sculpture: 

Sculpture Sculpture is the art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms. Relief sculptures Bas-relief High-relief Free-standing sculptures

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture : 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture  In a subtractive process (such as carving), unwanted material is removed.   In a additive process of modeling, casting, and constructing, material is added, assembled, or built up to reach its final form.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Carving In carving, the sculptor begins with a block of material and cuts portions of it away until the desired form is created. The material chosen—stone, wood, ivory—strongly influences the mechanics of the carving process and determines the type of creation that will emerge.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Modeling In modeling, a pliable material (such as clay or wax) is shaped into a three-dimensional form. The artist may manipulate the material by hand and use a variety of tools.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Casting In the casting process, a liquid material is poured into a mold.  The liquid hardens into the shape of the mold and is then removed. The mold is like a photographic negative, but one of form and not of color. The interior surfaces of the mold carry the reversed impressions of the model’s exterior.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique In this technique, an original model is usually sculpted from clay. A mold of it is made, usually from sectioned plaster or flexible gelatin. Molten wax is then brushed or poured into the mold to make a hollow wax model. After the wax hardens, the mold is removed; the wax model stands as a hollow replica of the clay. The hollow wax model is placed upside down in a container; wax rods called gates are connected to it.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique Then a sandy mixture of silica, clay, and plaster is poured into and around the wax model, filling the shell and the container. The mixture hardens into a fire-resistant mold, or investiture. The investiture is turned over and placed in a kiln. As the investiture becomes heated, the wax turns molten once more and runs out. (This stage provides the process its name.)

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique The investiture is turned over again while it is still hot. Molten bronze is poured in. As the metal flows into the mold, air escapes through the gates so that no air pockets are left within. The bronze is given time to harden. Then the investiture and core are removed, leaving the bronze sculpture with strange projections where the molten metal had flowed up through the gates as it filled the mold.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture : 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique The projections are removed. The surface of the bronze is burnished or treated chemically to take on the texture and color desired by the sculptor.

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture: 

Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Casting of Human Models Human models leave impressions of parts of their bodies in quick-drying plaster casts, with the surfaces molded and kneaded by the artist’s hand as they sit. These sections are then assembled and adjusted into whole figures.

Types of Materials: 

Types of Materials Stone Sculpture Stone is an extremely hard, durable material that may be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished. The durability that makes stone so appropriate for monuments and statues that are meant to communicate with future generations also makes working with stone a tedious process. The hand tools used with stone—such as the chisel, mallet, and rasp—have not changed much over the centuries.

Types of Materials: 

Types of Materials Wood Sculpture Wood, like stone, may be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished. But unlike stone, wood may also be permanently molded and bent. Also like stone, wood varies in hardness and grain, but it is more readily carved that stone.

Types of Materials: 

Types of Materials Clay Sculpture Clay is more pliable than stone or wood. But because clay has little strength, it is often not considered a permanent material, even though an armature may be used to prevent clay figures from sagging. In ceramics, clay is fired in a kiln at high temperatures so that it becomes hardened and nonporous.

Types of Materials: 

Types of Materials Metal Sculpture Metals can be cast, extruded, forged, stamped, drilled, filed, burnished, welded, riveted, and soldered.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods  Constructed Sculpture In constructed sculpture, the artist builds or constructs the sculpture from materials such as cardboard, celluloid, translucent plastic, sheet metal, or wire.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Assemblage Assemblage is a form of constructed sculpture in which preexisting (or found) objects, recognizable in form, are integrated by the sculptor into novel combinations that take on a life and meaning of their own.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Readymades This technique depends on the attitude that found objects (or readymades)—such as bottle racks and urinals—could be literally elevated as works of art by being placed on pedestals—literally or figuratively.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Mixed Media In mixed media constructions and assemblages, sculptors use materials and ready-made or found objects that are not normally the elements of a work of art.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Kinetic Sculpture Kinetic sculptures actually move. Movement may be caused by the wind, magnetic fields, jets of water, electric motors, variations in the intensity of light, or the active manipulation of the observer.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Light Sculpture Using artificial light in his composition, the artist working in this technique is concerned with the physical and psychological effects of color and with the creation of visual illusions.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Earthworks In earthworks (or Land Art), large amounts of earth or land are shaped into a sculpture.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods A Portfolio of More Recent Sculpture Body parts and body by-products might be featured in a sculpture.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods A Portfolio of More Recent Sculpture A 600-pound cube of chocolate might be the medium, and the sculptor’s teeth might be the sculptural tools.

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods: 

Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods A Portfolio of More Recent Sculpture And Styrofoam might be dented with the point of a pencil, indented with the pressure of a thumb, and bitten to form an impression.

Discussion Questions: 

Discussion Questions Do you consider a constructed sculpture a “work of art” as you consider a carving, casting, or modeling? Explain your reasons. What characteristics distinguish relief and freestanding sculpture? How does each use space? Which do you prefer? Why? Do you associate any disadvantages of earthworks on the scale of Smithson’s Spiral Jetty?

Related Websites: 

Related Websites Artchive: Edgar Degas http://www.artchive.com/artchive/D/degas.html Artcyclopedia: George Segal http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/segal_george.html Louise Bourgeois http://www.artandculture.com/arts/artist?artistId=8 Auguste Rodin Museum http://www.rodinmuseum.org/ Robert Smithson http://www.robertsmithson.com/ Artcyclopedia: Kiki Smith http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/smith_kiki.html

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