PMBOK_Guide_6th_Edition Soft_Copy

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ISBN: 978-1-62825-382-5

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A Guide to the PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE PMBOK ® GUIDE Sixth Edition

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ISBN: 978-1-62825-184-5 Published by: Project Management Institute Inc. 14 Campus Boulevard Newtown Square Pennsylvania 19073-3299 USA Phone: +1 610-356-4600 Fax: +1 610-356-4647 Email: customercarepmi.org Website: www.PMI.org ©2017 Project Management Institute Inc. All rights reserved. Project Management Institute Inc. content is copyright protected by U.S. intellectual property law that is recognized by most countries. To republish or reproduce PMI’s content you must obtain our permission. Please go to http://www.pmi.org/permissions for details. To place a Trade Order or for pricing information please contact Independent Publishers Group: Independent Publishers Group Order Department 814 North Franklin Street Chicago IL 60610 USA Phone: +1 800-888-4741 Fax: +1 312- 337-5985 Email: ordersipgbook.com For orders only For all other inquiries please contact the PMI Book Service Center. PMI Book Service Center P .O. Box 932683 Atlanta GA 31193-2683 USA Phone: 1-866-276-4764 within the U.S. or Canada or +1-770-280-4129 globally Fax: +1-770-280-4113 Email: infobookorders.pmi.org Printed in the United States of America. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic manual photocopying recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without prior written permission of the publisher. The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization Z39.48—1984. PMI the PMI logo PMBOK OPM3 PMP CAPM PgMP PfMP PMI-RMP PMI-SP PMI-ACP PMI-PBA PROJECT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL PM NETWORK PMI TODAY PULSE OF THE PROFESSION and the slogan MAKING PROJECT MANAGEMENT INDISPENSABLE FOR BUSINESS RESULTS. are all marks of Project Management Institute Inc. For a comprehensive list of PMI trademarks contact the PMI Legal Department. All other trademarks service marks trade names trade dress product names and logos appearing herein are the property of their respective owners. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Project Management Institute publisher. Title: A guide to the project management body of knowledge PMBOK guide / Project Management Institute. Other titles: PMBOK guide Description: Sixth edition. | Newtown Square PA: Project Management Institute 2017. | Series: PMBOK guide | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017032505 print | LCCN 2017035597 ebook | ISBN 9781628253900 ePUP | ISBN 9781628253917 kindle | ISBN 9781628253924 Web PDF | ISBN 9781628251845 paperback Subjects: LCSH: Project management. | BISAC: BUSINESS ECONOMICS / Project Management. Classification: LCC HD69.P75 ebook | LCC HD69.P75 G845 2017 print | DDC 658.4/04--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017032505

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NOTICE The Project Management Institute Inc. PMI standards and guideline publications of which the document contained herein is one are developed through a voluntary consensus standards development process. This process brings together volunteers and/or seeks out the views of persons who have an interest in the topic covered by this publication. While PMI administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus it does not write the document and it does not independently test evaluate or verify the accuracy or completeness of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards and guideline publications. PMI disclaims liability for any personal injury property or other damages of any nature whatsoever whether special indirect consequential or compensatory directly or indirectly resulting from the publication use of application or reliance on this document. PMI disclaims and makes no guaranty or warranty expressed or implied as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and disclaims and makes no warranty that the information in this document will fulfill any of your particular purposes or needs. PMI does not undertake to guarantee the performance of any individual manufacturer or seller’s products or services by virtue of this standard or guide. In publishing and making this document available PMI is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity nor is PMI undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or as appropriate seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Information and other standards on the topic covered by this publication may be available from other sources which the user may wish to consult for additional views or information not covered by this publication. PMI has no power nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. PMI does not certify test or inspect products designs or installations for safety or health purposes. Any certification or other statement of compliance with any health or safety-related information in this document shall not be attributable to PMI and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement.

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I TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1. A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE PMBOK ® Guide 1. INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................1 1.1 Overview and Purpose of this Guide ................................................................................1 1.1.1 The Standard for Project Management ...............................................................2 1.1.2 Common Vocabulary ............................................................................................3 1.1.3 Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct ...........................................................3 1.2 Foundational Elements .....................................................................................................4 1.2.1 Projects .................................................................................................................4 1.2.2 The Importance of Project Management ...........................................................10 1.2.3 Relationship of Project Program Portfolio and Operations Management .............................................................................11 1.2.4 Components of the Guide ...................................................................................17 1.2.5 Tailoring ..............................................................................................................28 1.2.6 Project Management Business Documents ......................................................29 2. THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH PROJECTS OPERATE ................................................................37 2.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................37 2.2 Enterprise Environmental Factors..................................................................................38 2.2.1 EEFs Internal to the Organization ......................................................................38 2.2.2 EEFs External to the Organization .....................................................................39

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II Table of Contents 2.3 Organizational Process Assets ......................................................................................39 2.3.1 Processes Policies and Procedures .................................................................40 2.3.2 Organizational Knowledge Repositories ...........................................................41 2.4 Organizational Systems .................................................................................................42 2.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................42 2.4.2 Organizational Governance Frameworks ..........................................................43 2.4.3 Management Elements ......................................................................................44 2.4.4 Organizational Structure Types .........................................................................45 3. THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER....................................................................................51 3.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................51 3.2 Definition of a Project Manager .....................................................................................52 3.3 The Project Manager’s Sphere of Influence ..................................................................52 3.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................52 3.3.2 The Project..........................................................................................................53 3.3.3 The Organization ................................................................................................54 3.3.4 The Industry .......................................................................................................55 3.3.5 Professional Discipline ......................................................................................56 3.3.6 Across Disciplines ..............................................................................................56 3.4 Project Manager Competences ......................................................................................56 3.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................56 3.4.2 Technical Project Management Skills ...............................................................58 3.4.3 Strategic and Business Management Skills .....................................................58 3.4.4 Leadership Skills ................................................................................................60 3.4.5 Comparison of Leadership and Management ...................................................64 3.5 Performing Integration ...................................................................................................66 3.5.1 Performing Integration at the Process Level.....................................................67 3.5.2 Integration at the Cognitive Level ......................................................................67 3.5.3 Integration at the Context Level ........................................................................67 3.5.4 Integration and Complexity................................................................................68

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III 4. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................69 4.1 Develop Project Charter .................................................................................................75 4.1.1 Develop Project Charter: Inputs .........................................................................77 4.1.2 Develop Project Charter: Tools and Techniques ................................................79 4.1.3 Develop Project Charter: Outputs ......................................................................81 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan ................................................................................82 4.2.1 Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs .......................................................83 4.2.2 Develop Project Management Plan: Tools and Techniques ..............................85 4.2.3 Develop Project Management Plan: Outputs .....................................................86 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work ...................................................................................90 4.3.1 Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs ..........................................................92 4.3.2 Direct and Manage Project Work: Tools and Techniques .................................94 4.3.3 Direct and Manage Project Work: Outputs ........................................................95 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge ...........................................................................................98 4.4.1 Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs .................................................................100 4.4.2 Manage Project Knowledge: Tools and Techniques ........................................102 4.4.3 Manage Project Knowledge: Outputs ..............................................................104 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work ...............................................................................105 4.5.1 Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs .......................................................107 4.5.2 Monitor and Control Project Work: Tools and Techniques ..............................110 4.5.3 Monitor and Control Project Work: Outputs ....................................................112 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control .............................................................................113 4.6.1 Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs ....................................................116 4.6.2 Perform Integrated Change Control: Tools and Techniques ...........................118 4.6.3 Perform Integrated Change Control: Outputs ..................................................120 4.7 Close Project or Phase .................................................................................................121 4.7.1 Close Project or Phase: Inputs .........................................................................124 4.7.2 Close Project or Phase: Tools and Techniques ................................................126 4.7.3 Close Project or Phase: Outputs ......................................................................127

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IV Table of Contents 5. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................129 5.1 Plan Scope Management ..............................................................................................134 5.1.1 Plan Scope Management: Inputs .....................................................................135 5.1.2 Plan Scope Management: Tools and Techniques ............................................136 5.1.3 Plan Scope Management: Outputs ..................................................................137 5.2 Collect Requirements ...................................................................................................138 5.2.1 Collect Requirements: Inputs ..........................................................................140 5.2.2 Collect Requirements: Tools and Techniques .................................................142 5.2.3 Collect Requirements: Outputs ........................................................................147 5.3 Define Scope .................................................................................................................150 5.3.1 Define Scope: Inputs ........................................................................................152 5.3.2 Define Scope: Tools and Techniques ...............................................................153 5.3.3 Define Scope: Outputs ......................................................................................154 5.4 Create WBS ...................................................................................................................156 5.4.1 Create WBS: Inputs ..........................................................................................157 5.4.2 Create WBS: Tools and Techniques .................................................................158 5.4.3 Create WBS: Outputs ........................................................................................161 5.5 Validate Scope ..............................................................................................................163 5.5.1 Validate Scope: Inputs .....................................................................................165 5.5.2 Validate Scope: Tools and Techniques ............................................................166 5.5.3 Validate Scope: Outputs ...................................................................................166 5.6 Control Scope ...............................................................................................................167 5.6.1 Control Scope: Inputs .......................................................................................169 5.6.2 Control Scope: Tools and Techniques ..............................................................170 5.6.3 Control Scope: Outputs ....................................................................................170 6. PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT......................................................................................173 6.1 Plan Schedule Management ........................................................................................179 6.1.1 Plan Schedule Management: Inputs ................................................................180 6.1.2 Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques .......................................181 6.1.3 Plan Schedule Management: Outputs .............................................................181 6.2 Define Activities ............................................................................................................183 6.2.1 Define Activities: Inputs ...................................................................................184

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V 6.2.2 Define Activities: Tools and Techniques ..........................................................184 6.2.3 Define Activities: Outputs ................................................................................185 6.3 Sequence Activities ......................................................................................................187 6.3.1 Sequence Activities: Inputs .............................................................................188 6.3.2 Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques ....................................................189 6.3.3 Sequence Activities: Outputs ...........................................................................194 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations ..........................................................................................195 6.4.1 Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs .................................................................198 6.4.2 Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques ........................................200 6.4.3 Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs ..............................................................203 6.5 Develop Schedule .........................................................................................................205 6.5.1 Develop Schedule: Inputs ................................................................................207 6.5.2 Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques .......................................................209 6.5.3 Develop Schedule: Outputs ..............................................................................217 6.6 Control Schedule ..........................................................................................................222 6.6.1 Control Schedule: Inputs ..................................................................................224 6.6.2 Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques .........................................................226 6.6.3 Control Schedule: Outputs ...............................................................................228 7. PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT ..............................................................................................231 7.1 Plan Cost Management ................................................................................................235 7.1.1 Plan Cost Management: Inputs ........................................................................236 7.1.2 Plan Cost Management: Tools and Techniques ...............................................237 7.1.3 Plan Cost Management: Outputs .....................................................................238 7.2 Estimate Costs ..............................................................................................................240 7.2.1 Estimate Costs: Inputs .....................................................................................241 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: Tools and Techniques ............................................................243 7.2.3 Estimate Costs: Outputs ...................................................................................246 7.3 Determine Budget .........................................................................................................248 7.3.1 Determine Budget: Inputs ................................................................................250 7.3.2 Determine Budget: Tools and Techniques .......................................................252 7.3.3 Determine Budget: Outputs..............................................................................254

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VI Table of Contents 7.4 Control Costs ................................................................................................................257 7.4.1 Control Costs: Inputs ........................................................................................259 7.4.2 Control Costs: Tools and Techniques ...............................................................260 7.4.3 Control Costs: Outputs .....................................................................................268 8. PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT .........................................................................................271 8.1 Plan Quality Management ............................................................................................277 8.1.1 Plan Quality Management: Inputs ...................................................................279 8.1.2 Plan Quality Management: Tools and Techniques ..........................................281 8.1.3 Plan Quality Management: Outputs .................................................................286 8.2 Manage Quality .............................................................................................................288 8.2.1 Manage Quality: Inputs ....................................................................................290 8.2.2 Manage Quality: Tools and Techniques ...........................................................292 8.2.3 Manage Quality: Outputs ..................................................................................296 8.3 Control Quality ..............................................................................................................298 8.3.1 Control Quality: Inputs .....................................................................................300 8.3.2 Control Quality: Tools and Techniques ............................................................302 8.3.3 Control Quality: Outputs ...................................................................................305 9. PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................307 9.1 Plan Resource Management ........................................................................................312 9.1.1 Plan Resource Management: Inputs................................................................314 9.1.2 Plan Resource Management: Tools and Techniques .......................................315 9.1.3 Plan Resource Management: Outputs .............................................................318 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources ........................................................................................320 9.2.1 Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs ................................................................322 9.2.2 Estimate Activity Resources: Tools and Techniques .......................................324 9.2.3 Estimate Activity Resources: Outputs .............................................................325 9.3 Acquire Resources .......................................................................................................328 9.3.1 Acquire Resources: Inputs ...............................................................................330 9.3.2 Acquire Resources: Tools and Techniques ......................................................332 9.3.3 Acquire Resources: Outputs ............................................................................333

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VII 9.4 Develop Team................................................................................................................336 9.4.1 Develop Team: Inputs .......................................................................................339 9.4.2 Develop Team: Tools and Techniques ..............................................................340 9.4.3 Develop Team: Outputs ....................................................................................343 9.5 Manage Team................................................................................................................345 9.5.1 Manage Team: Inputs .......................................................................................347 9.5.2 Manage Team: Tools and Techniques ..............................................................348 9.5.3 Manage Team: Outputs ....................................................................................350 9.6 Control Resources ........................................................................................................352 9.6.1 Control Resources: Inputs ................................................................................354 9.6.2 Control Resources: Tools and Techniques .......................................................356 9.6.3 Control Resources: Outputs .............................................................................357 10. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT ......................................................................359 10.1 Plan Communications Management ..........................................................................366 10.1.1 Plan Communications Management: Inputs .................................................368 10.1.2 Plan Communications Management: Tools and Techniques ........................369 10.1.3 Plan Communications Management: Outputs ...............................................377 10.2 Manage Communications ..........................................................................................379 10.2.1 Manage Communications: Inputs ..................................................................381 10.2.2 Manage Communications: Tools and Techniques .........................................383 10.2.3 Manage Communications: Outputs ...............................................................387 10.3 Monitor Communications ...........................................................................................388 10.3.1 Monitor Communications: Inputs ..................................................................390 10.3.2 Monitor Communications: Tools and Techniques .........................................391 10.3.3 Monitor Communications: Outputs ................................................................392 11. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT .............................................................................................395 11.1 Plan Risk Management ..............................................................................................401 11.1.1 Plan Risk Management: Inputs ......................................................................402 11.1.2 Plan Risk Management: Tools and Techniques .............................................404 11.1.3 Plan Risk Management: Outputs ...................................................................405

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VIII Table of Contents 11.2 Identify Risks ..............................................................................................................409 11.2.1 Identify Risks: Inputs .....................................................................................411 11.2.2 Identify Risks: Tools and Techniques ............................................................414 11.2.3 Identify Risks: Outputs ...................................................................................417 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis .............................................................................419 11.3.1 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs .....................................................421 11.3.2 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Tools and Techniques ............................422 11.3.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Outputs ..................................................427 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ...........................................................................428 11.4.1 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs ..................................................430 11.4.2 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Tools and Techniques .........................431 11.4.3 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Outputs ................................................436 11.5 Plan Risk Responses ..................................................................................................437 11.5.1 Plan Risk Responses: Inputs .........................................................................439 11.5.2 Plan Risk Responses: Tools and Techniques ................................................441 11.5.3 Plan Risk Responses: Outputs .......................................................................447 11.6 Implement Risk Responses ........................................................................................449 11.6.1 Implement Risk Responses: Inputs ...............................................................450 11.6.2 Implement Risk Responses: Tools and Techniques ......................................451 11.6.3 Implement Risk Responses: Outputs.............................................................451 11.7 Monitor Risks ..............................................................................................................453 11.7.1 Monitor Risks: Inputs .....................................................................................455 11.7.2 Monitor Risks: Tools and Techniques ............................................................456 11.7.3 Monitor Risks: Outputs ..................................................................................457 12. PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT ............................................................................459 12.1 Plan Procurement Management ................................................................................466 12.1.1 Plan Procurement Management: Inputs ........................................................468 12.1.2 Plan Procurement Management: Tools and Techniques ...............................472 12.1.3 Plan Procurement Management: Outputs .....................................................475

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IX 12.2 Conduct Procurements ...............................................................................................482 12.2.1 Conduct Procurements: Inputs ......................................................................484 12.2.2 Conduct Procurements: Tools and Techniques .............................................487 12.2.3 Conduct Procurements: Outputs....................................................................488 12.3 Control Procurements ................................................................................................492 12.3.1 Control Procurements: Inputs ........................................................................495 12.3.2 Control Procurements: Tools and Techniques ...............................................497 12.3.3 Control Procurements: Outputs .....................................................................499 13. PROJECT STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT .............................................................................503 13.1 Identify Stakeholders .................................................................................................507 13.1.1 Identify Stakeholders: Inputs .........................................................................509 13.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and Techniques ................................................511 13.1.3 Identify Stakeholders: Outputs ......................................................................514 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement ...................................................................................516 13.2.1 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs ..........................................................518 13.2.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques .................................520 13.2.3 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs ........................................................522 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement .............................................................................523 13.3.1 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs ....................................................525 13.3.2 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques ...........................526 13.3.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs ..................................................528 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement .............................................................................530 13.4.1 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs.....................................................532 13.4.2 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques ............................533 13.4.3 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs ..................................................535 REFERENCES ..............................................................................................................................537

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X Table of Contents PART 2. THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................541 1.1 Projects and Project Management ...............................................................................542 1.2 Relationships Among Portfolios Programs and Projects ..........................................543 1.3 Linking Organizational Governance and Project Governance ....................................545 1.4 Project Success and Benefits Management ................................................................546 1.5 The Project Life Cycle ...................................................................................................547 1.6 Project Stakeholders ....................................................................................................550 1.7 Role of the Project Manager .........................................................................................552 1.8 Project Management Knowledge Areas ......................................................................553 1.9 Project Management Process Groups .........................................................................554 1.10 Enterprise Environmental Factors and Organizational Process Assets ...................557 1.11 Tailoring the Project Artifacts ....................................................................................558 2. INITIATING PROCESS GROUP .................................................................................................561 2.1 Develop Project Charter ...............................................................................................563 2.2 Identify Stakeholders ...................................................................................................563 2.2.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................564 2.2.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................564 2.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................564 2.2.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................564 3. PLANNING PROCESS GROUP ..................................................................................................565 3.1 Develop Project Management Plan ..............................................................................567 3.2 Plan Scope Management ..............................................................................................567 3.2.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................568 3.3 Collect Requirements ...................................................................................................568 3.3.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................568 3.3.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................569

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XI 3.4 Define Scope .................................................................................................................569 3.4.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................569 3.4.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................569 3.4.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................570 3.5 Create WBS ...................................................................................................................570 3.5.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................570 3.5.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................571 3.5.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................571 3.6 Plan Schedule Management ........................................................................................571 3.6.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................572 3.7 Define Activities ............................................................................................................572 3.7.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................572 3.7.2 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................572 3.8 Sequence Activities ......................................................................................................573 3.8.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................573 3.8.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................573 3.8.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................573 3.9 Estimate Activity Durations ..........................................................................................574 3.9.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................574 3.9.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................574 3.9.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................575 3.10 Develop Schedule .......................................................................................................575 3.10.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................575 3.10.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................576 3.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................576 3.10.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................576 3.11 Plan Cost Management ..............................................................................................577 3.11.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................577

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XII Table of Contents 3.12 Estimate Costs ............................................................................................................577 3.12.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................578 3.12.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................578 3.12.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................578 3.13 Determine Budget .......................................................................................................578 3.13.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................579 3.13.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................579 3.13.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................579 3.14 Plan Quality Management ..........................................................................................580 3.14.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................580 3.14.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................580 3.14.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................581 3.14.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................581 3.15 Plan Resource Management ......................................................................................581 3.15.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................582 3.15.2 Project Documents .........................................................................................582 3.15.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................582 3.16 Estimate Activity Resources ......................................................................................582 3.16.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................583 3.16.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................583 3.16.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................583 3.17 Plan Communications Management ..........................................................................584 3.17.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................584 3.17.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................584 3.17.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................584 3.17.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................585 3.18 Plan Risk Management ..............................................................................................585 3.18.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................585 3.18.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................585

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XIII 3.19 Identify Risks ..............................................................................................................586 3.19.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................586 3.19.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................587 3.19.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................587 3.20 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis .............................................................................588 3.20.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................588 3.20.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................588 3.20.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................589 3.21 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ...........................................................................589 3.21.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................589 3.21.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................590 3.21.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................590 3.22 Plan Risk Responses ..................................................................................................590 3.22.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................591 3.22.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................591 3.22.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................591 3.22.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................592 3.23 Plan Procurement Management ................................................................................592 3.23.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................593 3.23.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................593 3.23.3 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................593 3.24 Plan Stakeholder Engagement ...................................................................................594 3.24.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................594 3.24.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................594 4. EXECUTING PROCESS GROUP ................................................................................................595 4.1 Direct and Manage Project Work .................................................................................597 4.1.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................597 4.1.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................597 4.1.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................598 4.1.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................598

