foodborne hazardous foods

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Why are potentially hazardous foods potentially hazardous?: 

Why are potentially hazardous foods potentially hazardous? Craig Dalton Hunter Population Health

Outline: 

Outline Review epidemiology of food vehicles and settings involved in foodborne outbreaks in Australia Review theory of the “potentially hazardous food”

Percentage of Outbreaks by Vehicle 1995-2000 (Vehicle Level 1) (N=214): 

Percentage of Outbreaks by Vehicle 1995-2000 (Vehicle Level 1) (N=214) Miscellaneous Non-dairy bev Specialty/ethnic Unknown Dairy Fruit Grains Vegetables

Percentage of Cases by Vehicle Type (N=7810): 

Percentage of Cases by Vehicle Type (N=7810) 49% Chicken

Seafood: 

Seafood Most outbreaks ciguatera Most cases associated with oysters Oysters filter 10s of litres per day Concentrate virus and bacteria Subject to human sewage impact and natural marine organisms

Number of Deaths by Vehicle : 

Number of Deaths by Vehicle

Meat Associated Outbreaks by Specific Meat Vehicle, 1995-2000 (N=64) : 

Meat Associated Outbreaks by Specific Meat Vehicle, 1995-2000 (N=64)

Cases due to Meat-Associated Outbreaks by Meat Vehicle Type, 1995-2000 (N=1846): 

Cases due to Meat-Associated Outbreaks by Meat Vehicle Type, 1995-2000 (N=1846)

Percentage of Salmonella Outbreaks by Food Vehicle (N=75) : 

Percentage of Salmonella Outbreaks by Food Vehicle (N=75) Chicken 13%

Egg-Associated Outbreaks: 

Egg-Associated Outbreaks Egg “hidden” by food classification system, eg desserts, sandwiches Prevention intervention value in focusing on “eggs” Definition: egg the main potentially hazardous food in implicated food Potential to overestimate egg-associated outbreaks

Egg-Associated Outbreaks, 1995-2000: 

Egg-Associated Outbreaks, 1995-2000 16 outbreaks 1 Norwalk-like, 1 S. pyogenes 14 Salmonella 5 S. typhimurium PT 9 2 S. typhimurium PT 135 1 each S. virchow, S. orianberg, S. mbandaka, S. heidelberg, S. typhimurium (?PT) Probably due to shell contamination, but watch out for emergence of transovarian S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis in Australia

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, Cases and Deaths, Australia 1995 – 2000 by Setting: 

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, Cases and Deaths, Australia 1995 – 2000 by Setting

Slide13: 

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, Cases and Deaths, Australia 1995 – 2000 by Setting

Deaths by setting (n=20): 

Deaths by setting (n=20)

Number of Outbreaks of Clostridium Perfringens by Setting (N=30) (cases = 787): 

Number of Outbreaks of Clostridium Perfringens by Setting (N=30) (cases = 787)

Commercial caters: 

Commercial caters Clostridium perfringens outbreaks from temperature abuse of spit roasts and other meats a major problem

Setting of Preparation, Ciguatera: 

Setting of Preparation, Ciguatera

What are the priorities for prevention?: 

What are the priorities for prevention?

Priorities for Prevention: 

Priorities for Prevention Aged care and hospitals high risk settings Listeria Clostridium perfringens Large scale commercial catering Chicken Eggs Pork rolls Ciguatera poisoning Oysters

1962 US PHS defined “potentially hazardous food” (PHF) as any perishable food which consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, or other ingredients capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms. : 

1962 US PHS defined “potentially hazardous food” (PHF) as any perishable food which consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, or other ingredients capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms.

FDA 2001 – can’t easily define hazardous foods ~ The FDA’s proposed new definition defines the acceptance criterion for a PHF as being less than a 1 log increase of a pathogen when the food is stored at 24 °C (75 °F) for a period of time that is 1.3 times the shelf life as determined by the manufacturer. : 

FDA 2001 – can’t easily define hazardous foods ~ The FDA’s proposed new definition defines the acceptance criterion for a PHF as being less than a 1 log increase of a pathogen when the food is stored at 24 °C (75 °F) for a period of time that is 1.3 times the shelf life as determined by the manufacturer.

