Chapter 4

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Chapter 4 Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Realities, & Challenges Nelson & Quick, 5th edition: 

Chapter 4 Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Realities, & Challenges Nelson & Quick, 5th edition Attitudes, Values, and Ethics

Attitude: 

Attitude Attitude – a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor Should poor performance be blamed on “bad attitude”?

Model of an Attitude: 

ffect Physiological indicators I don’t like my Verbal statements boss. about feelings ehavioral Observed behavior I want to intentions Verbal statements transfer to about intentions another dept. Model of an Attitude Component Measured by Example ognition Attitude scales I believe my Verbal statements boss plays about beliefs favorites. A C B Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

Two Influences on Attitude Formation: 

Two Influences on Attitude Formation Direct Experience Social Learning the process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture

Four Processes for Social Learning through Modeling: 

Four Processes for Social Learning through Modeling Focus on the model Retain what was observed Practice the behavior Be motivated The learner must

Attitude–Behavior Correspondence Requirements: 

Attitude–Behavior Correspondence Requirements Attitude Specificity – a specific attitude Attitude Relevance – some self-interest Measurement Timing – measurement close to observed behavior Personality Factors – ex. self-monitoring Social Constraints – acceptability

Work Attitudes: Job Satisfaction: 

Work Attitudes: Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction – a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience Organizational Citizenship Behavior Behavior that is above and beyond duty Related to job satisfaction

Process of Persuasion: 

Process of Persuasion

Characteristics: 

Characteristics Persuadable Target – **lower self esteem **moderate attitudes **good mood

Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion: 

Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion Adapted from R.E. Petty and J.T. Cacioppo, “The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion,” in L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 19 (New York: Academic Press, 1986): 123-205. Message Central Route Peripheral Route Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

Values: 

Values Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence

Values: 

Values Terminal – values that represent the goals to be achieved, or the end states of existence Examples: honesty, politeness, courage Examples: happiness, salvation, prosperity Instrumental – values that represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state

Work Values: 

Work Values Achievement (career advancement) Concern for others (compassionate behavior) Honesty (provision of accurate information) Fairness (impartiality)

Cultural Differences in Values: 

Cultural Differences in Values Chinese value an individual’s contribution to relationships in the work team Americans value an individual’s contribution to task accomplishment

Handling Cultural Differences: 

Handling Cultural Differences Learn about others’ values Avoid prejudging business customs Operate legitimately within others’ ethical points of view Avoid rationalizing “borderline” actions with excuses Refuse to violate fundamental values Be open and above board

Ethical Behavior: 

Ethical Behavior Acting in ways consistent with one’s personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society

Qualities Required for Ethical Decision Making: 

Qualities Required for Ethical Decision Making The competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action The self-confidence to seek out different opinions about the issue and decide what is right in terms of a situation Tough mindedness – the willingness to make decisions when all that needs to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue has no established, unambiguous solution

Individual/Organizational Model of Ethical Behavior: 

Individual/Organizational Model of Ethical Behavior Organizational Influences Codes of conduct Norms Modeling Rewards and punishments Individual Influences Value systems Locus of control Machiavellianism Cognitive moral development Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

Values, Ethics, and Ethical Behavior: 

Values, Ethics, and Ethical Behavior Value Systems – systems of beliefs that affect what the individual defines as right, good, and fair Ethics – reflects the way values are acted out Ethical Behavior – actions consistent with one’s values

Locus of Control: 

Locus of Control Locus of Control – personality variable that affects individual behavior Internal – belief in personal control and personal responsibility External – belief in control by outside forces (fate, chance, other people)

Machiavellianism: 

Machiavellianism a personality characteristic indicating one’s willingness to do whatever it takes to get one’s own way

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