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XIV Table of Contents 4.2 Manage Project Knowledge .........................................................................................598 4.2.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................599 4.2.2 Project Documents ...........................................................................................599 4.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................599 4.3 Manage Quality .............................................................................................................599 4.3.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................600 4.3.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................600 4.3.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................600 4.3.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................600 4.4 Acquire Resources .......................................................................................................601 4.4.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................601 4.4.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................601 4.4.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................602 4.4.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................602 4.5 Develop Team................................................................................................................602 4.5.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................603 4.5.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................603 4.5.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................603 4.5.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................603 4.6 Manage Team................................................................................................................604 4.6.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................604 4.6.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................604 4.6.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................605 4.6.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................605 4.7 Manage Communications ............................................................................................605 4.7.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................606 4.7.2 Project Documents Example ............................................................................606 4.7.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................606 4.7.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................606

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XV 4.8 Implement Risk Responses ..........................................................................................607 4.8.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................607 4.8.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................607 4.8.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................607 4.9 Conduct Procurements .................................................................................................608 4.9.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................608 4.9.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................609 4.9.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................609 4.9.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................609 4.10 Manage Stakeholder Engagement .............................................................................610 4.10.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................610 4.10.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................610 4.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................611 4.10.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................611 5. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING PROCESS GROUP ............................................................613 5.1 Monitor and Control Project Work ...............................................................................615 5.1.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................615 5.1.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................615 5.1.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................616 5.1.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................616 5.2 Perform Integrated Change Control .............................................................................616 5.2.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................617 5.2.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................617 5.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................617 5.2.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................617 5.3 Validate Scope ..............................................................................................................618 5.3.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................618 5.3.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................618 5.3.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................619

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XVI Table of Contents 5.4 Control Scope ...............................................................................................................619 5.4.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................619 5.4.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................620 5.4.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................620 5.4.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................620 5.5 Control Schedule ..........................................................................................................621 5.5.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................621 5.5.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................621 5.5.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................622 5.5.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................622 5.6 Control Costs ................................................................................................................622 5.6.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................623 5.6.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................623 5.6.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................623 5.6.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................623 5.7 Control Quality ..............................................................................................................624 5.7.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................624 5.7.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................624 5.7.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................625 5.7.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................625 5.8 Control Resources ........................................................................................................625 5.8.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................626 5.8.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................626 5.8.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................626 5.8.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................626 5.9 Monitor Communications .............................................................................................627 5.9.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................627 5.9.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................627 5.9.3 Project Management Plan Updates .................................................................628 5.9.4 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................628

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XVII 5.10 Monitor Risks ..............................................................................................................628 5.10.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................629 5.10.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................629 5.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................629 5.10.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................629 5.11 Control Procurements ................................................................................................629 5.11.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................630 5.11.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................630 5.11.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................631 5.11.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................631 5.12 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement .............................................................................631 5.12.1 Project Management Plan Components ........................................................632 5.12.2 Project Documents Examples ........................................................................632 5.12.3 Project Management Plan Updates ...............................................................632 5.12.4 Project Documents Updates ..........................................................................632 6. CLOSING PROCESS GROUP .....................................................................................................633 6.1 Close Project or Phase .................................................................................................634 6.1.1 Project Management Plan Components ..........................................................634 6.1.2 Project Documents Examples ..........................................................................635 6.1.3 Project Documents Updates ............................................................................635

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XVIII Table of Contents PART 3. APPENDICES GLOSSARY AND INDEX APPENDIX X1 SIXTH EDITION CHANGES .......................................................................................................... 639 APPENDIX X2 CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS OF THE PMBOK ® GUIDE—SIXTH EDITION .......................... 651 APPENDIX X3 AGILE ITERATIVE ADAPTIVE AND HYBRID PROJECT ENVIRONMENTS .................................. 665 APPENDIX X4 SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS FOR KNOWLEDGE AREAS ......................................................... 673 APPENDIX X5 SUMMARY OF TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS FOR KNOWLEDGE AREAS .................................. 679 APPENDIX X6 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES .......................................................................................................... 685 GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................................. 695

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XIX LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES PART 1. A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE PMBOK ® Guide Figure 1-1. Organizational State Transition via a Project .....................................................6 Figure 1-2. Project Initiation Context .....................................................................................8 Figure 1-3. Portfolio Programs Projects and Operations..................................................12 Figure 1-4. Organizational Project Management ................................................................17 Figure 1-5. Interrelationship of PMBOK ® Guide Key Components in Projects ...................18 Figure 1-6. Example Process: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs............................22 Figure 1-7. Project Data Information and Report Flow .....................................................27 Figure 1-8. Interrelationship of Needs Assessment and Critical Business/ Project Documents ............................................................................................30 Figure 2-1. Project Influences ..............................................................................................37 Figure 3-1. Example of Project Manager’s Sphere of Influence .........................................53 Figure 3-2. The PMI Talent Triangle ® ...................................................................................57 Figure 4-1. Project Integration Management Overview ......................................................71 Figure 4-2. Develop Project Charter: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .................75 Figure 4-3. Develop Project Charter: Data Flow Diagram ...................................................76 Figure 4-4. Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs........................................................................................................82

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XX List of Tables and Figures Figure 4-5. Develop Project Management Plan: Data Flow Diagram .................................82 Figure 4-6. Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs........................................................................................................90 Figure 4-7. Direct and Manage Project Work: Data Flow Diagram .....................................91 Figure 4-8. Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...........98 Figure 4-9. Manage Project Knowledge: Data Flow Diagram .............................................99 Figure 4-10. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................105 Figure 4-11. Monitor and Control Project Work: Data Flow Diagram .................................106 Figure 4-12. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................113 Figure 4-13. Perform Integrated Change Control: Data Flow Diagram ..............................114 Figure 4-14. Close Project or Phase: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .................121 Figure 4-15. Close Project or Phase: Data Flow Diagram ...................................................122 Figure 5-1. Project Scope Management Overview ............................................................130 Figure 5-2. Plan Scope Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .............134 Figure 5-3. Plan Scope Management: Data Flow Diagram ...............................................134 Figure 5-4. Collect Requirements: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ..................138 Figure 5-5. Collect Requirements: Data Flow Diagram .....................................................139 Figure 5-6. Context Diagram ..............................................................................................146 Figure 5-7. Example of a Requirements Traceability Matrix ............................................149 Figure 5-8. Define Scope: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ................................150 Figure 5-9. Define Scope: Data Flow Diagram ..................................................................151 Figure 5-10. Create WBS: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ..................................156 Figure 5-11. Create WBS: Data Flow Diagram .....................................................................156 Figure 5-12. Sample WBS Decomposed Down Through Work Packages ...........................158 Figure 5-13. Sample WBS Organized by Phase ...................................................................159

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XXI Figure 5-14. Sample WBS with Major Deliverables.............................................................160 Figure 5-15. Validate Scope: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .............................163 Figure 5-16. Validate Scope: Data Flow Diagram ................................................................164 Figure 5-17. Control Scope: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...............................167 Figure 5-18. Control Scope: Data Flow Diagram .................................................................168 Figure 6-1. Project Schedule Management Overview .......................................................174 Figure 6-2. Scheduling Overview .......................................................................................176 Figure 6-3. Plan Schedule Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ........179 Figure 6-4. Plan Schedule Management: Data Flow Diagram ..........................................179 Figure 6-5. Define Activities: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...........................183 Figure 6-6. Define Activities: Data Flow Diagram .............................................................183 Figure 6-7. Sequence Activities: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .....................187 Figure 6-8. Sequence Activities: Data Flow Diagram ........................................................187 Figure 6-9. Precedence Diagramming Method PDM Relationship Types ......................190 Figure 6-10. Examples of Lead and Lag ..............................................................................192 Figure 6-11. Project Schedule Network Diagram ................................................................193 Figure 6-12. Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .........195 Figure 6-13. Estimate Activity Durations: Data Flow Diagram ...........................................196 Figure 6-14. Develop Schedule: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ........................205 Figure 6-15. Develop Schedule: Data Flow Diagram ...........................................................206 Figure 6-16. Example of Critical Path Method .....................................................................211 Figure 6-17. Resource Leveling ...........................................................................................212 Figure 6-18. Example Probability Distribution of a Target Milestone .................................214 Figure 6-19. Schedule Compression Comparison ...............................................................215 Figure 6-20. Relationship Between Product Vision Release Planning and Iteration Planning .....................................................................................216

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XXII List of Tables and Figures Figure 6-21. Project Schedule Presentations—Examples ..................................................219 Figure 6-22. Control Schedule: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ..........................222 Figure 6-23. Control Schedule: Data Flow Diagram ............................................................223 Figure 6-24. Iteration Burndown Chart ................................................................................226 Figure 7-1. Project Cost Management Overview ...............................................................232 Figure 7-2. Plan Cost Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ................235 Figure 7-3. Plan Cost Management: Data Flow Diagram ..................................................235 Figure 7-4. Estimate Costs: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .............................240 Figure 7-5. Estimate Costs: Data Flow Diagram ...............................................................240 Figure 7-6. Determine Budget: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ........................248 Figure 7-7. Determine Budget: Data Flow Diagram ..........................................................249 Figure 7-8. Project Budget Components ............................................................................255 Figure 7-9. Cost Baseline Expenditures and Funding Requirements .............................255 Figure 7-10. Control Costs: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ................................257 Figure 7-11. Control Costs: Data Flow Diagram ..................................................................258 Figure 7-12. Earned Value Planned Value and Actual Costs .............................................264 Figure 7-13. To-Complete Performance Index TCPI ..........................................................268 Figure 8-1. Project Quality Management Overview ...........................................................272 Figure 8-2. Major Project Quality Management Process Interrelations ...........................273 Figure 8-3. Plan Quality Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...........277 Figure 8-4. Plan Quality Management: Data Flow Diagram ..............................................278 Figure 8-5. Cost of Quality..................................................................................................283 Figure 8-6. The SIPOC Model..............................................................................................285 Figure 8-7. Manage Quality: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ............................288 Figure 8-8. Manage Quality: Data Flow Diagram ..............................................................289 Figure 8-9. Cause-and-Effect Diagram ..............................................................................294

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XXIII Figure 8-10. Control Quality: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .............................298 Figure 8-11. Control Quality: Data Flow Diagram ................................................................299 Figure 8-12. Check Sheets ...................................................................................................302 Figure 9-1. Project Resource Management Overview .......................................................308 Figure 9-2. Plan Resource Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .......312 Figure 9-3. Plan Resource Management: Data Flow Diagram ..........................................313 Figure 9-4. Sample RACI Chart ..........................................................................................317 Figure 9-5. Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ........321 Figure 9-6. Estimate Activity Resources: Data Flow Diagram ..........................................321 Figure 9-7. Sample Resource Breakdown Structure .........................................................327 Figure 9-8. Acquire Resources: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .......................328 Figure 9-9. Acquire Resources: Data Flow Diagram .........................................................329 Figure 9-10. Develop Team: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...............................336 Figure 9-11. Develop Team: Data Flow Diagram .................................................................337 Figure 9-12. Manage Team: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...............................345 Figure 9-13. Manage Team: Data Flow Diagram .................................................................346 Figure 9-14. Control Resources: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs........................352 Figure 9-15. Control Resources: Data Flow Diagram ..........................................................353 Figure 10-1. Project Communications Overview .................................................................360 Figure 10-2. Plan Communications Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................366 Figure 10-3. Plan Communications Management: Data Flow Diagram .............................367 Figure 10-4. Communication Model for Cross-Cultural Communication ...........................373 Figure 10-5. Manage Communications: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ............379 Figure 10-6. Manage Communications: Data Flow Diagram ..............................................380 Figure 10-7. Monitor Communications: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ............388

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XXIV List of Tables and Figures Figure 10-8. Monitor Communications: Data Flow Diagram ..............................................389 Figure 11-1. Project Risk Management Overview ...............................................................396 Figure 11-2. Plan Risk Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ................401 Figure 11-3. Plan Risk Management: Data Flow Diagram ..................................................402 Figure 11-4. Extract from Sample Risk Breakdown Structure RBS .................................406 Figure 11-5. Example Probability and Impact Matrix with Scoring Scheme .....................408 Figure 11-6. Identify Risks: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...............................409 Figure 11-7. Identify Risks: Data Flow Diagram .................................................................410 Figure 11-8. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................419 Figure 11-9. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram .................................420 Figure 11-10. Example Bubble Chart Showing Detectability Proximity and Impact Value .............................................................................................426 Figure 11-11. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................428 Figure 11-12. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram ...............................429 Figure 11-13. Example S-Curve from Quantitative Cost Risk Analysis ................................433 Figure 11-14. Example Tornado Diagram ..............................................................................434 Figure 11-15. Example Decision Tree ....................................................................................435 Figure 11-16. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...................437 Figure 11-17. Plan Risk Responses: Data Flow Diagram ......................................................438 Figure 11-18. Implement Risk Responses: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs .........449 Figure 11-19. Implement Risk Responses: Data Flow Diagram ...........................................449 Figure 11-20. Monitor Risks: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ...............................453 Figure 11-21. Monitor Risks: Data Flow Diagram .................................................................454 Figure 12-1. Project Procurement Management Overview .................................................460

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XXV Figure 12-2. Plan Procurement Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ....466 Figure 12-3. Plan Procurement Management: Data Flow Diagram ....................................467 Figure 12-4. Conduct Procurements: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ................482 Figure 12-5. Conduct Procurements: Data Flow Diagram ..................................................483 Figure 12-6. Control Procurements: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ..................492 Figure 12-7. Control Procurements: Data Flow Diagram ....................................................493 Figure 13-1. Project Stakeholder Management Overview ..................................................504 Figure 13-2. Identify Stakeholders: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs...................507 Figure 13-3. Identify Stakeholders: Data Flow Diagram .....................................................508 Figure 13-4. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs ....516 Figure 13-5. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram ......................................517 Figure 13-6. Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix ...............................................522 Figure 13-7. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................523 Figure 13-8. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram ................................524 Figure 13-9. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs......................................................................................................530 Figure 13-10. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram .................................531 Table 1-1. Examples of Factors that Lead to the Creation of a Project ..............................9 Table 1-2. Comparative Overview of Portfolios Programs and Projects .........................13 Table 1-3. Description of PMBOK ® Guide Key Components ..............................................18 Table 1-4. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping ..............25 Table 1-5. Project Business Documents ............................................................................29 Table 2-1. Influences of Organizational Structures on Projects .......................................47 Table 3-1. Team Management and Team Leadership Compared ......................................64

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XXVI List of Tables and Figures Table 4-1. Project Management Plan and Project Documents ..........................................89 Table 5-1. Elements of the Project Charter and Project Scope Statement .....................155 Table 7-1. Earned Value Calculations Summary Table ....................................................267 Table 11-1. Example of Definitions for Probability and Impacts ......................................407 Table 12-1. Comparison of Procurement Documentation .................................................481 PART 2. The Standard For Project Management Figure 1-1. Example of Portfolio Program and Project Management Interfaces ...........544 Figure 1-2. Generic Depiction of a Project Life Cycle........................................................548 Figure 1-3. Impact of Variables Over Time ........................................................................549 Figure 1-4. Examples of Project Stakeholders ..................................................................551 Figure 1-5. Example of Process Group Interactions Within a Project or Phase ...............555 Figure 2-1. Project Boundaries ..........................................................................................562 Figure 2-2. Initiating Process Group ..................................................................................562 Figure 2-3. Develop Project Charter: Inputs and Outputs .................................................563 Figure 2-4. Identify Stakeholders: Inputs and Outputs .....................................................563 Figure 3-1. Planning Process Group ..................................................................................566 Figure 3-2. Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs and Outputs ...............................567 Figure 3-3. Plan Scope Management: Inputs and Outputs ...............................................567 Figure 3-4. Collect Requirements: Inputs and Outputs .....................................................568 Figure 3-5. Define Scope: Inputs and Outputs ..................................................................569 Figure 3-6. Create WBS: Inputs and Outputs .....................................................................570 Figure 3-7. Plan Schedule Management: Inputs and Outputs ..........................................571 Figure 3-8. Define Activities: Inputs and Outputs .............................................................572

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XXVII Figure 3-9. Sequence Activities: Inputs and Outputs ........................................................573 Figure 3-10. Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs and Outputs ...........................................574 Figure 3-11. Develop Schedule: Inputs and Outputs ...........................................................575 Figure 3-12. Plan Cost Management: Inputs and Outputs ..................................................577 Figure 3-13. Estimate Costs: Inputs and Outputs................................................................577 Figure 3-14. Determine Budget: Inputs and Outputs ..........................................................579 Figure 3-15. Plan Quality Management: Inputs and Outputs ..............................................580 Figure 3-16. Plan Resource Management: Inputs and Outputs ..........................................581 Figure 3-17. Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs and Outputs ..........................................583 Figure 3-18. Plan Communications Management: Inputs and Outputs .............................584 Figure 3-19. Plan Risk Management: Inputs and Outputs ..................................................585 Figure 3-20. Identify Risks: Inputs and Outputs..................................................................586 Figure 3-21. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs and Outputs .................................588 Figure 3-22. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs and Outputs ...............................589 Figure 3-23. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs and Outputs ......................................................590 Figure 3-24. Plan Procurement Management: Inputs and Outputs ....................................592 Figure 3-25. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs and Outputs ......................................594 Figure 4-1. Executing Process Group ................................................................................596 Figure 4-2. Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs and Outputs ...................................597 Figure 4-3. Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs and Outputs ...........................................598 Figure 4-4. Manage Quality: Inputs and Outputs ..............................................................599 Figure 4-5. Acquire Resources: Inputs and Outputs .........................................................601 Figure 4-6. Develop Team: Inputs and Outputs .................................................................602 Figure 4-7. Manage Team: Inputs and Outputs .................................................................604 Figure 4-8. Manage Communications: Inputs and Outputs ..............................................605 Figure 4-9. Implement Risk Responses: Inputs and Outputs ...........................................607

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XXVIII List of Tables and Figures Figure 4-10. Conduct Procurements: Inputs and Outputs ..................................................608 Figure 4-11. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs and Outputs ................................610 Figure 5-1. Monitoring and Controlling Process Group ....................................................614 Figure 5-2. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs and Outputs .................................615 Figure 5-3. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs and Outputs ...............................616 Figure 5-4. Validate Scope: Inputs and Outputs ................................................................618 Figure 5-5. Control Scope: Inputs and Outputs .................................................................619 Figure 5-6. Control Schedule: Inputs and Outputs ............................................................621 Figure 5-7. Control Costs: Inputs and Outputs ..................................................................622 Figure 5-8. Control Quality: Inputs and Outputs ................................................................624 Figure 5-9. Control Resources: Inputs and Outputs ..........................................................625 Figure 5-10. Monitor Communications: Inputs and Outputs ..............................................627 Figure 5-11. Monitor Risks: Inputs and Outputs .................................................................628 Figure 5-12. Control Procurements: Inputs and Outputs ....................................................630 Figure 5-13. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs and Outputs .................................631 Figure 6-1. Closing Process Group ....................................................................................633 Figure 6-2. Close Project or Phase: Inputs and Outputs ...................................................634 Table 1-1. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping ............556 Table 1-2. Project Management Plan and Project Documents ........................................559

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XXIX PART 3. APPENDICES GLOSSARY AND INDEX Figure X3-1. The Continuum of Project Life Cycles .............................................................666 Figure X3-2. Level of Effort for Process Groups across Iteration Cycles ...........................667 Figure X3-3. Relationship of Process Groups in Continuous Phases .................................668 Table X1-1. Section 4 Changes ...........................................................................................645 Table X1-2. Section 6 Changes ...........................................................................................646 Table X1-3. Section 8 Changes ...........................................................................................646 Table X1-4. Section 9 Changes ...........................................................................................647 Table X1-5. Section 10 Changes .........................................................................................648 Table X1-6. Section 11 Changes .........................................................................................648 Table X1-7. Section 12 Changes .........................................................................................649 Table X1-8. Section 13 Changes .........................................................................................650 Table X6-1. Categorization and Index of Tools and Techniques ........................................686

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Reproduction. Sale Distribution Sale Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Not For Distribution For Distribution Not For For Not Distribution Distribution Not For Distribution Sale Distribution Sale Distribution Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. or Sale Sale or Sale Sale Sale Distribution Sale Sale Sale Sale Distribution Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. or Sale Sale Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. or Sale or or or Sale or or Sale Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. or Reproduction. Reproduction. or Sale or Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. or Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Sale Distribution Distribution Sale Sale Reproduction. Reproduction. Sale Distribution Distribution Sale Sale Reproduction. Sale Distribution Distribution Distribution Sale Sale Reproduction. Sale Distribution Distribution Reproduction. Distribution Sale Sale Reproduction. Reproduction. Sale Distribution Distribution Sale Sale Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Reproduction. Part 1 A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK ® GUIDE The information contained in this part is not an American National Standard ANS and has not been processed in accordance with ANSI’s requirements for an ANS. As such the information in this part may contain material that has not been subjected to public review or a consensus process. In addition it does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to an ANS standard.

