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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Islam after Muhammad’s Death Map: Spread of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty The Abbasid Dynasty The End of Unity Quick Facts: The End of Unity The Spread of Islam


Reading Focus How did Islam evolve after Muhammad’s death? What were key events of the Umayyad dynasty? What changes occurred under the Abbasid dynasty? What led to the end of the caliphate’s unity? Main Idea After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread. The Spread of Islam


The death of Muhammad in 632 presented a challenge for the Muslim community. Who would lead the group and keep it unified? The answer affected the faith’s spread and its future. Islam after Muhammad’s Death


More Expansion After Iraq, Persia, Arab army faced wealthy Byzantine Empire to west Byantines first lost Damascus, Syria, Jerusalem 639, Byzantine province of Egypt fell; 642, rest of Nile Valley under Arab rule Internal Conflict and Division Deep conflict within Muslim leadership, began with choice of Abu Bakr, caliph Some had supported Muhammad’s cousin, Ali 644, Ali lost again, to Uthman, supported by powerful Mecca clan Umayyad Empire Only 10 years after Muhammad’s death, followers had created empire Conquests continued under later caliphs 661, caliphate stretched from northern Africa in west to Persia in East More Expansion


Civil War


The Shia and Imams Shia believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants Ali’s descendants, Muhammad’s true heirs Shia called each of Ali’s successors imam Imam means “leader” For the shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’an.


Further Division Husayn killed while holding infant son, battle became known as the martyrdom of Husayn; split between Sunni, Shia has remained bitter Third group developed within Islam—the Sufis Sufis seek mystical, personal connection with God, using range of practices including breath control and meditation in rituals Conflict Conflict deepened between Sunni, Shia after deaths of Mu’awiya, Ali Many thought Yazid, Mu’awiya’s son, successor, not a good Muslim Muhammad’s grandson, Husayn, led rebellion against Yazid Husayn, forces defeated in battle at Karbala, Iraq


Find the Main Idea What was the result of the succession conflict? Answer(s): Two different Muslim groups emerged—the Sunni and the Shia


Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread. Internal problems weakened the Umayyads, though, and led to their fall. The Umayyad Dynasty


Umayyads strengthened central government as caliphate grew in size Arab Muslims became ruling class, with power, privilege unavailable to those they conquered Creation of privileged class conflicted with strong Muslim ideal of equality Wars over succession also upsetting to many faithful, unhappy with emphasis on political ambition Ruling the Empire


Sequence What events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty? Answer(s): A family called the Abbasids took advantage of discontent with the Umayyads and established a new caliphate.


Baghdad Abbasids relocated capital of caliphate; rulers lived in splendor Chose Baghdad, on Tigris River, in present-day Iraq Government Rulers cut off from people Caliph hidden behind screen in throne room, could not be seen Used Persian officials; vizier, deputy, oversaw affairs of state Persian Influence Move to Baghdad beginning of end of Arab domination of Muslim world Abbasids adopted Persian style of government Change in Islam Nature of Islam changed Abbasids invited all to join in, turned Islam into universal religion, attracted people of many cultures The Abbasid Dynasty


A Changing Culture


Contrast How did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads? Answer(s): The Abbasids focused more on prosperity and cultural advancement than on empire expansion.


As early as the 800s, Abbasid political power weakened. By the 900s, a number of small, independent states broke away from the caliphate. The End of Unity


Seljuk Turks Many non-Arabs among peoples of caliphate, including Turks 1055, Turkish Seljuks rose to power, took control of Baghdad Seljuks were Sunni Muslims, supported Abbasid caliph Mamluks and Mongols 1200s, Mamluks took power in Egypt, Syria 1258, Mongols destroyed Baghdad, killed Abbasid caliph; caliphate finished Islam still a vital force, spread to India, Central and Southeast Asia War Against Byzantine Empire Seljuks defended Abbasids against Fatimids, went to war against Byzantine Empire, defeated Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert Seljuks would go on to create own empire Seljuk Turks and Others


Summarize What forces ended the unity of the caliphate? Answer(s): Abbasids lost political power when small independent states broke away.

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