Potentially hazardous foods are foods that meet both the criteria below: • they might contain the types of food- poisoning bacteria that need to multiply to large numbers to cause food poisoning; and • the food will allow the food-poisoning bacteria to multiply. . : 

Potentially hazardous foods are foods that meet both the criteria below: • they might contain the types of food- poisoning bacteria that need to multiply to large numbers to cause food poisoning; and • the food will allow the food-poisoning bacteria to multiply. . Australian Food Standards Code 2002

The following foods are examples of potentially hazardous foods:: 

The following foods are examples of potentially hazardous foods: • raw and cooked meat (including poultry and game) or foods containing raw or cooked meat such as casseroles, curries and lasagne; • smallgoods such as Strasbourg, ham and chicken loaf; • dairy products, for example, milk, custard and dairy-based desserts such as cheesecakes and custard tarts; • seafood (excluding live seafood) including seafood salad, patties, fish balls, stews containing seafood and fish stock; •

The following foods are examples of potentially hazardous foods:: 

The following foods are examples of potentially hazardous foods: processed fruits and vegetables, for example salads and cut melons; • cooked rice and pasta; • foods containing eggs, beans, nuts or other protein-rich foods such as quiche, fresh pasta and soy bean products; and • foods that contain these foods, for example sandwiches, rolls and cooked and uncooked pizza. Australian Food Standards Code 2002

Why are meats hazardous?: 

Why are meats hazardous? Food for bacteria! Protein Water Contamination from gut of animal

How not to think: 

How not to think Food x is safe, food y is unsafe Food is sterile Inspection identifies contamination/hazard The foodhandler / chicken done it

Bacteria: 

Bacteria Air, soil, water - everywhere Survival and growth to infective dose depends on temperature water pH

Storage Temperature and Growth: 

Storage Temperature and Growth 50 C 600 C Danger zone -transport storage preparation storage

Hazard = high risk food plus high risk setting: 

Hazard = high risk food plus high risk setting

Food handling and viral disease: 

Food handling and viral disease Perhaps 50% of foodborne disease due to viruses – especially norovirus Norovirus highly infectious, airborne, asymptomatic excretion

Why is mass catering hazardous?: 

Why is mass catering hazardous?

Why is mass catering hazardous?: 

Why is mass catering hazardous? Large amounts of food Difficult to cool/heat quickly so more time in the danger zone Transportation time Greater preparation times May lack resources of commercial kitchen Rarely subject to inspection “Amateur” players in industry

Integrating high risk foods and setting risk: 

Integrating high risk foods and setting risk Ministerial Policy Guidelines on Food Safety Management in Australia: Food Safety Programs www.foodsecretariat.health.gov.au/pdf/food_safety.pdf

Slide37: 

Trace Back of Ham used in Potato Bake Ham processor Potato bake maker Catered wedding LM isolate from ham sampled at ham processor and potato bake maker are same subtype as LM from wedding guests Potato bake was made by adding fresh cream and cold cubed ham to 2kg tray of cooked sliced potato. Tray was placed in refrigerator at 10-14OC for 30 hours. Potato bake was reheated at wedding for about 20 minutes. Guests reported it was served cold.

Examples of Critical Control Points: 

Examples of Critical Control Points Pasteurisation of milk to control salmonella Canning to control botulism Radiation Cooking Salt Drying

Food safety control points for livestock: 

Food safety control points for livestock On farm Slaughter house Processing factory Supermarket Shopping activity Food preparation

Food safety control points: 

Food safety control points Whole of food chain approach Farm to table Field to fork Paddock to plate

Food handling/preparation: 

Food handling/preparation Cross contamination Temperature Time Cleaning Inadequate cooking Slow cooling Handwashing Culture food and suspect surfaces

Acknowledgements: 

Acknowledgements With grateful acknowledgement of

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