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1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE Project management is not new. It has been in use for hundreds of years. Examples of project outcomes include: uu Pyramids of Giza uu Olympic games uu Great Wall of China uu Taj Mahal uu Publication of a children’s book uu Panama Canal uu Development of commercial jet airplanes uu Polio vaccine uu Human beings landing on the moon uu Commercial software applications uu Portable devices to use the global positioning system GPS and uu Placement of the International Space Station into Earth’s orbit. The outcomes of these projects were the result of leaders and managers applying project management practices principles processes tools and techniques to their work. The managers of these projects used a set of key skills and applied knowledge to satisfy their customers and other people involved in and affected by the project. By the mid-20th century project managers began the work of seeking recognition for project management as a profession. One aspect of this work involved obtaining agreement on the content of the body of knowledge BOK called project management. This BOK became known as the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK. The Project Management Institute PMI produced a baseline of charts and glossaries for the PMBOK. Project managers soon realized that no single book could contain the entire PMBOK. Therefore PMI developed and published A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK ® Guide. PMI defines the project management body of knowledge PMBOK as a term that describes the knowledge within the profession of project management. The project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession.

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2 Part 1 - Guide The body of knowledge BOK includes both published and unpublished materials. This body of knowledge is constantly evolving. This PMBOK ® Guide identifies a subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice. uu Generally recognized means the knowledge and practices described are applicable to most projects most of the time and there is consensus about their value and usefulness. uu Good practice means there is general agreement that the application of the knowledge skills tools and techniques to project management processes can enhance the chance of success over many projects in delivering the expected business values and results. The project manager works with the project team and other stakeholders to determine and use the appropriate generally recognized good practices for each project. Determining the appropriate combination of processes inputs tools techniques outputs and life cycle phases to manage a project is referred to as “tailoring” the application of the knowledge described in this guide. This PMBOK ® Guide is different from a methodology. A methodology is a system of practices techniques procedures and rules used by those who work in a discipline. This PMBOK ® Guide is a foundation upon which organizations can build methodologies policies procedures rules tools and techniques and life cycle phases needed to practice project management. 1.1.1 THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT This guide is based on The Standard for Project Management 1. A standard is a document established by an authority custom or general consent as a model or example. As an American National Standards Institute ANSI standard The Standard for Project Management was developed using a process based on the concepts of consensus openness due process and balance. The Standard for Project Management is a foundational reference for PMI’s project management professional development programs and the practice of project management. Because project management needs to be tailored to fit the needs of the project the standard and the guide are both based on descriptive practices rather than prescriptive practices. Therefore the standard identifies the processes that are considered good practices on most projects most of the time. The standard also identifies the inputs and outputs that are usually associated with those processes. The standard does not require that any particular process or practice be performed. The Standard for Project Management is included as Part II of A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK ® Guide. The PMBOK ® Guide provides more detail about key concepts emerging trends considerations for tailoring the project management processes and information on how tools and techniques are applied to projects. Project managers may use one or more methodologies to implement the project management processes outlined in the standard.

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3 The scope of this guide is limited to the discipline of project management rather than the full spectrum of portfolios programs and projects. Portfolios and programs will be addressed only to the degree they interact with projects. PMI publishes two other standards that address the management of portfolios and programs: uu The Standard for Portfolio Management 2 and uu The Standard for Program Management 3. 1.1.2 COMMON VOCABULARY A common vocabulary is an essential element of a professional discipline. The PMI Lexicon of Project Management Terms 4 provides the foundational professional vocabulary that can be consistently used by organizations portfolio program and project managers and other project stakeholders. The Lexicon will continue to evolve over time. The glossary to this guide includes the vocabulary in the Lexicon along with additional definitions. There may be other industry-specific terms used in projects that are defined by that industry’s literature. 1.1.3 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT PMI publishes the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct 5 to instill confidence in the project management profession and to help an individual in making wise decisions particularly when faced with difficult situations where the individual may be asked to compromise his or her integrity or values. The values that the global project management community defined as most important were responsibility respect fairness and honesty. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct affirms these four values as its foundation. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct includes both aspirational standards and mandatory standards. The aspirational standards describe the conduct that practitioners who are also PMI members certification holders or volunteers strive to uphold. Although adherence to the aspirational standards is not easily measured conduct in accordance with these is an expectation for those who consider themselves to be professionals—it is not optional. The mandatory standards establish firm requirements and in some cases limit or prohibit practitioner behavior. Practitioners who are also PMI members certification holders or volunteers and who do not conduct themselves in accordance with these standards will be subject to disciplinary procedures before PMI’s Ethics Review Committee.

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4 Part 1 - Guide 1.2 FOUNDATIONAL ELEMENTS This section describes foundational elements necessary for working in and understanding the discipline of project management. 1.2.1 PROJECTS A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product service or result. uu Unique product service or result. Projects are undertaken to fulfill objectives by producing deliverables. An objective is defined as an outcome toward which work is to be directed a strategic position to be attained a purpose to be achieved a result to be obtained a product to be produced or a service to be performed. A deliverable is defined as any unique and verifiable product result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process phase or project. Deliverables may be tangible or intangible. Fulfillment of project objectives may produce one or more of the following deliverables: u n A unique product that can be either a component of another item an enhancement or correction to an item or a new end item in itself e.g. the correction of a defect in an end item u n A unique service or a capability to perform a service e.g. a business function that supports production or distribution u n A unique result such as an outcome or document e.g. a research project that develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether a trend exists or a new process will benefit society and u n A unique combination of one or more products services or results e.g. a software application its associated documentation and help desk services. Repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables and activities. This repetition does not change the fundamental and unique characteristics of the project work. For example office buildings can be constructed with the same or similar materials and by the same or different teams. However each building project remains unique in key characteristics e.g. location design environment situation people involved. Projects are undertaken at all organizational levels. A project can involve a single individual or a group. A project can involve a single organizational unit or multiple organizational units from multiple organizations.

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5 Examples of projects include but are not limited to: u n Developing a new pharmaceutical compound for market u n Expanding a tour guide service u n Merging two organizations u n Improving a business process within an organization u n Acquiring and installing a new computer hardware system for use in an organization u n Exploring for oil in a region u n Modifying a computer software program used in an organization u n Conducting research to develop a new manufacturing process and u n Constructing a building. uu Temporary endeavor. The temporary nature of projects indicates that a project has a definite beginning and end. Temporary does not necessarily mean a project has a short duration. The end of the project is reached when one or more of the following is true: u n The project’s objectives have been achieved u n The objectives will not or cannot be met u n Funding is exhausted or no longer available for allocation to the project u n The need for the project no longer exists e.g. the customer no longer wants the project completed a change in strategy or priority ends the project the organizational management provides direction to end the project u n The human or physical resources are no longer available or u n The project is terminated for legal cause or convenience. Projects are temporary but their deliverables may exist beyond the end of the project. Projects may produce deliverables of a social economic material or environmental nature. For example a project to build a national monument will create a deliverable expected to last for centuries.

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6 Part 1 - Guide uu Projects drive change. Projects drive change in organizations. From a business perspective a project is aimed at moving an organization from one state to another state in order to achieve a specific objective see Figure 1-1. Before the project begins the organization is commonly referred to as being in the current state. The desired result of the change driven by the project is described as the future state. For some projects this may involve creating a transition state where multiple steps are made along a continuum to achieve the future state. The successful completion of a project results in the organization moving to the future state and achieving the specific objective. For more information on project management and change see Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide 6. Figure 1-1. Organizational State Transition via a Project Organization Business Value Time Project Activities • Activity A • Activity B • Activity C • Etc. Future State Current State Project

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7 uu Projects enable business value creation. PMI defines business value as the net quantifiable benefit derived from a business endeavor. The benefit may be tangible intangible or both. In business analysis business value is considered the return in the form of elements such as time money goods or intangibles in return for something exchanged see Business Analysis for Practitioners: A Practice Guide p. 185 7. Business value in projects refers to the benefit that the results of a specific project provide to its stakeholders. The benefit from projects may be tangible intangible or both. Examples of tangible elements include: u n Monetary assets u n Stockholder equity u n Utility u n Fixtures u n Tools and u n Market share. Examples of intangible elements include: u n Goodwill u n Brand recognition u n Public benefit u n Trademarks u n Strategic alignment and u n Reputation. uu Project Initiation Context. Organizational leaders initiate projects in response to factors acting upon their organizations. There are four fundamental categories for these factors which illustrate the context of a project see Figure 1-2: u n Meet regulatory legal or social requirements u n Satisfy stakeholder requests or needs u n Implement or change business or technological strategies and u n Create improve or fix products processes or services.

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8 Part 1 - Guide Figure 1-2. Project Initiation Context These factors influence an organization’s ongoing operations and business strategies. Leaders respond to these factors in order to keep the organization viable. Projects provide the means for organizations to successfully make the changes necessary to deal with these factors. These factors ultimately should link to the strategic objectives of the organization and the business value of each project. Table 1-1 illustrates how example factors could align with one or more of the fundamental factor categories. Satisfy Stakeholder Requests or Needs Implement or Change Business or Technological Strategies Meet Regulatory Legal or Social Requirements Create Improve or Fix Products Processes or Services Project

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9 X X X X XX X X X XX X X X X X X X XX Examples of Specific Factors Meet Regulatory Legal or Social Requirements Satisfy Stakeholder Requests or Needs Create Improve or Fix Products Processes or Services Implement or Change Business or Technological Strategies An electronics firm authorizes a new project to develop a faster cheaper and smaller laptop based on advances in computer memory and electronics technology Lower pricing on products by a competitor results in the need to lower production costs to remain competitive A municipal bridge developed cracks in some support members resulting in a project to fix the problems A newly elected official instigating project funding changes to a current project A car company authorizes a project to build more fuel-efficient cars in response to gasoline shortages An economic downturn results in a change in the priorities for a current project An electric utility authorizes a project to build a substation to serve a new industrial park A stakeholder requires that a new output be produced by the organization A chemical manufacturer authorizes a project to establish guidelines for the proper handling of a new toxic material An organization implements a project resulting from a Lean Six Sigma value stream mapping exercise A training company authorizes a project to create a new course to increase its revenues A nongovernmental organization in a developing country authorizes a project to provide potable water systems latrines and sanitation education to communities suffering from high rates of infectious diseases A public company authorizes a project to create a new service for electric car sharing to reduce pollution New technology Competitive forces Material issues Political changes Market demand Economic changes Customer request Stakeholder demands Legal requirement Business process improvements Strategic opportunity or business need Social need Environmental considerations Specific Factor Table 1-1. Examples of Factors that Lead to the Creation of a Project

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10 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project management is the application of knowledge skills tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the project management processes identified for the project. Project management enables organizations to execute projects effectively and efficiently. Effective project management helps individuals groups and public and private organizations to: uu Meet business objectives uu Satisfy stakeholder expectations uu Be more predictable uu Increase chances of success uu Deliver the right products at the right time uu Resolve problems and issues uu Respond to risks in a timely manner uu Optimize the use of organizational resources uu Identify recover or terminate failing projects uu Manage constraints e.g. scope quality schedule costs resources uu Balance the influence of constraints on the project e.g. increased scope may increase cost or schedule and uu Manage change in a better manner. Poorly managed projects or the absence of project management may result in: uu Missed deadlines uu Cost overruns uu Poor quality uu Rework uu Uncontrolled expansion of the project uu Loss of reputation for the organization uu Unsatisfied stakeholders and uu Failure in achieving the objectives for which the project was undertaken. Projects are a key way to create value and benefits in organizations. In today’s business environment organizational leaders need to be able to manage with tighter budgets shorter timelines scarcity of resources and rapidly changing technology. The business environment is dynamic with an accelerating rate of change. To remain competitive in the world economy companies are embracing project management to consistently deliver business value.

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11 Effective and efficient project management should be considered a strategic competency within organizations. It enables organizations to: uu Tie project results to business goals uu Compete more effectively in their markets uu Sustain the organization and uu Respond to the impact of business environment changes on projects by appropriately adjusting project management plans see Section 4.2. 1.2.3 RELATIONSHIP OF PROJECT PROGRAM PORTFOLIO AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1.2.3.1 OVERVIEW Using project management processes tools and techniques puts in place a sound foundation for organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. A project may be managed in three separate scenarios: as a stand-alone project outside of a portfolio or program within a program or within a portfolio. Project managers interact with portfolio and program managers when a project is within a program or portfolio. For example multiple projects may be needed to accomplish a set of goals and objectives for an organization. In those situations projects may be grouped together into a program. A program is defined as a group of related projects subsidiary programs and program activities managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Programs are not large projects. A very large project may be referred to as a megaproject. As a guideline megaprojects cost US1billion or more affect 1 million or more people and run for years. Some organizations may employ the use of a project portfolio to effectively manage multiple programs and projects that are underway at any given time. A portfolio is defined as projects programs subsidiary portfolios and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Figure 1-3 illustrates an example of how portfolios programs projects and operations are related in a specific situation. Program management and portfolio management differ from project management in their life cycles activities objectives focus and benefits. However portfolios programs projects and operations often engage with the same stakeholders and may need to use the same resources see Figure 1-3 which may result in a conflict in the organization. This type of a situation increases the need for coordination within the organization through the use of portfolio program and project management to achieve a workable balance in the organization.

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12 Part 1 - Guide Figure 1-3 illustrates a sample portfolio structure indicating relationships between the programs projects shared resources and stakeholders. The portfolio components are grouped together in order to facilitate the effective governance and management of the work that helps to achieve organizational strategies and priorities. Organizational and portfolio planning impact the components by means of prioritization based on risk funding and other considerations. The portfolio view allows organizations to see how the strategic goals are reflected in the portfolio. This portfolio view also enables the implementation and coordination of appropriate portfolio program and project governance. This coordinated governance allows authorized allocation of human financial and physical resources based on expected performance and benefits. Figure 1-3. Portfolio Programs Projects and Operations Looking at project program and portfolio management from an organizational perspective: uu Program and project management focus on doing programs and projects the “right” way and uu Portfolio management focuses on doing the “right” programs and projects. Table 1-2 gives a comparative overview of portfolios programs and projects. Organizational Strategy Sample Portfolio Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Project 5 Project 6 Project 7 Project 8 Project 9 Operations Shared Resources and Stakeholders Program C Program B1 Program A Program B Portfolio A

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13 Table 1-2. Comparative Overview of Portfolios Programs and Projects Organizational Project Management Projects Programs Portfolios A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product service or result. Projects have defined objectives. Scope is progressively elaborated throughout the project life cycle. Project managers expect change and implement processes to keep change managed and controlled. Project managers progressively elaborate high-level information into detailed plans throughout the project life cycle. Project managers manage the project team to meet the project objectives. Project managers monitor and control the work of producing the products services or results that the project was undertaken to produce. Success is measured by product and project quality timeliness budget compliance and degree of customer satisfaction. A program is a group of related projects subsidiary programs and program activities that are managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Programs have a scope that encompasses the scopes of its program components. Programs produce benefits to an organization by ensuring that the outputs and outcomes of program components are delivered in a coordinated and complementary manner. Programs are managed in a manner that accepts and adapts to change as necessary to optimize the delivery of benefits as the program’s components deliver outcomes and/or outputs. Programs are managed using high-level plans that track the interdependencies and progress of program components. Program plans are also used to guide planning at the component level. Programs are managed by program managers who ensure that program benefits are delivered as expected by coordinating the activities of a program’s components. Program managers monitor the progress of program components to ensure the overall goals schedules budget and benefits of the program will be met. A program’s success is measured by the program’s ability to deliver its intended benefits to an organization and by the program’s efficiency and effectiveness in delivering those benefits. A portfolio is a collection of projects programs subsidiary portfolios and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Portfolios have an organizational scope that changes with the strategic objectives of the organization. Portfolio managers continuously monitor changes in the broader internal and external environments. Portfolio managers create and maintain necessary processes and communication relative to the aggregate portfolio. Portfolio managers may manage or coordinate portfolio management staff or program and project staff that may have reporting responsibilities into the aggregate portfolio. Portfolio managers monitor strategic changes and aggregate resource allocation performance results and risk of the portfolio. Success is measured in terms of the aggregate investment performance and benefit realization of the portfolio. Definition Scope Change Planning Management Monitoring Success

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14 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.3.2 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Program management is defined as the application of knowledge skills and principles to a program to achieve the program objectives and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing program components individually. A program component refers to projects and other programs within a program. Project management focuses on interdependencies within a project to determine the optimal approach for managing the project. Program management focuses on the interdependencies between projects and between projects and the program level to determine the optimal approach for managing them. Actions related to these program and project-level interdependencies may include: uu Aligning with the organizational or strategic direction that affects program and project goals and objectives uu Allocating the program scope into program components uu Managing interdependencies among the components of the program to best serve the program uu Managing program risks that may impact multiple projects in the program uu Resolving constraints and conflicts that affect multiple projects within the program uu Resolving issues between component projects and the program level uu Managing change requests within a shared governance framework uu Allocating budgets across multiple projects within the program and uu Assuring benefits realization from the program and component projects. An example of a program is a new communications satellite system with projects for the design and construction of the satellite and the ground stations the launch of the satellite and the integration of the system. For more information on program management see The Standard for Program Management 3.

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15 1.2.3.3 PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT A portfolio is defined as projects programs subsidiary portfolios and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Portfolio management is defined as the centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives. The programs or projects of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. The aim of portfolio management is to: uu Guide organizational investment decisions. uu Select the optimal mix of programs and projects to meet strategic objectives. uu Provide decision-making transparency. uu Prioritize team and physical resource allocation. uu Increase the likelihood of realizing the desired return on investment. uu Centralize the management of the aggregate risk profile of all components. Portfolio management also confirms that the portfolio is consistent with and aligned with organizational strategies. Maximizing the value of the portfolio requires careful examination of the components that comprise the portfolio. Components are prioritized so that those contributing the most to the organization’s strategic objectives have the required financial team and physical resources. For example an infrastructure organization that has the strategic objective of maximizing the return on its investments may put together a portfolio that includes a mix of projects in oil and gas power water roads rail and airports. From this mix the organization may choose to manage related projects as one portfolio. All of the power projects may be grouped together as a power portfolio. Similarly all of the water projects may be grouped together as a water portfolio. However when the organization has projects in designing and constructing a power plant and then operates the power plant to generate energy those related projects can be grouped in one program. Thus the power program and similar water program become integral components of the portfolio of the infrastructure organization. For more information on portfolio management see The Standard for Portfolio Management 2.

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16 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.3.4 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Operations management is an area that is outside the scope of formal project management as described in this guide. Operations management is concerned with the ongoing production of goods and/or services. It ensures that business operations continue efficiently by using the optimal resources needed to meet customer demands. It is concerned with managing processes that transform inputs e.g. materials components energy and labor into outputs e.g. products goods and/or services. 1.2.3.5 OPERATIONS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT Changes in business or organizational operations may be the focus of a project—especially when there are substantial changes to business operations as a result of a new product or service delivery. Ongoing operations are outside of the scope of a project however there are intersecting points where the two areas cross. Projects can intersect with operations at various points during the product life cycle such as uu When developing a new product upgrading a product or expanding outputs uu While improving operations or the product development process uu At the end of the product life cycle and uu At each closeout phase. At each point deliverables and knowledge are transferred between the project and operations for implementation of the delivered work. This implementation occurs through a transfer of project resources or knowledge to operations or through a transfer of operational resources to the project. 1.2.3.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT OPM AND STRATEGIES Portfolios programs and projects are aligned with or driven by organizational strategies and differ in the way each contributes to the achievement of strategic goals: uu Portfolio management aligns portfolios with organizational strategies by selecting the right programs or projects prioritizing the work and providing the needed resources. uu Program management harmonizes its program components and controls interdependencies in order to realize specified benefits. uu Project management enables the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.

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17 Within portfolios or programs projects are a means of achieving organizational goals and objectives. This is often accomplished in the context of a strategic plan that is the primary factor guiding investments in projects. Alignment with the organization’s strategic business goals can be achieved through the systematic management of portfolios programs and projects through the application of organizational project management OPM. OPM is defined as a framework in which portfolio program and project management are integrated with organizational enablers in order to achieve strategic objectives. The purpose of OPM is to ensure that the organization undertakes the right projects and allocates critical resources appropriately. OPM also helps to ensure that all levels in the organization understand the strategic vision the initiatives that support the vision the objectives and the deliverables. Figure 1-4 shows the organizational environment where strategy portfolio programs projects and operations interact. For more information on OPM refer to Implementing Organizational Project Management: A Practice Guide 8. Figure 1-4. Organizational Project Management 1.2.4 COMPONENTS OF THE GUIDE Projects comprise several key components that when effectively managed result in their successful completion. This guide identifies and explains these components. The various components interrelate to one another during the management of a project. The key components are described briefly in Table 1-3. These components are more fully explained in the sections that follow the table. Strategy Portfolio: Value Decisions Portfolio Review and Adjustments Organizational Environment Business Impact Analysis Value Performance Analysis Programs and Projects: Results Delivery Operations: Business Value Realization

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18 Part 1 - Guide PMBOK ® Guide Key Component Brief Description The series of phases that a project passes through from its start to its completion. A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables. A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to the next phase to continue with modification or to end a program or project. A systematic series of activities directed toward causing an end result where one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs. A logical grouping of project management inputs tools and techniques and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling and Closing. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases. An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes practices inputs outputs tools and techniques. Project life cycle Section 1.2.4.1 Project phase Section 1.2.4.2 Phase gate Section 1.2.4.3 Project management processes Section 1.2.4.4 Project Management Process Group Section 1.2.4.5 Project Management Knowledge Area Section 1.2.4.6 Project Life Cycle Starting the Project KEY: Phase Gate Project Phase Potential Use Timeline Organizing and Preparing Carrying Out the Work Ending the Project Process Groups 10 Knowledge Areas Initiating Processes Planning Processes Executing Processes Monitoring and Controlling Processes Closing Processes Figure 1-5. Interrelationship of PMBOK ® Guide Key Components in Projects Table 1-3. Description of PMBOK ® Guide Key Components

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19 1.2.4.1 PROJECT AND DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLES A project life cycle is the series of phases that a project passes through from its start to its completion. It provides the basic framework for managing the project. This basic framework applies regardless of the specific project work involved. The phases may be sequential iterative or overlapping. All projects can be mapped to the generic life cycle shown in Figure 1-5. Project life cycles can be predictive or adaptive. Within a project life cycle there are generally one or more phases that are associated with the development of the product service or result. These are called a development life cycle. Development life cycles can be predictive iterative incremental adaptive or a hybrid model: uu In a predictive life cycle the project scope time and cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle. Any changes to the scope are carefully managed. Predictive life cycles may also be referred to as waterfall life cycles. uu In an iterative life cycle the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles while increments successively add to the functionality of the product. uu In an incremental life cycle the deliverable is produced through a series of iterations that successively add functionality within a predetermined time frame. The deliverable contains the necessary and sufficient capability to be considered complete only after the final iteration. uu Adaptive life cycles are agile iterative or incremental. The detailed scope is defined and approved before the start of an iteration. Adaptive life cycles are also referred to as agile or change-driven life cycles. See Appendix X3. uu A hybrid life cycle is a combination of a predictive and an adaptive life cycle. Those elements of the project that are well known or have fixed requirements follow a predictive development life cycle and those elements that are still evolving follow an adaptive development life cycle. It is up to the project management team to determine the best life cycle for each project. The project life cycle needs to be flexible enough to deal with the variety of factors included in the project. Life cycle flexibility may be accomplished by: uu Identifying the process or processes needed to be performed in each phase uu Performing the process or processes identified in the appropriate phase uu Adjusting the various attributes of a phase e.g. name duration exit criteria and entrance criteria. Project life cycles are independent of product life cycles which may be produced by a project. A product life cycle is the series of phases that represent the evolution of a product from concept through delivery growth maturity and to retirement.

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20 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.4.2 PROJECT PHASE A project phase is a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables. The phases in a life cycle can be described by a variety of attributes. Attributes may be measurable and unique to a specific phase. Attributes may include but are not limited to: uu Name e.g. Phase A Phase B Phase 1 Phase 2 proposal phase uu Number e.g. three phases in the project five phases in the project uu Duration e.g. 1 week 1 month 1 quarter uu Resource requirements e.g. people buildings equipment uu Entrance criteria for a project to move into that phase e.g. specified approvals documented specified documents completed and uu Exit criteria for a project to complete a phase e.g. documented approvals completed documents completed deliverables. Projects may be separated into distinct phases or subcomponents. These phases or subcomponents are generally given names that indicate the type of work done in that phase. Examples of phase names include but are not limited to: uu Concept development uu Feasibility study uu Customer requirements uu Solution development uu Design uu Prototype uu Build uu Test uu Transition uu Commissioning uu Milestone review and uu Lessons learned.

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21 The project phases may be established based on various factors including but not limited to: uu Management needs uu Nature of the project uu Unique characteristics of the organization industry or technology uu Project elements including but not limited to technology engineering business process or legal and uu Decision points e.g. funding project go/no-go and milestone review. Using multiple phases may provide better insight to managing the project. It also provides an opportunity to assess the project performance and take necessary corrective or preventive actions in subsequent phases. A key component used with project phases is the phase review see Section 1.2.4.3. 1.2.4.3 PHASE GATE A phase gate is held at the end of a phase. The project’s performance and progress are compared to project and business documents including but not limited to: uu Project business case see Section 1.2.6.1 uu Project charter see Section 4.1 uu Project management plan see Section 4.2 and uu Benefits management plan see Section 1.2.6.2. A decision e.g. go/no-go decision is made as a result of this comparison to: uu Continue to the next phase uu Continue to the next phase with modification uu End the project uu Remain in the phase or uu Repeat the phase or elements of it. Depending on the organization industry or type of work phase gates may be referred to by other terms such as phase review stage gate kill point and phase entrance or phase exit. Organizations may use these reviews to examine other pertinent items which are beyond the scope of this guide such as product-related documents or models.

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22 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.4.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES The project life cycle is managed by executing a series of project management activities known as project management processes. Every project management process produces one or more outputs from one or more inputs by using appropriate project management tools and techniques. The output can be a deliverable or an outcome. Outcomes are an end result of a process. Project management processes apply globally across industries. Project management processes are logically linked by the outputs they produce. Processes may contain overlapping activities that occur throughout the project. The output of one process generally results in either: uu An input to another process or uu A deliverable of the project or project phase. Figure 1-6 shows an example of how inputs tools and techniques and outputs relate to each other within a process and with other processes. Figure 1-6. Example Process: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs The number of process iterations and interactions between processes varies based on the needs of the project. Processes generally fall into one of three categories: uu Processes used once or at predefined points in the project. The processes Develop Project Charter and Close Project or Phase are examples. uu Processes that are performed periodically as needed. The process Acquire Resources is performed as resources are needed. The process Conduct Procurements is performed prior to needing the procured item. uu Processes that are performed continuously throughout the project. The process Define Activities may occur throughout the project life cycle especially if the project uses rolling wave planning or an adaptive development approach. Many of the monitoring and control processes are ongoing from the start of the project until it is closed out. Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of logically grouped project management processes. While there are different ways of grouping processes the PMBOK ® Guide groups processes into five categories called Process Groups. Inputs Tools Techniques Outputs .1 Technique A .2 Tool C .1 Project Output A .2 Project Output B .1 Input H .2 Input J

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23 1.2.4.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS GROUPS A Project Management Process Group is a logical grouping of project management processes to achieve specific project objectives. Process Groups are independent of project phases. Project management processes are grouped into the following five Project Management Process Groups: uu Initiating Process Group. Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase. uu Planning Process Group. Those processes required to establish the scope of the project refine the objectives and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve. uu Executing Process Group. Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project requirements. uu Monitoring and Controlling Process Group. Those processes required to track review and regulate the progress and performance of the project identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required and initiate the corresponding changes. uu Closing Process Group. Those processes performed to formally complete or close the project phase or contract. Process flow diagrams are used throughout this guide. The project management processes are linked by specific inputs and outputs where the result or outcome of one process may become the input to another process that is not necessarily in the same Process Group. Note that Process Groups are not the same as project phases see Section 1.2.4.2. 1.2.4.6 PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS In addition to Process Groups processes are also categorized by Knowledge Areas. A Knowledge Area is an identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes practices inputs outputs tools and techniques. Although the Knowledge Areas are interrelated they are defined separately from the project management perspective. The ten Knowledge Areas identified in this guide are used in most projects most of the time. The ten Knowledge Areas described in this guide are: uu Project Integration Management. Includes the processes and activities to identify define combine unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. uu Project Scope Management. Includes the processes required to ensure the project includes all the work required and only the work required to complete the project successfully.

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24 Part 1 - Guide uu Project Schedule Management. Includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project. uu Project Cost Management. Includes the processes involved in planning estimating budgeting financing funding managing and controlling costs so the project can be completed within the approved budget. uu Project Quality Management. Includes the processes for incorporating the organization’s quality policy regarding planning managing and controlling project and product quality requirements in order to meet stakeholders’ expectations. uu Project Resource Management. Includes the processes to identify acquire and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project. uu Project Communications Management. Includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate planning collection creation distribution storage retrieval management control monitoring and ultimate disposition of project information. uu Project Risk Management. Includes the processes of conducting risk management planning identification analysis response planning response implementation and monitoring risk on a project. uu Project Procurement Management. Includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products services or results needed from outside the project team. uu Project Stakeholder Management. Includes the processes required to identify the people groups or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution. The needs of a specific project may require one or more additional Knowledge Areas for example construction may require financial management or safety and health management. Table 1-4 maps the Project Management Process Groups and Knowledge Areas. Sections 4 through 13 provide more detail about each Knowledge Area. This table is an overview of the basic processes described in Sections 4 through 13.

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25 Table 1-4. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping 4.1 Develop Project Charter 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.7 Close Project or Phase Knowledge Areas Project Management Process Groups Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Initiating Process Group Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group Project Integration Management Project Scope Management Project Schedule Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project Resource Management Project Communications Management Project Risk Management Project Procurement Management Project Stakeholder Management 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 13.1 Identify Stakeholders 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement 12.1 Plan Procurement Management 12.2 Conduct Procurements 12.3 Control Procurements 11.1 Plan Risk Management 11.2 Identify Risks 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 11.5 Plan Risk Responses 11.6 Implement Risk Responses 11.7 Monitor Risks 10.1 Plan Communications Management 10.2 Manage Communications 10.3 Monitor Communications 9.1 Plan Resource Management 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources 9.3 Acquire Resources 9.4 Develop Team 9.5 Manage Team 9.6 Control Resources 8.1 Plan Quality Management 8.2 Manage Quality 8.3 Control Quality 7.1 Plan Cost Management 7.2 Estimate Costs 7.3 Determine Budget 7.4 Control Costs 6.1 Plan Schedule Management 6.2 Define Activities 6.3 Sequence Activities 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations 6.5 Develop Schedule 6.6 Control Schedule 5.1 Plan Scope Management 5.2 Collect Requirements 5.3 Define Scope 5.4 Create WBS 5.5 Validate Scope 5.6 Control Scope

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26 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.4.7 PROJECT MANAGEMENT DATA AND INFORMATION Throughout the life cycle of a project a significant amount of data is collected analyzed and transformed. Project data are collected as a result of various processes and are shared within the project team. The collected data are analyzed in context aggregated and transformed to become project information during various processes. Information is communicated verbally or stored and distributed in various formats as reports. See Section 4.3 for more detail on this topic. Project data are regularly collected and analyzed throughout the project life cycle. The following definitions identify key terminology regarding project data and information: uu Work performance data. The raw observations and measurements identified during activities performed to carry out the project work. Examples include reported percent of work physically completed quality and technical performance measures start and finish dates of schedule activities number of change requests number of defects actual costs actual durations etc. Project data are usually recorded in a Project Management Information System PMIS see Section 4.3.2.2 and in project documents. uu Work performance information. The performance data collected from various controlling processes analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas. Examples of performance information are status of deliverables implementation status for change requests and forecast estimates to complete. uu Work performance reports. The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents which is intended to generate decisions or raise issues actions or awareness. Examples include status reports memos justifications information notes electronic dashboards recommendations and updates. Figure 1-7 shows the flow of project information across the various processes used in managing the project.

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27 Project Change Control Various Project Processes Overall Project Control Controling Processes Executing Processes Project Communications • Approved change requests • Work performance reports • Work performance information • Project management plan and project documents updates • Work performance data • Project team members • Project stakeholders Figure 1-7. Project Data Information and Report Flow

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28 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.5 TAILORING Usually project managers apply a project management methodology to their work. A methodology is a system of practices techniques procedures and rules used by those who work in a discipline. This definition makes it clear that this guide itself is not a methodology. This guide and The Standard for Project Management 1 are recommended references for tailoring because these standard documents identify the subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice. “Good practice” does not mean that the knowledge described should always be applied uniformly to all projects. Specific methodology recommendations are outside the scope of this guide. Project management methodologies may be: uu Developed by experts within the organization uu Purchased from vendors uu Obtained from professional associations or uu Acquired from government agencies. The appropriate project management processes inputs tools techniques outputs and life cycle phases should be selected to manage a project. This selection activity is known as tailoring project management to the project. The project manager collaborates with the project team sponsor organizational management or some combination thereof in the tailoring. In some cases the organization may require specific project management methodologies be used. Tailoring is necessary because each project is unique not every process tool technique input or output identified in the PMBOK ® Guide is required on every project. Tailoring should address the competing constraints of scope schedule cost resources quality and risk. The importance of each constraint is different for each project and the project manager tailors the approach for managing these constraints based on the project environment organizational culture stakeholder needs and other variables. In tailoring project management the project manager should also consider the varying levels of governance that may be required and within which the project will operate as well as considering the culture of the organization. In addition consideration of whether the customer of the project is internal or external to the organization may affect project management tailoring decisions. Sound project management methodologies take into account the unique nature of projects and allow tailoring to some extent by the project manager. However the tailoring that is included in the methodology may still require additional tailoring for a given project.

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29 1.2.6 PROJECT MANAGEMENT BUSINESS DOCUMENTS The project manager needs to ensure that the project management approach captures the intent of business documents. These documents are defined in Table 1-5. These two documents are interdependent and iteratively developed and maintained throughout the life cycle of the project. Table 1-5. Project Business Documents The project sponsor is generally accountable for the development and maintenance of the project business case document. The project manager is responsible for providing recommendations and oversight to keep the project business case project management plan project charter and project benefits management plan success measures in alignment with one another and with the goals and objectives of the organization. Project managers should appropriately tailor the noted project management documents for their projects. In some organizations the business case and benefits management plan are maintained at the program level. Project managers should work with the appropriate program managers to ensure the project management documents are aligned with the program documents. Figure 1-8 illustrates the interrelationship of these critical project management business documents and the needs assessment. Figure 1-8 shows an approximation of the life cycle of these various documents against the project life cycle. Project Business Documents Definition A documented economic feasibility study used to establish the validity of the benefits of a selected component lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities. The documented explanation defining the processes for creating maximizing and sustaining the benefits provided by a project. Project business case Project benefits management plan

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30 Part 1 - Guide Figure 1-8. Interrelationship of Needs Assessment and Critical Business/Project Documents 1.2.6.1 PROJECT BUSINESS CASE The project business case is a documented economic feasibility study used to establish the validity of the benefits of a selected component lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities. The business case lists the objectives and reasons for project initiation. It helps measure the project success at the end of the project against the project objectives. The business case is a project business document that is used throughout the project life cycle. The business case may be used before the project initiation and may result in a go/no-go decision for the project. A needs assessment often precedes the business case. The needs assessment involves understanding business goals and objectives issues and opportunities and recommending proposals to address them. The results of the needs assessment may be summarized in the business case document. Project Life Cycle Timeline Generic Phases Pre-Project Work Starting the Project Organizing and Preparing Carrying Out the Work Completing the Project Phase Gate Needs Assessment Business Case Project Charter Project Management Plan Benefits Management Plan

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31 The process of defining the business need analyzing the situation making recommendations and defining evaluation criteria is applicable to any organization’s projects. A business case may include but is not limited to documenting the following: uu Business needs: u n Determination of what is prompting the need for action u n Situational statement documenting the business problem or opportunity to be addressed including the value to be delivered to the organization u n Identification of stakeholders affected and u n Identification of the scope. uu Analysis of the situation: u n Identification of organizational strategies goals and objectives u n Identification of root causes of the problem or main contributors of an opportunity u n Gap analysis of capabilities needed for the project versus existing capabilities of the organization u n Identification of known risks u n Identification of critical success factors u n Identification of decision criteria by which the various courses of action may be assessed Examples of criteria categories used for analysis of a situation are: u m Required. This is a criterion that is “required” to be fulfilled to address the problem or opportunity. u m Desired. This is a criterion that is “desired” to be fulfilled to address the problem or opportunity. u m Optional. This is a criterion that is not essential. Fulfillment of this criterion may become a differentiator between alternative courses of action. u n Identification of a set of options to be considered for addressing the business problem or opportunity. Options are alternative courses of action that may be taken by the organization. Options may also be described as business scenarios. For example a business case could present the following three options: u m Do nothing. This is also referred to as the “business as usual” option. Selection of this option results in the project not being authorized. u m Do the minimum work possible to address the problem or opportunity. The minimum may be established by identifying the set of documented criteria that are key in addressing the problem or opportunity. u m Do more than the minimum work possible to address the problem or opportunity. This option meets the minimum set of criteria and some or all of the other documented criteria. There may be more than one of these options documented in the business case.

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32 Part 1 - Guide uu Recommendation: u n A statement of the recommended option to pursue in the project u n Items to include in the statement may include but are not limited to: u m Analysis results for the potential option u m Constraints assumptions risks and dependencies for the potential options and u m Success measures see Section 1.2.6.4. u n An implementation approach that may include but is not limited to: u m Milestones u m Dependencies and u m Roles and responsibilities. uu Evaluation: u n Statement describing the plan for measuring benefits the project will deliver. This should include any ongoing operational aspects of the recommended option beyond initial implementation. The business case document provides the basis to measure success and progress throughout the project life cycle by comparing the results with the objectives and the identified success criteria. See Business Analysis for Practitioners: A Practice Guide 7.

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33 1.2.6.2 PROJECT BENEFITS MANAGEMENT PLAN The project benefits management plan is the document that describes how and when the benefits of the project will be delivered and describes the mechanisms that should be in place to measure those benefits. A project benefit is defined as an outcome of actions behaviors products services or results that provide value to the sponsoring organization as well as to the project’s intended beneficiaries. Development of the benefits management plan begins early in the project life cycle with the definition of the target benefits to be realized. The benefits management plan describes key elements of the benefits and may include but is not limited to documenting the following: uu Target benefits e.g. the expected tangible and intangible value to be gained by the implementation of the project financial value is expressed as net present value uu Strategic alignment e.g. how well the project benefits align to the business strategies of the organization uu Timeframe for realizing benefits e.g. benefits by phase short-term long-term and ongoing uu Benefits owner e.g. the accountable person to monitor record and report realized benefits throughout the timeframe established in the plan uu Metrics e.g. the measures to be used to show benefits realized direct measures and indirect measures uu Assumptions e.g. factors expected to be in place or to be in evidence and uu Risks e.g. risks for realization of benefits. Developing the benefits management plan makes use of the data and information documented in the business case and needs assessment. For example the cost-benefit analyses recorded in the documents illustrate the estimate of costs compared to the value of the benefits realized by the project. The benefits management plan and the project management plan include a description of how the business value resulting from the project becomes part of the organization’s ongoing operations including the metrics to be used. The metrics provide verification of the business value and validation of the project’s success. Development and maintenance of the project benefits management plan is an iterative activity. This document complements the business case project charter and project management plan. The project manager works with the sponsor to ensure that the project charter project management plan and the benefits management plan remain in alignment throughout the life cycle of the project. See Business Analysis for Practitioners: A Practice Guide 7 The Standard for Program Management 3 and The Standard for Portfolio Management 2.

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34 Part 1 - Guide 1.2.6.3 PROJECT CHARTER AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN The project charter is defined as a document issued by the project sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. The project management plan is defined as the document that describes how the project will be executed monitored and controlled. See Section 4 on Project Integration Management for more information on the project charter and the project management plan. 1.2.6.4 PROJECT SUCCESS MEASURES One of the most common challenges in project management is determining whether or not a project is successful. Traditionally the project management metrics of time cost scope and quality have been the most important factors in defining the success of a project. More recently practitioners and scholars have determined that project success should also be measured with consideration toward achievement of the project objectives. Project stakeholders may have different ideas as to what the successful completion of a project will look like and which factors are the most important. It is critical to clearly document the project objectives and to select objectives that are measurable. Three questions that the key stakeholders and the project manager should answer are: uu What does success look like for this project uu How will success be measured uu What factors may impact success The answer to these questions should be documented and agreed upon by the key stakeholders and the project manager. Project success may include additional criteria linked to the organizational strategy and to the delivery of business results. These project objectives may include but are not limited to: uu Completing the project benefits management plan uu Meeting the agreed-upon financial measures documented in the business case. These financial measures may include but are not limited to: u n Net present value NPV u n Return on investment ROI u n Internal rate of return IRR u n Payback period PBP and u n Benefit-cost ratio BCR.

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35 uu Meeting business case nonfinancial objectives uu Completing movement of an organization from its current state to the desired future state uu Fulfilling contract terms and conditions uu Meeting organizational strategy goals and objectives uu Achieving stakeholder satisfaction uu Acceptable customer/end-user adoption uu Integration of deliverables into the organization’s operating environment uu Achieving agreed-upon quality of delivery uu Meeting governance criteria and uu Achieving other agreed-upon success measures or criteria e.g. process throughput. The project team needs to be able to assess the project situation balance the demands and maintain proactive communication with stakeholders in order to deliver a successful project. When the business alignment for a project is constant the chance for project success greatly increases because the project remains aligned with the strategic direction of the organization. It is possible for a project to be successful from a scope/schedule/budget viewpoint and to be unsuccessful from a business viewpoint. This can occur when there is a change in the business needs or the market environment before the project is completed.

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36 Part 1 - Guide

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37 2 THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH PROJECTS OPERATE 2.1 OVERVIEW Projects exist and operate in environments that may have an influence on them. These influences can have a favorable or unfavorable impact on the project. Two major categories of influences are enterprise environmental factors EEFs and organizational process assets OPAs. EEFs originate from the environment outside of the project and often outside of the enterprise. EEFs may have an impact at the organizational portfolio program or project level. See Section 2.2 for additional information on EEFs. OPAs are internal to the organization. These may arise from the organization itself a portfolio a program another project or a combination of these. Figure 2-1 shows the breakdown of project influences into EEFs and OPAs. See Section 2.3 for additional information on OPAs. Figure 2-1. Project Influences In addition to EEFs and OPAs organizational systems play a significant role in the life cycle of the project. System factors that impact the power influence interests competencies and political capabilities of the people to act within the organizational system are discussed further in the section on organizational systems see Section 2.4. Corporate Knowledge Base Processes Policies and Procedures Internal External EEFs Internal OPAs Influences

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38 Part 1 - Guide 2.2 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Enterprise environmental factors EEFs refer to conditions not under the control of the project team that influence constrain or direct the project. These conditions can be internal and/or external to the organization. EEFs are considered as inputs to many project management processes specifically for most planning processes. These factors may enhance or constrain project management options. In addition these factors may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome. EEFs vary widely in type or nature. These factors need to be considered if the project is to be effective. EEFs include but are not limited to the factors described in Sections 2.2.1 and 2.2.2. 2.2.1 EEFS INTERNAL TO THE ORGANIZATION The following EEFs are internal to the organization: uu Organizational culture structure and governance. Examples include vision mission values beliefs cultural norms leadership style hierarchy and authority relationships organizational style ethics and code of conduct. uu Geographic distribution of facilities and resources. Examples include factory locations virtual teams shared systems and cloud computing. uu Infrastructure. Examples include existing facilities equipment organizational telecommunications channels information technology hardware availability and capacity. uu Information technology software. Examples include scheduling software tools configuration management systems web interfaces to other online automated systems and work authorization systems. uu Resource availability. Examples include contracting and purchasing constraints approved providers and subcontractors and collaboration agreements. uu Employee capability. Examples include existing human resources expertise skills competencies and specialized knowledge.

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39 2.2.2 EEFS EXTERNAL TO THE ORGANIZATION The following EEFs are external to the organization. uu Marketplace conditions. Examples include competitors market share brand recognition and trademarks. uu Social and cultural influences and issues. Examples include political climate codes of conduct ethics and perceptions. uu Legal restrictions. Examples include country or local laws and regulations related to security data protection business conduct employment and procurement. uu Commercial databases. Examples include benchmarking results standardized cost estimating data industry risk study information and risk databases. uu Academic research. Examples include industry studies publications and benchmarking results. uu Government or industry standards. Examples include regulatory agency regulations and standards related to products production environment quality and workmanship. uu Financial considerations. Examples include currency exchange rates interest rates inflation rates tariffs and geographic location. uu Physical environmental elements. Examples include working conditions weather and constraints. 2.3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS Organizational process assets OPAs are the plans processes policies procedures and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. These assets influence the management of the project. OPAs include any artifact practice or knowledge from any or all of the performing organizations involved in the project that can be used to execute or govern the project. The OPAs also include the organization’s lessons learned from previous projects and historical information. OPAs may include completed schedules risk data and earned value data. OPAs are inputs to many project management processes. Since OPAs are internal to the organization the project team members may be able to update and add to the organizational process assets as necessary throughout the project. They may be grouped into two categories: uu Processes policies and procedures and uu Organizational knowledge bases.

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40 Part 1 - Guide Generally the assets in the first category are not updated as part of the project work. Processes policies and procedures are usually established by the project management office PMO or another function outside of the project. These can be updated only by following the appropriate organizational policies associated with updating processes policies or procedures. Some organizations encourage the team to tailor templates life cycles and checklists for the project. In these instances the project management team should tailor those assets to meet the needs of the project. The assets in the second category are updated throughout the project with project information. For example information on financial performance lessons learned performance metrics and issues and defects are continually updated throughout the project. 2.3.1 PROCESSES POLICIES AND PROCEDURES The organization’s processes and procedures for conducting project work include but are not limited to: uu Initiating and Planning: u n Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes and procedures to satisfy the specific needs of the project u n Specific organizational standards such as policies e.g. human resources policies health and safety policies security and confidentiality policies quality policies procurement policies and environmental policies u n Product and project life cycles and methods and procedures e.g. project management methods estimation metrics process audits improvement targets checklists and standardized process definitions for use in the organization u n Templates e.g. project management plans project documents project registers report formats contract templates risk categories risk statement templates probability and impact definitions probability and impact matrices and stakeholder register templates and u n Preapproved supplier lists and various types of contractual agreements e.g. fixed-price cost-reimbursable and time and material contracts. uu Executing Monitoring and Controlling: u n Change control procedures including the steps by which performing organization standards policies plans and procedures or any project documents will be modified and how any changes will be approved and validated u n Traceability matrices u n Financial controls procedures e.g. time reporting required expenditure and disbursement reviews accounting codes and standard contract provisions

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41 u n Issue and defect management procedures e.g. defining issue and defect controls identifying and resolving issues and defects and tracking action items u n Resource availability control and assignment management u n Organizational communication requirements e.g. specific communication technology available authorized communication media record retention policies videoconferencing collaborative tools and security requirements u n Procedures for prioritizing approving and issuing work authorizations u n Templates e.g. risk register issue log and change log u n Standardized guidelines work instructions proposal evaluation criteria and performance measurement criteria and u n Product service or result verification and validation procedures. uu Closing. Project closure guidelines or requirements e.g. final project audits project evaluations deliverable acceptance contract closure resource reassignment and knowledge transfer to production and/or operations. 2.3.2 ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORIES The organizational knowledge repositories for storing and retrieving information include but are not limited to: uu Configuration management knowledge repositories containing the versions of software and hardware components and baselines of all performing organization standards policies procedures and any project documents uu Financial data repositories containing information such as labor hours incurred costs budgets and any project cost overruns uu Historical information and lessons learned knowledge repositories e.g. project records and documents all project closure information and documentation information regarding both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information and information from risk management activities uu Issue and defect management data repositories containing issue and defect status control information issue and defect resolution and action item results uu Data repositories for metrics used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products and uu Project files from previous projects e.g. scope cost schedule and performance measurement baselines project calendars project schedule network diagrams risk registers risk reports and stakeholder registers.

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42 Part 1 - Guide 2.4 ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS 2.4.1 OVERVIEW Projects operate within the constraints imposed by the organization through their structure and governance framework. To operate effectively and efficiently the project manager needs to understand where responsibility accountability and authority reside within the organization. This understanding will help the project manager effectively use his or her power influence competence leadership and political capabilities to successfully complete the project. The interaction of multiple factors within an individual organization creates a unique system that impacts the project operating in that system. The resulting organizational system determines the power influence interests competence and political capabilities of the people who are able to act within the system. The system factors include but are not limited to: uu Management elements uu Governance frameworks and uu Organizational structure types. The complete information and explanation of the organizational system factors and how the combination of these factors impacts a project are beyond the scope of this guide. There are disciplines with associated literature methodologies and practices that address these factors in more depth than is possible within this guide. This section provides an overview of these factors and their interrelationship. This overview begins by discussing systems in general. A system is a collection of various components that together can produce results not obtainable by the individual components alone. A component is an identifiable element within the project or organization that provides a particular function or group of related functions. The interaction of the various system components creates the organizational culture and capabilities. There are several principles regarding systems: uu Systems are dynamic uu Systems can be optimized uu System components can be optimized uu Systems and their components cannot be optimized at the same time and uu Systems are nonlinear in responsiveness a change in the input does not produce a predictable change in the output.

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43 Multiple changes may occur within the system and between the system and its environment. When these changes take place adaptive behavior occurs within the components that in turn add to the system’s dynamics. The system’s dynamics are defined by the interaction between the components based on the relationships and dependencies that exist between the components. Systems are typically the responsibility of an organization’s management. The organization’s management examines the optimization trade-offs between the components and the system in order to take the appropriate action to achieve the best outcomes for the organization. The results of this examination will impact the project under consideration. Therefore it is important that the project manager take these results into account when determining how to fulfill the project’s objectives. In addition the project manager should take into account the organization’s governance framework. 2.4.2 ORGANIZATIONAL GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORKS Recent PMI research reveals that governance refers to organizational or structural arrangements at all levels of an organization designed to determine and influence the behavior of the organization’s members 9. This research suggests that the concept of governance is multidimensional and: uu Includes consideration of people roles structures and policies and uu Requires providing direction and oversight through data and feedback. 2.4.2.1 GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK Governance is the framework within which authority is exercised in organizations. This framework includes but is not limited to: uu Rules uu Policies uu Procedures uu Norms uu Relationships uu Systems and uu Processes. This framework influences how: uu Objectives of the organization are set and achieved uu Risk is monitored and assessed and uu Performance is optimized.

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44 Part 1 - Guide 2.4.2.2 GOVERNANCE OF PORTFOLIOS PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS The Governance of Portfolios Programs and Projects: A Practice Guide 10 describes a common governance framework aligning organizational project management OPM and portfolio program and project management. The practice guide describes four governance domains of alignment risk performance and communications. Each domain has the following functions: oversight control integration and decision making. Each function has governance supporting processes and activities for stand-alone projects or projects operating within the portfolio or program environments. Project governance refers to the framework functions and processes that guide project management activities in order to create a unique product service or result to meet organizational strategic and operational goals. There is no one governance framework that is effective in all organizations. A governance framework should be tailored to the organizational culture types of projects and the needs of the organization in order to be effective. For more information regarding project governance including its implementation see Governance of Portfolios Programs and Projects: A Practice Guide 10. 2.4.3 MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS Management elements are the components that comprise the key functions or principles of general management in the organization. The general management elements are allocated within the organization according to its governance framework and the organizational structure type selected. The key functions or principles of management include but are not limited to: uu Division of work using specialized skills and availability to perform work uu Authority given to perform work uu Responsibility to perform work appropriately assigned based on such attributes as skill and experience uu Discipline of action e.g. respect for authority people and rules uu Unity of command e.g. only one person gives orders for any action or activity to an individual uu Unity of direction e.g. one plan and one head for a group of activities with the same objective uu General goals of the organization take precedence over individual goals uu Paid fairly for work performed

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45 uu Optimal use of resources uu Clear communication channels uu Right materials to the right person for the right job at the right time uu Fair and equal treatment of people in the workplace uu Clear security of work positions uu Safety of people in the workplace uu Open contribution to planning and execution by each person and uu Optimal morale. Performance of these management elements are assigned to selected individuals within the organization. These individuals may perform the noted functions within various organizational structures. For example in a hierarchical structure there are horizontal and vertical levels within the organization. These hierarchical levels range from the line management level through to the executive management level. The responsibility accountability and authority assigned to the hierarchical level indicate how the individual may perform the noted function within that organizational structure. 2.4.4 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TYPES Determination of the appropriate organizational structure type is a result of the study of tradeoffs between two key variables. The variables are the organizational structure types available for use and how to optimize them for a given organization. There is not a one-size-fits-all structure for any given organization. The final structure for a given organization is unique due to the numerous variables to be considered. Sections 2.4.4.1 and 2.4.4.2 give examples of some of the factors to be included when considering the two variables given. Section 2.4.4.3 discusses one organizational structure that is prevalent in project management. 2.4.4.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TYPES Organizational structures take many forms or types. Table 2-1 compares several types of organizational structures and their influence on projects.

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46 Part 1 - Guide 2.4.4.2 FACTORS IN ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE SELECTION Each organization considers numerous factors for inclusion in its organizational structure. Each factor may carry a different level of importance in the final analysis. The combination of the factor its value and relative importance provides the organization’s decision makers with the right information for inclusion in the analysis. Factors to consider in selecting an organizational structure include but are not limited to: uu Degree of alignment with organizational objectives uu Specialization capabilities uu Span of control efficiency and effectiveness uu Clear path for escalation of decisions uu Clear line and scope of authority uu Delegation capabilities uu Accountability assignment uu Responsibility assignment uu Adaptability of design uu Simplicity of design uu Efficiency of performance uu Cost considerations uu Physical locations e.g. colocated regional and virtual and uu Clear communication e.g. policies status of work and organization’s vision.

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47 Table 2-1. Influences of Organizational Structures on Projects Who Manages the Project Budget Resource Availability Project Manager’s Role Project Manager’s Authority Work Groups Arranged by: Flexible people working side-by-side Job being done e.g. engineering manufacturing One of: product production processes portfolio program geographic region customer type By job function with project manager as a function Job function Job function Project Network structure with nodes at points of contact with other people Mix of other types Mix of other types Little or none Little or none Little or none Moderate to high Low Low to moderate High to almost total Low to moderate Mixed High to almost total Organic or Simple Functional centralized Multi-divisional may replicate functions for each division with little centralization Matrix – strong Matrix – weak Matrix – balanced Project-oriented composite hybrid Virtual Hybrid PMO Part-time may or may not be a designated job role like coordinator Part-time may or may not be a designated job role like coordinator Part-time may or may not be a designated job role like coordinator Full-time designated job role Part-time done as part of another job and not a designated job role like coordinator Part-time embedded in the functions as a skill and may not be a designated job role like coordinator Full-time designated job role Full-time or part-time Mixed Full-time designated job role Little or none Little or none Little or none Moderate to high Low Low to moderate High to almost total Low to moderate Mixed High to almost total Owner or operator Functional manager Functional manager Project manager Functional manager Mixed Project manager Mixed Mixed Project manager Project Management Administrative Staff Little or none Part-time Part-time Full-time Part-time Part-time Full-time Could be full-time or part-time Mixed Full-time Organizational Structure Type Project Characteristics PMO refers to a portfolio program or project management office or organization.

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48 Part 1 - Guide 2.4.4.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE A project management office PMO is an organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources methodologies tools and techniques. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to the direct management of one or more projects. There are several types of PMOs in organizations. Each type varies in the degree of control and influence it has on projects within the organization such as: uu Supportive. Supportive PMOs provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates best practices training access to information and lessons learned from other projects. This type of PMO serves as a project repository. The degree of control provided by the PMO is low. uu Controlling. Controlling PMOs provide support and require compliance through various means. The degree of control provided by the PMO is moderate. Compliance may involve: u n Adoption of project management frameworks or methodologies u n Use of specific templates forms and tools and u n Conformance to governance frameworks. uu Directive. Directive PMOs take control of the projects by directly managing the projects. Project managers are assigned by and report to the PMO. The degree of control provided by the PMO is high. The project management office may have organization-wide responsibility. It may play a role in supporting strategic alignment and delivering organizational value. The PMO integrates data and information from organizational strategic projects and evaluates how higher-level strategic objectives are being fulfilled. The PMO is the natural liaison between the organization’s portfolios programs projects and the organizational measurement systems e.g. balanced scorecard. The projects supported or administered by the PMO may not be related other than by being managed together. The specific form function and structure of a PMO are dependent upon the needs of the organization that it supports.

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49 A PMO may have the authority to act as an integral stakeholder and a key decision maker throughout the life of each project in order to keep it aligned with the business objectives. The PMO may: uu Make recommendations uu Lead knowledge transfer uu Terminate projects and uu Take other actions as required. A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways which may include but are not limited to: uu Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO uu Identifying and developing project management methodology best practices and standards uu Coaching mentoring training and oversight uu Monitoring compliance with project management standards policies procedures and templates by means of project audits uu Developing and managing project policies procedures templates and other shared documentation organizational process assets and uu Coordinating communication across projects.

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50 Part 1 - Guide

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51 3 THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER 3.1 OVERVIEW The project manager plays a critical role in the leadership of a project team in order to achieve the project’s objectives. This role is clearly visible throughout the project. Many project managers become involved in a project from its initiation through closing. However in some organizations a project manager may be involved in evaluation and analysis activities prior to project initiation. These activities may include consulting with executive and business unit leaders on ideas for advancing strategic objectives improving organizational performance or meeting customer needs. In some organizational settings the project manager may also be called upon to manage or assist in business analysis business case development and aspects of portfolio management for a project. A project manager may also be involved in follow-on activities related to realizing business benefits from the project. The role of a project manager may vary from organization to organization. Ultimately the project management role is tailored to fit the organization in the same way that the project management processes are tailored to fit the project. A simple analogy may help in understanding the roles of a project manager for a large project by comparing them to the roles of a conductor for a large orchestra: uu Membership and roles. A large project and an orchestra each comprise many members each playing a different role. A large orchestra may have more than 100 musicians who are led by a conductor. These musicians may play 25 different kinds of instruments placed into major sections such as strings woodwinds brass and percussion. Similarly a large project may have more than 100 project members led by a project manager. Team members may fulfill many different roles such as design manufacturing and facilities management. Like the major sections of the orchestra they represent multiple business units or groups within an organization. The musicians and the project members make up each leader’s team. uu Responsibility for team. The project manager and conductor are both responsible for what their teams produce—the project outcome or the orchestra concert respectively. The two leaders need to take a holistic view of their team’s products in order to plan coordinate and complete them. The two leaders begin by reviewing the vision mission and objectives of their respective organizations to ensure alignment with their products. The two leaders establish their interpretation of the vision mission and objectives involved in successfully completing their products. The leaders use their interpretation to communicate and motivate their teams toward the successful completion of their objectives.

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52 Part 1 - Guide uu Knowledge and skills: u n The conductor is not expected to be able to play every instrument in the orchestra but should possess musical knowledge understanding and experience. The conductor provides the orchestra with leadership planning and coordination through communications. The conductor provides written communication in the form of musical scores and practice schedules. The conductor also communicates in real time with the team by using a baton and other body movements. u n The project manager is not expected to perform every role on the project but should possess project management knowledge technical knowledge understanding and experience. The project manager provides the project team with leadership planning and coordination through communications. The project manager provides written communications e.g. documented plans and schedules and communicates in real time with the team using meetings and verbal or nonverbal cues. The remainder of this section covers the key aspects of the role of the project manager. While there are thousands of books and articles available on the subject this section is not intended to cover the entire spectrum of information available. Rather it is designed to present an overview that will provide the practitioner with a basic understanding of the subject in preparation for a more concentrated study on the various aspects discussed. 3.2 DEFINITION OF A PROJECT MANAGER The role of a project manager is distinct from that of a functional manager or operations manager. Typically the functional manager focuses on providing management oversight for a functional or business unit. Operations managers are responsible for ensuring that business operations are efficient. The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives. 3.3 THE PROJECT MANAGER’S SPHERE OF INFLUENCE 3.3.1 OVERVIEW Project managers fulfill numerous roles within their sphere of influence. These roles reflect the project manager’s capabilities and are representative of the value and contributions of the project management profession. This section highlights the roles of the project manager in the various spheres of influence shown in Figure 3-1.

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53 Project Manager Project Team PPP Managers Resource Managers Sponsors Governing Bodies Steering Committees PMOs Stakeholders Suppliers Customers End Users Figure 3-1. Example of Project Manager’s Sphere of Influence 3.3.2 THE PROJECT The project manager leads the project team to meet the project’s objectives and stakeholders’ expectations. The project manager works to balance the competing constraints on the project with the resources available. The project manager also performs communication roles between the project sponsor team members and other stakeholders. This includes providing direction and presenting the vision of success for the project. The project manager uses soft skills e.g. interpersonal skills and the ability to manage people to balance the conflicting and competing goals of the project stakeholders in order to achieve consensus. In this context consensus means that the relevant stakeholders support the project decisions and actions even when there is not 100 agreement. Research shows that successful project managers consistently and effectively use certain essential skills. Research reveals that the top 2 of project managers as designated by their bosses and team members distinguish themselves by demonstrating superior relationship and communication skills while displaying a positive attitude 12.

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54 Part 1 - Guide The ability to communicate with stakeholders including the team and sponsors applies across multiple aspects of the project including but not limited to the following: uu Developing finely tuned skills using multiple methods e.g. verbal written and nonverbal uu Creating maintaining and adhering to communications plans and schedules uu Communicating predictably and consistently uu Seeking to understand the project stakeholders’ communication needs communication may be the only deliverable that some stakeholders received until the project’s end product or service is completed uu Making communications concise clear complete simple relevant and tailored uu Including important positive and negative news uu Incorporating feedback channels and uu Relationship skills involving the development of extensive networks of people throughout the project manager’s spheres of influence. These networks include formal networks such as organizational reporting structures. However the informal networks that project managers develop maintain and nurture are more important. Informal networks include the use of established relationships with individuals such as subject matter experts and influential leaders. Use of these formal and informal networks allows the project manager to engage multiple people in solving problems and navigating the bureaucracies encountered in a project. 3.3.3 THE ORGANIZATION The project manager proactively interacts with other project managers. Other independent projects or projects that are part of the same program may impact a project due to but not limited to the following: uu Demands on the same resources uu Priorities of funding uu Receipt or distribution of deliverables and uu Alignment of project goals and objectives with those of the organization. Interacting with other project managers helps to create a positive influence for fulfilling the various needs of the project. These needs may be in the form of human technical or financial resources and deliverables required by the team for project completion. The project manager seeks ways to develop relationships that assist the team in achieving the goals and objectives of the project.

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55 In addition the project manager maintains a strong advocacy role within the organization. The project manager proactively interacts with managers within the organization during the course of the project. The project manager also works with the project sponsor to address internal political and strategic issues that may impact the team or the viability or quality of the project. The project manager may work toward increasing the project management competency and capability within the organization as a whole and is involved in both tacit and explicit knowledge transfer or integration initiatives see Section 4.4 on Manage Project Knowledge. The project manager also works to: uu Demonstrate the value of project management uu Increase acceptance of project management in the organization and uu Advance the efficacy of the PMO when one exists in the organization. Depending on the organizational structure a project manager may report to a functional manager. In other cases a project manager may be one of several project managers who report to a PMO or a portfolio or program manager who is ultimately responsible for one or more organization-wide projects. The project manager works closely with all relevant managers to achieve the project objectives and to ensure the project management plan aligns with the portfolio or program plan. The project manager also works closely and in collaboration with other roles such as organizational managers subject matter experts and those involved with business analysis. In some situations the project manager may be an external consultant placed in a temporary management role. 3.3.4 THE INDUSTRY The project manager stays informed about current industry trends. The project manager takes this information and sees how it may impact or apply to the current projects. These trends include but are not limited to: uu Product and technology development uu New and changing market niches uu Standards e.g. project management quality management information security management uu Technical support tools uu Economic forces that impact the immediate project uu Influences affecting the project management discipline and uu Process improvement and sustainability strategies.

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56 Part 1 - Guide 3.3.5 PROFESSIONAL DISCIPLINE Continuing knowledge transfer and integration is very important for the project manager. This professional development is ongoing in the project management profession and in other areas where the project manager maintains subject matter expertise. This knowledge transfer and integration includes but is not limited to: uu Contribution of knowledge and expertise to others within the profession at the local national and global levels e.g. communities of practice international organizations and uu Participation in training continuing education and development: u n In the project management profession e.g. universities PMI u n In a related profession e.g. systems engineering configuration management and u n In other professions e.g. information technology aerospace. 3.3.6 ACROSS DISCIPLINES A professional project manager may choose to orient and educate other professionals regarding the value of a project management approach to the organization. The project manager may serve as an informal ambassador by educating the organization as to the advantages of project management with regard to timeliness quality innovation and resource management. 3.4 PROJECT MANAGER COMPETENCES 3.4.1 OVERVIEW Recent PMI studies applied the Project Manager Competency Development PMCD Framework to the skills needed by project managers through the use of The PMI Talent Triangle ® shown in Figure 3-2. The talent triangle focuses on three key skill sets: uu Technical project management. The knowledge skills and behaviors related to specific domains of project program and portfolio management. The technical aspects of performing one’s role. uu Leadership. The knowledge skills and behaviors needed to guide motivate and direct a team to help an organization achieve its business goals. uu Strategic and business management. The knowledge of and expertise in the industry and organization that enhanced performance and better delivers business outcomes.

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57 TM Technical Project Management Leadership ©Project Management Institute. All rights reserved. Strategic and Business Management The PMI Talent Triangle ® Figure 3-2. The PMI Talent Triangle ® While technical project management skills are core to program and project management PMI research indicates that they are not enough in today’s increasingly complicated and competitive global marketplace. Organizations are seeking added skills in leadership and business intelligence. Members of various organizations state their belief that these competencies can support longer-range strategic objectives that contribute to the bottom line. To be the most effective project managers need to have a balance of these three skill sets.

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58 Part 1 - Guide 3.4.2 TECHNICAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS Technical project management skills are defined as the skills to effectively apply project management knowledge to deliver the desired outcomes for programs or projects. There are numerous technical project management skills. The Knowledge Areas in this guide describe many of these necessary project management skills. Project managers frequently rely on expert judgment to perform well. Being aware of personal expertise and where to find others with the needed expertise are important for success as a project manager. According to research. the top project managers consistently demonstrated several key skills including but not limited to the ability to: uu Focus on the critical technical project management elements for each project they manage. This focus is as simple as having the right artifacts readily available. At the top of the list were the following: u n Critical success factors for the project u n Schedule u n Selected financial reports and u n Issue log. uu Tailor both traditional and agile tools techniques and methods for each project. uu Make time to plan thoroughly and prioritize diligently. uu Manage project elements including but not limited to schedule cost resources and risks. 3.4.3 STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SKILLS Strategic and business management skills involve the ability to see the high-level overview of the organization and effectively negotiate and implement decisions and actions that support strategic alignment and innovation. This ability may include a working knowledge of other functions such as finance marketing and operations. Strategic and business management skills may also include developing and applying pertinent product and industry expertise. This business knowledge is also known as domain knowledge. Project managers should be knowledgeable enough about the business to be able to: uu Explain to others the essential business aspects of a project uu Work with the project sponsor team and subject matter experts to develop an appropriate project delivery strategy and uu Implement that strategy in a way that maximizes the business value of the project.

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59 In order to make the best decisions regarding the successful delivery of their projects project managers should seek out and consider the expertise of the operational managers who run the business in their organization. These managers should know the work performed in their organization and how project plans will affect that work. The more the project manager is able to know about the project’s subject matter the better. At a minimum the project manager should be knowledgeable enough to explain to others the following aspects of the organization: uu Strategy uu Mission uu Goals and objectives uu Products and services uu Operations e.g. location type technology uu The market and the market condition such as customers state of the market i.e. growing or shrinking and time-to-market factors etc. and uu Competition e.g. what who position in the market place. The project manager should apply the following knowledge and information about the organization to the project to ensure alignment: uu Strategy uu Mission uu Goals and objectives uu Priority uu Tactics and uu Products or services e.g. deliverables.

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60 Part 1 - Guide Strategic and business skills help the project manager to determine which business factors should be considered for their project. The project manager determines how these business and strategic factors could affect the project while understanding the interrelationship between the project and the organization. These factors include but are not limited to: uu Risks and issues uu Financial implications uu Cost versus benefits analysis e.g. net present value return on investment including the various options considered uu Business value uu Benefits realization expectations and strategies and uu Scope budget schedule and quality. Through the application of this business knowledge a project manager has the ability to make the appropriate decisions and recommendations for a project. As conditions change the project manager should be continuously working with the project sponsor to keep the business and the project strategies aligned. 3.4.4 LEADERSHIP SKILLS Leadership skills involve the ability to guide motivate and direct a team. These skills may include demonstrating essential capabilities such as negotiation resilience communication problem solving critical thinking and interpersonal skills. Projects are becoming increasingly more complicated with more and more businesses executing their strategy through projects. Project management is more than just working with numbers templates charts graphs and computing systems. A common denominator in all projects is people. People can be counted but they are not numbers. 3.4.4.1 DEALING WITH PEOPLE A large part of the project manager’s role involves dealing with people. The project manager should study people’s behaviors and motivations. The project manager should strive to be a good leader because leadership is crucial to the success of projects in organizations. A project manager applies leadership skills and qualities when working with all project stakeholders including the project team the steering team and project sponsors.

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61 3.4.4.2 QUALITIES AND SKILLS OF A LEADER Research shows that the qualities and skills of a leader include but are not limited to: uu Being a visionary e.g. help to describe the products goals and objectives of the project able to dream and translate those dreams for others uu Being optimistic and positive uu Being collaborative uu Managing relationships and conflict by: u n Building trust u n Satisfying concerns u n Seeking consensus u n Balancing competing and opposing goals u n Applying persuasion negotiation compromise and conflict resolution skills u n Developing and nurturing personal and professional networks u n Taking a long-term view that relationships are just as important as the project and u n Continuously developing and applying political acumen. uu Communicating by: u n Spending sufficient time communicating research shows that top project managers spend about 90 of their time on a project in communicating u n Managing expectations u n Accepting feedback graciously u n Giving feedback constructively and u n Asking and listening. uu Being respectful helping others retain their autonomy courteous friendly kind honest trustworthy loyal and ethical uu Exhibiting integrity and being culturally sensitive courageous a problem solver and decisive uu Giving credit to others where due uu Being a life-long learner who is results- and action-oriented

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62 Part 1 - Guide uu Focusing on the important things including: u n Continuously prioritizing work by reviewing and adjusting as necessary u n Finding and using a prioritization method that works for them and the project u n Differentiating high-level strategic priorities especially those related to critical success factors for the project u n Maintaining vigilance on primary project constraints u n Remaining flexible on tactical priorities and u n Being able to sift through massive amounts of information to obtain the most important information. uu Having a holistic and systemic view of the project taking into account internal and external factors equally uu Being able to apply critical thinking e.g. application of analytical methods to reach decisions and identify him or herself as a change agent. uu Being able to build effective teams be service-oriented and have fun and share humor effectively with team members. 3.4.4.3 POLITICS POWER AND GETTING THINGS DONE Leadership and management are ultimately about being able to get things done. The skills and qualities noted help the project manager to achieve the project goals and objectives. At the root of many of these skills and qualities is the ability to deal with politics. Politics involves influence negotiation autonomy and power. Politics and its associated elements are not “good” or “bad” “positive” or “negative” alone. The better the project manager understands how the organization works the more likely he or she will be successful. The project manager observes and collects data about the project and organizational landscapes. The data then needs to be reviewed in the context of the project the people involved the organization and the environment as a whole. This review yields the information and knowledge necessary for the project manager to plan and implement the most appropriate action. The project manager’s action is a result of selecting the right kind of power to influence and negotiate with others. Exercise of power also carries with it the responsibility of being sensitive to and respectful of other people. The effective action of the project manager maintains the autonomy of those involved. The project manager’s action results in the right people performing the activities necessary to fulfill the project’s objectives.

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63 Power can originate with traits exhibited by the individual or the organization. Power is often supported by other people’s perception of the leader. It is essential for project managers to be aware of their relationships with other people. Relationships enable project managers to get things done on the project. There are numerous forms of power at the disposal of project managers. Power and its use can be complex given its nature and the various factors at play in a project. Various forms of power include but are not limited to: uu Positional sometimes called formal authoritative legitimate e.g. formal position granted in the organization or team uu Informational e.g. control of gathering or distribution uu Referent e.g. respect or admiration others hold for the individual credibility gained uu Situational e.g. gained due to unique situation such as a specific crisis uu Personal or charismatic e.g. charm attraction uu Relational e.g. participates in networking connections and alliances uu Expert e.g. skill information possessed experience training education certification uu Reward-oriented e.g. ability to give praise monetary or other desired items uu Punitive or coercive e.g. ability to invoke discipline or negative consequences uu Ingratiating e.g. application of flattery or other common ground to win favor or cooperation uu Pressure-based e.g. limit freedom of choice or movement for the purpose of gaining compliance to desired action uu Guilt-based e.g. imposition of obligation or sense of duty uu Persuasive e.g. ability to provide arguments that move people to a desired course of action and uu Avoiding e.g. refusing to participate. Top project managers are proactive and intentional when it comes to power. These project managers will work to acquire the power and authority they need within the boundaries of organizational policies protocols and procedures rather than wait for it to be granted.

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64 Part 1 - Guide 3.4.5 COMPARISON OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT The words leadership and management are often used interchangeably. However they are not synonymous. The word management is more closely associated with directing another person to get from one point to another using a known set of expected behaviors. In contrast leadership involves working with others through discussion or debate in order to guide them from one point to another. The method that a project manager chooses to employ reveals a distinct difference in behavior self-perception and project role. Table 3-1 compares management and leadership on several important levels. Project managers need to employ both leadership and management in order to be successful. The skill is in finding the right balance for each situation. The way in which management and leadership are employed often shows up in the project manager’s leadership style. Table 3-1. Team Management and Team Leadership Compared Management Leadership Guide influence and collaborate using relational power Develop Innovate Focus on relationships with people Inspire trust Focus on long-range vision Ask what and why Focus on the horizon Challenge status quo Do the right things Focus on vision alignment motivation and inspiration Direct using positional power Maintain Administrate Focus on systems and structure Rely on control Focus on near-term goals Ask how and when Focus on bottom line Accept status quo Do things right Focus on operational issues and problem solving

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65 3.4.5.1 LEADERSHIP STYLES Project managers may lead their teams in many ways. The style a project manager selects may be a personal preference or the result of the combination of multiple factors associated with the project. The style a project manager uses may change over time based on the factors in play. Major factors to consider include but are not limited to: uu Leader characteristics e.g. attitudes moods needs values ethics uu Team member characteristics e.g. attitudes moods needs values ethics uu Organizational characteristics e.g. its purpose structure and type of work performed and uu Environmental characteristics e.g. social situation economic state and political elements. Research describes numerous leadership styles that a project manager can adopt. Some of the most common examples of these styles include but are not limited to: uu Laissez-faire e.g. allowing the team to make their own decisions and establish their own goals also referred to as taking a hands-off style uu Transactional e.g. focus on goals feedback and accomplishment to determine rewards management by exception uu Servant leader e.g. demonstrates commitment to serve and put other people first focuses on other people’s growth learning development autonomy and well-being concentrates on relationships community and collaboration leadership is secondary and emerges after service uu Transformational e.g. empowering followers through idealized attributes and behaviors inspirational motivation encouragement for innovation and creativity and individual consideration uu Charismatic e.g. able to inspire is high-energy enthusiastic self-confident holds strong convictions and uu Interactional e.g. a combination of transactional transformational and charismatic.

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66 Part 1 - Guide 3.4.5.2 PERSONALITY Personality refers to the individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking feeling and behaving. Personality characteristics or traits include but are not limited to: uu Authentic e.g. accepts others for what and who they are show open concern uu Courteous e.g. ability to apply appropriate behavior and etiquette uu Creative e.g. ability to think abstractly to see things differently to innovate uu Cultural e.g. measure of sensitivity to other cultures including values norms and beliefs uu Emotional e.g. ability to perceive emotions and the information they present and to manage them measure of interpersonal skills uu Intellectual e.g. measure of human intelligence over multiple aptitudes uu Managerial e.g. measure of management practice and potential uu Political e.g. measure of political intelligence and making things happen uu Service-oriented e.g. evidence of willingness to serve other people uu Social e.g. ability to understand and manage people and uu Systemic e.g. drive to understand and build systems. An effective project manager will have some level of ability with each of these characteristics in order to be successful. Each project organization and situation requires that the project manager emphasize different aspects of personality. 3.5 PERFORMING INTEGRATION The role of the project manager is twofold when performing integration on the project: uu Project managers play a key role in working with the project sponsor to understand the strategic objectives and ensure the alignment of the project objectives and results with those of the portfolio program and business areas. In this way project managers contribute to the integration and execution of the strategy. uu Project managers are responsible for guiding the team to work together to focus on what is really essential at the project level. This is achieved through the integration of processes knowledge and people. Integration is a critical skill for project managers. Integration is covered more in depth in the Project Integration Management Knowledge Area of this guide. Sections 3.5.1 through 3.5.4 focus on integration that takes place at three different levels: the process cognitive and context levels. Section 3.5.4 concludes by addressing complexity and integration.

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67 3.5.1 PERFORMING INTEGRATION AT THE PROCESS LEVEL Project management may be seen as a set of processes and activities that are undertaken to achieve the project objectives. Some of these processes may take place once e.g. the initial creation of the project charter but many others overlap and occur several times throughout the project. One example of this process overlap and multiple occurrences is a change in a requirement that impacts scope schedule or budget and requires a change request. Several project management processes such as the Control Scope process and the Perform Integrated Change Control process may involve a change request. The Perform Integrated Change Control process occurs throughout the project for integrating change requests. Although there is no stated definition on how to integrate the project processes it is clear that a project has a small chance of meeting its objective when the project manager fails to integrate the project processes where they interact. 3.5.2 INTEGRATION AT THE COGNITIVE LEVEL There are many different ways to manage a project and the method selected typically depends on the specific characteristics of the project including its size how complicated the project or organization may be and the culture of the performing organization. It is clear that the personal skills and abilities of the project manager are closely related to the way in which the project is managed. The project manager should strive to become proficient in all of the Project Management Knowledge Areas. In concert with proficiency in these Knowledge Areas the project manager applies experience insight leadership and technical and business management skills to the project. Finally it is through the project manager’s ability to integrate the processes in these Knowledge Areas that makes it possible to achieve the desired project results. 3.5.3 INTEGRATION AT THE CONTEXT LEVEL There have been many changes in the context in which business and projects take place today compared to a few decades ago. New technologies have been introduced. Social networks multicultural aspects virtual teams and new values are part of the new reality of projects. An example is knowledge and people integration in the context of a large cross-functional project implementation involving multiple organizations. The project manager considers the implications of this context in communications planning and knowledge management for guiding the project team. Project managers need to be cognizant of the project context and these new aspects when managing the integration. Then project managers can decide how to best use these new elements of the environment in their projects to achieve success.

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68 Part 1 - Guide 3.5.4 INTEGRATION AND COMPLEXITY Some projects may be referred to as complex and considered difficult to manage. In simple terms complex and complicated are concepts often used to describe what is considered to be intricate or complicated. Complexity within projects is a result of the organization’s system behavior human behavior and the uncertainty at work in the organization or its environment. In Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide 13 these three dimensions of complexity are defined as: uu System behavior. The interdependencies of components and systems. uu Human behavior. The interplay between diverse individuals and groups. uu Ambiguity. Uncertainty of emerging issues and lack of understanding or confusion. Complexity itself is a perception of an individual based on personal experience observation and skill. Rather than being complex a project is more accurately described as containing complexity. Portfolios programs and projects may contain elements of complexity. When approaching the integration of a project the project manager should consider elements that are both inside and outside of the project. The project manager should examine the characteristics or properties of the project. Complexity as a characteristic or property of a project is typically defined as: uu Containing multiple parts uu Possessing a number of connections between the parts uu Exhibiting dynamic interactions between the parts and uu Exhibiting behavior produced as a result of those interactions that cannot be explained as the simple sum of the parts e.g. emergent behavior. Examining these various items that appear to make the project complex should help the project manager identify key areas when planning managing and controlling the project to ensure integration.

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69 4 PROJECT INTEGRAT ION MANAGEMENT Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify define combine unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. In the project management context integration includes characteristics of unification consolidation communication and interrelationship. These actions should be applied from the start of the project through completion. Project Integration Management includes making choices about: uu Resource allocation uu Balancing competing demands uu Examining any alternative approaches uu Tailoring the processes to meet the project objectives and uu Managing the interdependencies among the Project Management Knowledge Areas.

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70 Part 1 - Guide The Project Integration Management processes are: 4.1 Develop Project Charter—The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan—The process of defining preparing and coordinating all plan components and consolidating them into an integrated project management plan. 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work—The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives. 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge—The process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project’s objectives and contribute to organizational learning. 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work—The process of tracking reviewing and reporting overall progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan. 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control—The process of reviewing all change requests approving changes and managing changes to deliverables organizational process assets project documents and the project management plan and communicating the decisions. 4.7 Close Project or Phase—The process of finalizing all activities for the project phase or contract. Figure 4-1 provides an overview of the Project Integration Management processes. The Project Integration Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide.

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71 .1 Inputs .1 Business documents .2 Agreements .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Interpersonal and team skills .4 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Project charter .2 Assumption log Project Integration Management Overview 4.1 Develop Project Charter .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Outputs from other processes .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Interpersonal and team skills .4 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Project management plan 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Approved change requests .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Project management information system .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Deliverables .2 Work performance data .3 Issue log .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates .6 Project documents updates .7 Organizational process assets updates 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance information .4 Agreements .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Decision making .4 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Work performance reports .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance reports .4 Change requests .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Change control tools .3 Data analysis .4 Decision making .5 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Approved change requests .2 Project management plan updates .3 Project documents updates 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Accepted deliverables .5 Business documents .6 Agreements .7 Procurement documentation .8 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Project documents updates .2 Final product service or result transition .3 Final report .4 Organizational process assets updates 4.7 Close Project or Phase .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Deliverables .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Knowledge management .3 Information management .4 Interpersonal and team skills .3 Outputs .1 Lessons learned register .2 Project management plan updates .3 Organizational process assets updates 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge Figure 4-1. Project Integration Management Overview

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72 Part 1 - Guide KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT Project Integration Management is specific to project managers. Whereas other Knowledge Areas may be managed by specialists e.g. cost analysis scheduling specialists risk management experts the accountability of Project Integration Management cannot be delegated or transferred. The project manager is the one who combines the results in all the other Knowledge Areas and has the overall view of the project. The project manager is ultimately responsible for the project as a whole. Projects and project management are integrative by nature. For example a cost estimate needed for a contingency plan involves integrating the processes in the Project Cost Management Project Schedule Management and Project Risk Management Knowledge Areas. When additional risks associated with various staffing alternatives are identified then one or more of those processes may be revisited. The links among the processes in the Project Management Process Groups are often iterative. For example the Planning Process Group provides the Executing Process Group with a documented project management plan early in the project and then updates the project management plan if changes occur as the project progresses. Project Integration Management is about: uu Ensuring that the deliverable due dates of the product service or result project life cycle and the benefits management plan are aligned uu Providing a project management plan to achieve the project objectives uu Ensuring the creation and the use of the appropriate knowledge to and from the project as necessary uu Managing the performance and changes of the activities in the project management plan uu Making integrated decisions regarding key changes impacting the project uu Measuring and monitoring the project’s progress and taking appropriate action to meet project objectives uu Collecting data on the results achieved analyzing the data to obtain information and communicating this information to relevant stakeholders uu Completing all the work of the project and formally closing each phase contract and the project as a whole and uu Managing phase transitions when necessary. The more complex the project and the more varied the expectations of the stakeholders the more a sophisticated approach to integration is needed.

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73 TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT The Project Integration Management Knowledge Area requires combining the results from all the other Knowledge Areas. Evolving trends in integration processes include but are not limited to: uu Use of automated tools. The volume of data and information that project managers need to integrate makes it necessary to use a project management information system PMIS and automated tools to collect analyze and use information to meet project objectives and realize project benefits. uu Use of visual management tools. Some project teams use visual management tools rather than written plans and other documents to capture and oversee critical project elements. Making key project elements visible to the entire team provides a real-time overview of the project status facilitates knowledge transfer and empowers team members and other stakeholders to help identify and solve issues. uu Project knowledge management. The increasingly mobile and transitory work force requires a more rigorous process of identifying knowledge throughout the project life cycle and transferring it to the target audience so that the knowledge is not lost. uu Expanding the project manager’s responsibilities. Project managers are being called on to initiate and finalize the project such as project business case development and benefits management. Historically these activities have been the responsibility of management and the project management office but project managers are more frequently collaborating with them to better meet project objectives and deliver benefits. Project managers are also engaging in more comprehensive identification and engagement of stakeholders. This includes managing the interfaces with various functional and operational departments and senior management personnel. uu Hybrid methodologies. Some project management methodologies are evolving to incorporate successfully applied new practices. Examples include the use of agile and other iterative practices business analysis techniques for requirements management tools for identifying complex elements in projects and organizational change management methods to prepare for transitioning the project outputs into the organization.

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74 Part 1 - Guide TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique the project manager may need to tailor the way that Project Integration Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Project life cycle. What is an appropriate project life cycle What phases should comprise the project life cycle uu Development life cycle. What development life cycle and approach are appropriate for the product service or result Is a predictive or adaptive approach appropriate If adaptive should the product be developed incrementally or iteratively Is a hybrid approach best uu Management approaches. What management processes are most effective based on the organizational culture and the complexity of the project uu Knowledge management. How will knowledge be managed in the project to foster a collaborative working environment uu Change. How will change be managed in the project uu Governance. What control boards committees and other stakeholders are part of the project What are the project status reporting requirements uu Lessons learned. What information should be collected throughout and at the end of the project How will historical information and lessons learned be made available to future projects uu Benefits. When and how should benefits be reported: at the end of the project or at the end of each iteration or phase CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS Iterative and agile approaches promote the engagement of team members as local domain experts in integration management. The team members determine how plans and components should integrate. The expectations of the project manager as noted in the Key Concepts for Integration Management do not change in an adaptive environment but control of the detailed product planning and delivery is delegated to the team. The project manager’s focus is on building a collaborative decision-making environment and ensuring the team has the ability to respond to changes. This collaborative approach can be further enhanced when team members possess a broad skill base rather than a narrow specialization.

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75 4.1 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER Develop Project Charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. The key benefits of this process are that it provides a direct link between the project and the strategic objectives of the organization creates a formal record of the project and shows the organizational commitment to the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-2. Figure 4-3 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-2. Develop Project Charter: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Develop Project Charter .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Brainstorming • Focus groups • Interviews .3 Interpersonal and team skills • Conflict management • Facilitation • Meeting management .4 Meetings .1 Business documents • Business case • Benefits management plan .2 Agreements .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Project charter .2 Assumption log

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76 Part 1 - Guide • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Business documents • Business case • Benefits management plan • Assumption log • Agreements • Project charter Business Documents 5.1 Plan Scope Management 5.2 Collect Requirements 5.3 Define Scope 6.1 Plan Schedule Management 7.1 Plan Cost Management 8.1 Plan Quality Management 9.1 Plan Resource Management 10.1 Plan Communications Management 11.1 Plan Risk Management 12.1 Plan Procurement Management 13.1 Identify Stakeholders 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement 4.7 Close Project or Phase 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan Enterprise/ Organization Project Documents 4.1 Develop Project Charter Figure 4-3. Develop Project Charter: Data Flow Diagram

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77 The project charter establishes a partnership between the performing and requesting organizations. In the case of external projects a formal contract is typically the preferred way to establish an agreement. A project charter may still be used to establish internal agreements within an organization to ensure proper delivery under the contract. The approved project charter formally initiates the project. A project manager is identified and assigned as early in the project as is feasible preferably while the project charter is being developed and always prior to the start of planning. The project charter can be developed by the sponsor or the project manager in collaboration with the initiating entity. This collaboration allows the project manager to have a better understanding of the project purpose objectives and expected benefits. This understanding will better allow for efficient resource allocation to project activities. The project charter provides the project manager with the authority to plan execute and control the project. Projects are initiated by an entity external to the project such as a sponsor program or project management office PMO or a portfolio governing body chairperson or authorized representative. The project initiator or sponsor should be at a level that is appropriate to procure funding and commit resources to the project. Projects are initiated due to internal business needs or external influences. These needs or influences often trigger the creation of a needs analysis feasibility study business case or description of the situation that the project will address. Chartering a project validates alignment of the project to the strategy and ongoing work of the organization. A project charter is not considered to be a contract because there is no consideration or money promised or exchanged in its creation. 4.1.1 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER: INPUTS 4.1.1.1 BUSINESS DOCUMENTS The business case described in Section 1.2.6.1 and the benefits management plan described in Section 1.2.6.2 are sources of information about the project´s objectives and how the project will contribute to the business goals. Although the business documents are developed prior to the project they are reviewed periodically. uu Business case. The approved business case or similar is the business document most commonly used to create the project charter. The business case describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether the expected outcomes of the project justify the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically the business need and the cost- benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project. For more information on the business case see Section 1.2.6.1. The business case is created as a result of one or more of the following:

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78 Part 1 - Guide u n Market demand e.g. an automobile manufacturer authorizing a project to build more fuel-efficient cars in response to gasoline shortages u n Organizational need e.g. due to high overhead costs a company may combine staff functions and streamline processes to reduce costs u n Customer request e.g. an electric utility authorizing a project to build a new substation to serve a new industrial park u n Technological advance e.g. an airline authorizing a new project to develop electronic tickets instead of paper tickets based on technological advances u n Legal requirement e.g. a paint manufacturer authorizing a project to establish guidelines for handling toxic materials u n Ecological impacts e.g. a company authorizing a project to lessen its environmental impact or u n Social need e.g. a nongovernmental organization in a developing country authorizing a project to provide potable water systems latrines and sanitation education to communities suffering from high rates of cholera. The project charter incorporates the appropriate information for the project from the business documents. The project manager does not update or modify the business documents since they are not project documents however the project manager may make recommendations. 4.1.1.2 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. Agreements are used to define initial intentions for a project. Agreements may take the form of contracts memorandums of understanding MOUs service level agreements SLA letters of agreement letters of intent verbal agreements email or other written agreements. Typically a contract is used when a project is being performed for an external customer. 4.1.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Develop Project Charter process include but are not limited to: uu Government or industry standards e.g. product standards quality standards safety standards and workmanship standards uu Legal and regulatory requirements and/or constraints uu Marketplace conditions uu Organizational culture and political climate uu Organizational governance framework a structured way to provide control direction and coordination through people policies and processes to meet organizational strategic and operational goals and uu Stakeholders’ expectations and risk thresholds.

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79 4.1.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Develop Project Charter process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational standard policies processes and procedures uu Portfolio program and project governance framework governance functions and processes to provide guidance and decision making uu Monitoring and reporting methods uu Templates e.g. project charter template and uu Historical information and lessons learned repository e.g. project records and documents information about the results of previous project selection decisions and information about previous project performance. 4.1.2 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Expert judgment is defined as judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area Knowledge Area discipline industry etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education knowledge skill experience or training. For this process expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of or training in the following topics: uu Organizational strategy uu Benefits management uu Technical knowledge of the industry and focus area of the project uu Duration and budget estimation and uu Risk identification.

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80 Part 1 - Guide 4.1.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Brainstorming. This technique is used to identify a list of ideas in a short period of time. It is conducted in a group environment and is led by a facilitator. Brainstorming comprises two parts: idea generation and analysis. Brainstorming can be used to gather data and solutions or ideas from stakeholders subject matter experts and team members when developing the project charter. uu Focus groups. Described in Section 5.2.2.2. Focus groups bring together stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about the perceived project risk success criteria and other topics in a more conversational way than a one-on-one interview. uu Interviews. Described in Section 5.2.2.2. Interviews are used to obtain information on high-level requirements assumptions or constraints approval criteria and other information from stakeholders by talking directly to them. 4.1.2.3 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Conflict management. Described in Section 9.5.2.1. Conflict management can be used to help bring stakeholders into alignment on the objectives success criteria high-level requirements project description summary milestones and other elements of the charter. uu Facilitation. Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision solution or conclusion. A facilitator ensures that there is effective participation that participants achieve a mutual understanding that all contributions are considered that conclusions or results have full buy-in according to the decision process established for the project and that the actions and agreements achieved are appropriately dealt with afterward. uu Meeting management. Described in Section 10.2.2.6. Meeting management includes preparing the agenda ensuring that a representative for each key stakeholder group is invited and preparing and sending the follow-up minutes and actions. 4.1.2.4 MEETINGS For this process meetings are held with key stakeholders to identify the project objectives success criteria key deliverables high-level requirements summary milestones and other summary information.

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81 4.1.3 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER: OUTPUTS 4.1.3.1 PROJECT CHARTER The project charter is the document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. It documents the high-level information on the project and on the product service or result the project is intended to satisfy such as: uu Project purpose uu Measurable project objectives and related success criteria uu High-level requirements uu High-level project description boundaries and key deliverables uu Overall project risk uu Summary milestone schedule uu Preapproved financial resources uu Key stakeholder list uu Project approval requirements i.e. what constitutes project success who decides the project is successful and who signs off on the project uu Project exit criteria i.e. what are the conditions to be met in order to close or to cancel the project or phase uu Assigned project manager responsibility and authority level and uu Name and authority of the sponsor or other persons authorizing the project charter. At a high level the project charter ensures a common understanding by the stakeholders of the key deliverables milestones and the roles and responsibilities of everyone involved in the project. 4.1.3.2 ASSUMPTION LOG High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications estimates the schedule risks etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project life cycle.

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82 Part 1 - Guide 4.2 DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Develop Project Management Plan is the process of defining preparing and coordinating all plan components and consolidating them into an integrated project management plan. The key benefit of this process is the production of a comprehensive document that defines the basis of all project work and how the work will be performed. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-4. Figure 4-5 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-4. Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 4-5. Develop Project Management Plan: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Develop Project Management Plan .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Brainstorming • Checklists • Focus groups • Interviews .3 Interpersonal and team skills • Conflict management • Facilitation • Meeting management .4 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Outputs from other processes .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Project management plan • Project charter 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan Enterprise/ Organization 4.1 Develop Project Charter Outputs from Other Processes • Project management plan • Project charter • Any baseline or component plan • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan

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83 The project management plan defines how the project is executed monitored and controlled and closed. The project management plan’s content varies depending on the application area and complexity of the project. The project management plan may be either summary level or detailed. Each component plan is described to the extent required by the specific project. The project management plan should be robust enough to respond to an ever- changing project environment. This agility may result in more accurate information as the project progresses. The project management plan should be baselined that is it is necessary to define at least the project references for scope time and cost so that the project execution can be measured and compared to those references and performance can be managed. Before the baselines are defined the project management plan may be updated as many times as necessary. No formal process is required at that time. But once it is baselined it may only be changed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Consequently change requests will be generated and decided upon whenever a change is requested. This results in a project management plan that is progressively elaborated by controlled and approved updates extending through project closure. Projects that exist in the context of a program or portfolio should develop a project management plan that is consistent with the program or portfolio management plan. For example if the program management plan indicates all changes exceeding a specified cost need to be reviewed by the change control board CCB then this process and cost threshold need to be defined in the project management plan. 4.2.1 DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN: INPUTS 4.2.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project team uses the project charter as a starting point for initial project planning. The type and amount of information in the project charter varies depending on the complexity of the project and the information known at the time of its creation. At a minimum the project charter should define the high-level information about the project that will be elaborated in the various components of the project management plan. 4.2.1.2 OUTPUTS FROM OTHER PROCESSES Outputs from many of the other processes described in Sections 5 through 13 are integrated to create the project management plan. Subsidiary plans and baselines that are an output from other planning processes are inputs to this process. In addition changes to these documents may necessitate updates to the project management plan.

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84 Part 1 - Guide 4.2.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Develop Project Management Plan process include but are not limited to: uu Government or industry standards e.g. product standards quality standards safety standards and workmanship standards uu Legal and regulatory requirements and/or constraints uu Project management body of knowledge for vertical market e.g. construction and/or focus area e.g. environmental safety risk or agile software development uu Organizational structure culture management practices and sustainability uu Organizational governance framework a structured way to provide control direction and coordination through people policies and processes to meet organizational strategic and operational goals and uu Infrastructure e.g. existing facilities and capital equipment. 4.2.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Develop Project Management Plan process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational standard policies processes and procedures uu Project management plan template including: u n Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project and u n Project closure guidelines or requirements such as the product validation and acceptance criteria. uu Change control procedures including the steps by which official organizational standards policies plans procedures or any project documents will be modified and how any changes will be approved and validated uu Monitoring and reporting methods risk control procedures and communication requirements uu Project information from previous similar projects e.g. scope cost schedule and performance measurement baselines project calendars project schedule network diagrams and risk registers and uu Historical information and lessons learned repository.

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85 4.2.2 DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.2.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of or training in the following topics: uu Tailoring the project management process to meet the project needs including the dependencies and interactions among those processes and the essential inputs and outputs uu Developing additional components of the project management plan if needed uu Determining the tools and techniques to be used for accomplishing those processes uu Developing technical and management details to be included in the project management plan uu Determining resources and skill levels needed to perform project work uu Defining the level of configuration management to apply on the project uu Determining which project documents will be subject to the formal change control process and uu Prioritizing the work on the project to ensure the project resources are allocated to the appropriate work at the appropriate time. 4.2.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Brainstorming. Described in Section 4.1.2.2. Brainstorming is frequently used when developing the project management plan to gather ideas and solutions about the project approach. Attendees include the project team members although other subject matter experts SMEs or stakeholders may also participate. uu Checklists. Described in Section 11.2.2.2. Many organizations have standardized checklists available based in their own experience or use checklists from the industry. A checklist may guide the project manager to develop the plan or may help to verify that all the required information is included in the project management plan. uu Focus groups. Described in Section 5.2.2.2. Focus groups bring together stakeholders to discuss the project management approach and the integration of the different components of the project management plan. uu Interviews. Described in Section 5.2.2.2. Interviews are used to obtain specific information from stakeholders to develop the project management plan or any component plan or project document.

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86 Part 1 - Guide 4.2.2.3 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS The interpersonal and team skills used when developing the project management plan include: uu Conflict management. Described in Section 9.5.2.1. Conflict management may be necessary to bring diverse stakeholders into alignment on all aspects of the project management plan. uu Facilitation. Described in Section 4.1.2.3. Facilitation ensures that there is effective participation that participants achieve a mutual understanding that all contributions are considered and that conclusions or results have full buy-in according to the decision process established for the project. uu Meeting management. Described in Section 10.2.2.6. Meeting management is necessary to ensure that the numerous meetings that are necessary to develop unify and agree on the project management plan are well run. 4.2.2.4 MEETINGS For this process meetings are used to discuss the project approach determine how work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives and establish the way the project will be monitored and controlled. The project kick-off meeting is usually associated with the end of planning and the start of executing. Its purpose is to communicate the objectives of the project gain the commitment of the team for the project and explain the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder. The kick-off may occur at different points in time depending on the characteristics of the project: uu For small projects there is usually only one team that performs the planning and the execution. In this case the kick-off occurs shortly after initiation in the Planning Process Group because the team is involved in planning. uu In large projects a project management team normally does the majority of the planning and the remainder of the project team is brought on when the initial planning is complete at the start of the development/implementation. In this instance the kick-off meeting takes place with processes in the Executing Process Group. Multiphase projects will typically include a kick-off meeting at the beginning of each phase. 4.2.3 DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN: OUTPUTS 4.2.3.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN The project management plan is the document that describes how the project will be executed monitored and controlled and closed. It integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines and other information necessary to manage the project. The needs of the project determine which components of the project management plan are needed.

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87 Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Subsidiary management plans: u n Scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1. Establishes how the scope will be defined developed monitored controlled and validated. u n Requirements management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.2. Establishes how the requirements will be analyzed documented and managed. u n Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. Establishes the criteria and the activities for developing monitoring and controlling the schedule. u n Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. Establishes how the costs will be planned structured and controlled. u n Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. Establishes how an organization´s quality policies methodologies and standards will be implemented in the project. u n Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1 Provides guidance on how project resources should be categorized allocated managed and released. u n Communications management plan. Described in Section 10.1.3.1. Establishes how when and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated. u n Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. Establishes how the risk management activities will be structured and performed. u n Procurement management plan. Described in Section 12.1.3.1. Establishes how the project team will acquire goods and services from outside of the performing organization. u n Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. Establishes how stakeholders will be engaged in project decisions and execution according to their needs interests and impact. uu Baselines: u n Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The approved version of a scope statement work breakdown structure WBS and its associated WBS dictionary which is used as a basis for comparison. u n Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. The approved version of the schedule model that is used as a basis for comparison to the actual results. u n Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The approved version of the time-phased project budget that is used as a basis for comparison to the actual results.

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88 Part 1 - Guide uu Additional components. Most components of the project management plan are produced as outputs from other processes though some are produced during this process. Those components developed as part of this process will be dependent on the project however they often include but are not limited to: u n Change management plan. Describes how the change requests throughout the project will be formally authorized and incorporated. u n Configuration management plan. Describes how the information about the items of the project and which items will be recorded and updated so that the product service or result of the project remains consistent and/or operative. u n Performance measurement baseline. An integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. u n Project life cycle. Describes the series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure. u n Development approach. Describes the product service or result development approach such as predictive iterative agile or a hybrid model. u n Management reviews. Identifies the points in the project when the project manager and relevant stakeholders will review the project progress to determine if performance is as expected or if preventive or corrective actions are necessary. While the project management plan is one of the primary documents used to manage the project other project documents are also used. These other documents are not part of the project management plan however they are necessary to manage the project effectively. Table 4-1 is a representative list of the project management plan components and project documents.

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89 Table 4-1. Project Management Plan and Project Documents 1. Scope management plan 2. Requirements management plan 3. Schedule management plan 4. Cost management plan 5. Quality management plan 6. Resource management plan 7. Communications management plan 8. Risk management plan 9. Procurement management plan 10. Stakeholder engagement plan 11. Change management plan 12. Configuration management plan 13. Scope baseline 14. Schedule baseline 15. Cost baseline 16. Performance measurement baseline 17. Project life cycle description 18. Development approach 1. Activity attributes 2. Activity list 3. Assumption log 4. Basis of estimates 5. Change log 6. Cost estimates 7. Cost forecasts 8. Duration estimates 9. Issue log 10. Lessons learned register 11. Milestone list 12. Physical resource assignments 13. Project calendars 14. Project communications 15. Project schedule 16. Project schedule network diagram 17. Project scope statement 18. Project team assignments 19. Quality control measurements 20. Quality metrics 21. Quality report 22. Requirements documentation 23. Requirements traceability matrix 24. Resource breakdown structure 25. Resource calendars 26. Resource requirements 27. Risk register 28. Risk report 29. Schedule data 30. Schedule forecasts 31. Stakeholder register 32. Team charter 33. Test and evaluation documents Project Documents Project Management Plan

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90 Part 1 - Guide 4.3 DIRECT AND MANAGE PROJECT WORK Direct and Manage Project Work is the process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives. The key benefit of this process is that it provides overall management of the project work and deliverables thus improving the probability of project success. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-6. Figure 4-7 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-6. Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Direct and Manage Project Work .1 Expert judgment .2 Project management information system .3 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Any component .2 Project documents • Change log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project communications • Project schedule • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Risk report .3 Approved change requests .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Deliverables .2 Work performance data .3 Issue log .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates • Any component .6 Project documents updates • Activity list • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Stakeholder register .7 Organizational process assets updates

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91 • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Approved change requests • Work performance data Project management plan updates • Any component • Issue log • Deliverables • Change requests • Deliverables • Deliverables • Organizational process assets updates Project documents • Change log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project communications • Project schedule • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Risk report Project management plan • Any component Project Management Plan 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 8.3 Control Quality 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work Project Documents 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control Enterprise/ Organization 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagementt 12.3 Control Procurements 11.7 Monitor Risks 10.3 Monitor Communications 9.6 Control Resources 8.3 Control Quality 7.4 Control Costs 6.6 Control Scehdule 5.6 Control Scope 5.5. Validate Scope Enterprise/ Organization Project Documents Project Management Plan Project documents updates • Activity list • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Stakeholder register Figure 4-7. Direct and Manage Project Work: Data Flow Diagram

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92 Part 1 - Guide Direct and Manage Project Work involves executing the planned project activities to complete project deliverables and accomplish established objectives. Available resources are allocated their efficient use is managed and changes in project plans stemming from analyzing work performance data and information are carried out. The Direct and Manage Project Work process is directly affected by the project application area. Deliverables are produced as outputs from processes performed to accomplish the project work as planned and scheduled in the project management plan. The project manager along with the project management team directs the performance of the planned project activities and manages the various technical and organizational interfaces that exist in the project. Direct and Manage Project Work also requires review of the impact of all project changes and the implementation of approved changes: corrective action preventive action and/or defect repair. During project execution the work performance data is collected and communicated to the applicable controlling processes for analysis. Work performance data analysis provides information about the completion status of deliverables and other relevant details about project performance. The work performance data will also be used as an input to the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group and can be used as feedback into lessons learned to improve the performance of future work packages. 4.3.1 DIRECT AND MANAGE PROJECT WORK: INPUTS 4.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Any component of the project management plan may be an input to this process. 4.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Change log. Described in Section 4.6.3.3. The change log contains the status of all change requests. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned are used to improve the performance of the project and to avoid repeating mistakes. The register helps identify where to set rules or guidelines so the team’s actions are aligned. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The milestone list shows the scheduled dates for specific milestones. uu Project communications. Described in Section 10.2.3.1. Project communications include performance reports deliverable status and other information generated by the project.

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93 uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The schedule includes at least the list of work activities their durations resources and planned start and finish dates. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix links product requirements to the deliverables that satisfy them and helps to focus on the final outcomes. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register provides information on threats and opportunities that may impact project execution. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report provides information on sources of overall project risk along with summary information on identified individual project risks. 4.3.1.3 APPROVED CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.6.3.1. Approved change requests are an output of the Perform Integrated Change Control process and include those requests reviewed and approved for implementation by the project manager or by the change control board CCB when applicable. The approved change request may be a corrective action a preventive action or a defect repair. Approved change requests are scheduled and implemented by the project team and can impact any area of the project or project management plan. The approved change requests can also modify the formally controlled project management plan components or project documents. 4.3.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Direct and Manage Project Work process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational structure culture management practices and sustainability uu Infrastructure e.g. existing facilities and capital equipment and uu Stakeholder risk thresholds e.g. allowable cost overrun percentage.

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94 Part 1 - Guide 4.3.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Direct and Manage Project Work process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational standard policies processes and procedures uu Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defect controls issue and defect identification and resolution and action item tracking uu Issue and defect management databases containing historical issue and defect status issue and defect resolution and action item results uu Performance measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products uu Change control and risk control procedures and uu Project information from previous projects e.g. scope cost schedule performance measurement baselines project calendars project schedule network diagrams risk registers risk reports and lessons learned repository. 4.3.2 DIRECT AND MANAGE PROJECT WORK: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.3.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Technical knowledge on the industry and focus area of the project uu Cost and budget management uu Legal and procurement uu Legislation and regulations and uu Organizational governance.

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95 4.3.2.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS The PMIS provides access to information technology IT software tools such as scheduling software tools work authorization systems configuration management systems information collection and distribution systems as well as interfaces to other online automated systems such as corporate knowledge base repositories. Automated gathering and reporting on key performance indicators KPI can be part of this system. 4.3.2.3 MEETINGS Meetings are used to discuss and address pertinent topics of the project when directing and managing project work. Attendees may include the project manager the project team and appropriate stakeholders involved or affected by the topics addressed. Each attendee should have a defined role to ensure appropriate participation. Types of meetings include but are not limited to: kick-off technical sprint or iteration planning Scrum daily standups steering group problem solving progress update and retrospective meetings. 4.3.3 DIRECT AND MANAGE PROJECT WORK: OUTPUTS 4.3.3.1 DELIVERABLES A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process phase or project. Deliverables are typically the outcomes of the project and can include components of the project management plan. Change control should be applied once the first version of a deliverable has been completed. The control of the multiple versions or editions of a deliverable e.g. documents software and building blocks is supported by configuration management tools and procedures. 4.3.3.2 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data is gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis. Examples of work performance data include work completed key performance indicators KPIs technical performance measures actual start and finish dates of schedule activities story points completed deliverables status schedule progress number of change requests number of defects actual costs incurred actual durations etc.

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96 Part 1 - Guide 4.3.3.3 ISSUE LOG Throughout the life cycle of a project the project manager will normally face problems gaps inconsistencies or conflicts that occur unexpectedly and that require some action so they do not impact the project performance. The issue log is a project document where all the issues are recorded and tracked. Data on issues may include: uu Issue type uu Who raised the issue and when uu Description uu Priority uu Who is assigned to the issue uu Target resolution date uu Status and uu Final solution. The issue log will help the project manager effectively track and manage issues ensuring that they are investigated and resolved. The issue log is created for the first time as an output of this process although issues may happen at any time during the project. The issue log is updated as a result of the monitoring and control activities throughout the project’s life cycle. 4.3.3.4 CHANGE REQUESTS A change request is a formal proposal to modify any document deliverable or baseline. When issues are found while project work is being performed change requests can be submitted which may modify project policies or procedures project or product scope project cost or budget project schedule or quality of the project or product results. Other change requests cover the needed preventive or corrective actions to forestall negative impact later in the project. Any project stakeholder may request a change. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Change requests can be initiated from inside or outside the project and they can be optional or legally/contractually mandated. Change requests may include: uu Corrective action. An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan. uu Preventive action. An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. uu Defect repair. An intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component. uu Updates. Changes to formally controlled project documents plans etc. to reflect modified or additional ideas or content.

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97 4.3.3.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Any component of the project management plan may require a change request as a result of this process. 4.3.3.6 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity list. Described in Section 6.2.3.1. The activity list may be updated with additional or modified activities to be performed to complete project work. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. New assumptions and constraints may be added and the status of existing assumptions and constraints may be updated or closed out. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Any lessons learned that will improve performance for current or future projects is recorded as it is learned. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. New requirements may be identified during this process. Progress on meeting requirements can also be updated. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks may be identified and existing risks may be updated during this process. Risks are recorded in the risk register via risk management processes. uu Stakeholder register . Described in Section 13.1.3.1. Where additional information on existing or new stakeholders is gathered as a result of this process it is recorded in the stakeholder register. 4.3.3.7 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS UPDATES Any organizational process asset can be updated as a result of this process.

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98 Part 1 - Guide 4.4 MANAGE PROJECT KNOWLEDGE Manage Project Knowledge is the process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project’s objectives and contribute to organizational learning. The key benefits of this process are that prior organizational knowledge is leveraged to produce or improve the project outcomes and knowledge created by the project is available to support organizational operations and future projects or phases. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-8. Figure 4-9 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-8. Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Manage Project Knowledge .1 Expert judgment .2 Knowledge management .3 Information management .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Active listening • Facilitation • Leadership • Networking • Political awareness .1 Project management plan • All components .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Source selection criteria • Stakeholder register .3 Deliverables .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Lessons learned register .2 Project management plan updates • Any component .3 Organizational process assets updates

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99 • Project charter 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge Enterprise/ Organization 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work • Organizational process assets updates • Lessons learned register • Deliverables Project management plan updates • Any component Project management plan • All components Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Source selection criteria • Stakeholder register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Management Plan Project Documents Enterprise/ Organization Project Documents Figure 4-9. Manage Project Knowledge: Data Flow Diagram

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100 Part 1 - Guide Knowledge is commonly split into “explicit” knowledge that can be readily codified using words pictures and numbers and “tacit” knowledge that is personal and difficult to express such as beliefs insights experience and “know-how”. Knowledge management is concerned with managing both tacit and explicit knowledge for two purposes: reusing existing knowledge and creating new knowledge. The key activities that underpin both purposes are knowledge sharing and knowledge integration of knowledge from different domains contextual knowledge and project management knowledge. It is a common misconception that managing knowledge involves just documenting it so it can be shared. Another common misconception is that managing knowledge involves just obtaining lessons learned at the end of the project in order to use it in the future projects. Only codified explicit knowledge can be shared in this way. But codified explicit knowledge lacks context and is open to different interpretations so even though it can easily be shared it isn’t always understood or applied in the right way. Tacit knowledge has context built in but is very difficult to codify. It resides in the minds of individual experts or in social groups and situations and is normally shared through conversations and interactions between people. From an organizational perspective knowledge management is about making sure the skills experience and expertise of the project team and other stakeholders are used before during and after the project. Because knowledge resides in the minds of people and people cannot be forced to share what they know or to pay attention to others’ knowledge the most important part of knowledge management is creating an atmosphere of trust so that people are motivated to share their knowledge. Even the best knowledge management tools and techniques will not work if people are not motivated to share what they know or to pay attention to what others know. In practice knowledge is shared using a mixture of knowledge management tools and techniques interactions between people and information management tools and techniques in which people codify part of their explicit knowledge by documenting it so it can be shared. 4.4.1 MANAGE PROJECT KNOWLEDGE: INPUTS 4.4.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. All components of the project management plan are inputs.

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101 4.4.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register provides information on effective practices in knowledge management. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. Project team assignments provide information on the type of competencies and experience available in the project and the knowledge that may be missing. uu Resource breakdown structure. Described in Section 9.2.3.3. The resource breakdown structure includes information on the composition of the team and may help to understand what knowledge is available as a group and what knowledge is missing. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register contains details about the identified stakeholders to help understand the knowledge they may have. 4.4.1.3 DELIVERABLES A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process phase or project. Deliverables are typically tangible components completed to meet the project objectives and can include components of the project management plan. 4.4.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Manage Project Knowledge process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational stakeholder and customer culture. The existence of trusting working relationships and a no-blame culture is particularly important in managing knowledge. Other factors include the value placed on learning and social behavioral norms. uu Geographic distribution of facilities and resources. The location of team members helps determine methods for gaining and sharing knowledge. uu Organizational knowledge experts. Some organizations have a team or individual that specializes in knowledge management. uu Legal and regulatory requirements and/or constraints. These include confidentiality of project information.

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102 Part 1 - Guide 4.4.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS Knowledge about project management is often embedded in processes and routines. The organizational process assets that can influence the Manage Project Knowledge process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational standard policies processes and procedures. These may include: confidentiality and access to information security and data protection record retention policies use of copyrighted information destruction of classified information format and maximum size of files registry data and metadata authorized technology and social media etc. uu Personnel administration. These include for example employee development and training records and competency frameworks that refer to knowledge-sharing behaviors. uu Organizational communication requirements. Formal rigid communication requirements are good for sharing information. Informal communication is more effective for creating new knowledge and integrating knowledge across diverse stakeholder groups. uu Formal knowledge-sharing and information-sharing procedures. These include learning reviews before during and after projects and project phases for example identifying capturing and sharing lessons learned from the current project and other projects. 4.4.2 MANAGE PROJECT KNOWLEDGE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.4.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Knowledge management uu Information management uu Organizational learning uu Knowledge and information management tools and uu Relevant information from other projects. 4.4.2.2 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Knowledge management tools and techniques connect people so they can work together to create new knowledge share tacit knowledge and integrate the knowledge of diverse team members. The tools and techniques appropriate in a project depend on the nature of the project especially the degree of innovation involved the project complexity and the level of diversity including diversity of disciplines among team members.

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103 Tools and techniques include but are not limited to: uu Networking including informal social interaction and online social networking. Online forums where people can ask open questions “What does anyone know about…” are useful for starting knowledge-sharing conversations with specialists uu Communities of practice sometimes called communities of interest or just communities and special interest groups uu Meetings including virtual meetings where participants can interact using communications technology uu Work shadowing and reverse shadowing uu Discussion forums such as focus groups uu Knowledge-sharing events such as seminars and conferences uu Workshops including problem-solving sessions and learning reviews designed to identify lessons learned uu Storytelling uu Creativity and ideas management techniques uu Knowledge fairs and cafés and uu Training that involves interaction between learners. All of these tools and techniques can be applied face-to-face or virtually or both. Face-to-face interaction is usually the most effective way to build the trusting relationships that are needed to manage knowledge. Once relationships are established virtual interaction can be used to maintain the relationship. 4.4.2.3 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Information management tools and techniques are used to create and connect people to information. They are effective for sharing simple unambiguous codified explicit knowledge. They include but are not limited to: uu Methods for codifying explicit knowledge for example for producing lessons to be learned entries for the lessons learned register uu Lessons learned register uu Library services uu Information gathering for example web searches and reading published articles and uu Project management information system PMIS. Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems often include document management systems. Tools and techniques that connect people to information can be enhanced by adding an element of interaction for example include a “contact me” function so users can get in touch with the originators of the lessons and ask for advice specific to their project and context.

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104 Part 1 - Guide Interaction and support also helps people find relevant information. Asking for help is generally quicker and easier than trying to identify search terms. Search terms are often difficult to select because people may not know which keywords or key phrases to use to access the information they need. Knowledge and information management tools and techniques should be connected to project processes and process owners. Communities of practice and subject matter experts SMEs for example may generate insights that lead to improved control processes having an internal sponsor can ensure improvements are implemented. Lessons learned register entries may be analyzed to identify common issues that can be addressed by changes to project procedures. 4.4.2.4 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS The interpersonal and team skills used include but are not limited to: uu Active listening. Described in Section 10.2.2.6. Active listening helps reduce misunderstandings and improves communication and knowledge sharing. uu Facilitation. Described in Section 4.1.2.3. Facilitation helps effectively guide a group to a successful decision solution or conclusion. uu Leadership. Described in Section 3.4.4. Leadership is used to communicate the vision and inspire the project team to focus on the appropriate knowledge and knowledge objectives. uu Networking. Described in Section 10.2.2.6. Networking allows informal connections and relations among project stakeholders to be established and creates the conditions to share tacit and explicit knowledge. uu Political awareness. Described in Section 10.1.2.6. Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. 4.4.3 MANAGE PROJECT KNOWLEDGE: OUTPUTS 4.4.3.1 LESSONS LEARNED REGISTER The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. The lessons learned register may also include the impact recommendations and proposed actions associated with the situation. The lessons learned register may record challenges problems realized risks and opportunities or other content as appropriate. The lessons learned register is created as an output of this process early in the project. Thereafter it is used as an input and updated as an output in many processes throughout the project. The persons or teams involved in the work are also involved in capturing the lessons learned. Knowledge can be documented using videos pictures audios or other suitable means that ensure the efficiency of the lessons captured. At the end of a project or phase the information is transferred to an organizational process asset called a lessons learned repository.

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105 4.4.3.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Any component of the project management plan may be updated as a result of this process. 4.4.3.3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS UPDATES All projects create new knowledge. Some of this knowledge is codified embedded in deliverables or embedded in improvements to processes and procedures as a result of the Manage Project Knowledge process. Existing knowledge can also be codified or embedded for the first time as a result of this process for example if an existing idea for a new procedure is piloted in the project and found to be successful. Any organizational process asset can be updated as a result of this process. 4.5 MONITOR AND CONTROL PROJECT WORK Monitor and Control Project Work is the process of tracking reviewing and reporting the overall progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan. The key benefits of this process are that it allows stakeholders to understand the current state of the project to recognize the actions taken to address any performance issues and to have visibility into the future project status with cost and schedule forecasts. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-10. Figure 4-11 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-10. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Monitor and Control Project Work .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Cost-benefit analysis • Earned value analysis • Root cause analysis • Trend analysis • Variance analysis .3 Decision making .4 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Any component .2 Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost forecasts • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Quality reports • Risk register • Risk report • Schedule forecasts .3 Work performance information .4 Agreements .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .1 Work performance reports .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates • Any component .4 Project documents updates • Cost forecasts • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Schedule forecasts

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106 Part 1 - Guide 11.7 Monitor Risks 10.2 Manage Communications 9.5 Manage Team 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 5.6. Control Scope 5.5 Validate Scope 9.6 Control Resources 8.3 Control Quality 7.4 Control Costs 6.6 Control Schedule 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement 12.3 Control Procurements 11.7 Monitor Risks 10.3 Monitor Communications • Project charter 12.2 Conduct Procurements Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work • Agreements • Change requests • Work performance reports • Work performance reports • Work performance reports • Work performance information • Work performance reports Project documents updates • Cost forecasts • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Schedule forecasts Project management plan updates • Any component Project management plan • Any component Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost forecasts • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Quality reports • Risk register • Risk report • Schedule forecasts Project Management Plan • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Enterprise/ Organization Figure 4-11. Monitor and Control Project Work: Data Flow Diagram

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107 Monitoring is an aspect of project management performed throughout the project. Monitoring includes collecting measuring and assessing measurements and trends to effect process improvements. Continuous monitoring gives the project management team insight into the health of the project and identifies any areas that may require special attention. Control includes determining corrective or preventive actions or replanning and following up on action plans to determine whether the actions taken resolved the performance issue. The Monitor and Control Project Work process is concerned with: uu Comparing actual project performance against the project management plan uu Assessing performance periodically to determine whether any corrective or preventive actions are indicated and then recommending those actions as necessary uu Checking the status of individual project risks uu Maintaining an accurate timely information base concerning the project’s products and their associated documentation through project completion uu Providing information to support status reporting progress measurement and forecasting uu Providing forecasts to update current cost and current schedule information uu Monitoring implementation of approved changes as they occur uu Providing appropriate reporting on project progress and status to program management when the project is part of an overall program and uu Ensuring that the project stays aligned with the business needs. 4.5.1 MONITOR AND CONTROL PROJECT WORK: INPUTS 4.5.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Monitoring and controlling project work involves looking at all aspects of the project. Any component of the project management plan may be an input for this process.

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108 Part 1 - Guide 4.5.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log contains information about assumptions and constraints identified as affecting the project. uu Basis of estimates. Described in Sections 6.4.3.2 and 7.2.3.2. Basis of estimates indicates how the various estimates were derived and can be used to make a decision on how to respond to variances. uu Cost forecasts. Described in Section 7.4.3.2. Based on the project’s past performance the cost forecasts are used to determine if the project is within defined tolerance ranges for budget and to identify any necessary change requests. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log is used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register may have information on effective responses for variances and corrective and preventive actions. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The milestone list shows the scheduled dates for specific milestones and is used to check if the planned milestones have been met. uu Quality reports. Described in Section 8.2.3.1. The quality report includes quality management issues recommendations for process project and product improvements corrective actions recommendations includes rework defect/bugs repair 100 inspection and more and the summary of findings from the Control Quality process. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register provides information on threats and opportunities that have occurred during project execution. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report provides information on the overall project risks as well as information on specified individual risks. uu Schedule forecasts. Described in Section 6.6.3.2. Based on the project’s past performance the schedule forecasts are used to determine if the project is within defined tolerance ranges for schedule and to identify any necessary change requests.

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109 4.5.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Work performance data is gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes. To become work performance information the work performance data are compared with the project management plan components project documents and other project variables. This comparison indicates how the project is performing. Specific work performance metrics for scope schedule budget and quality are defined at the start of the project as part of the project management plan. Performance data are collected during the project through the controlling processes and compared to the plan and other variables to provide a context for work performance. For example work performance data on cost may include funds that have been expended. However to be useful that data has to be compared to the budget the work that was performed the resources used to accomplish the work and the funding schedule. This additional information provides the context to determine if the project is on budget or if there is a variance. It also indicates the degree of variance from the plan and by comparing it to the variance thresholds in the project management plan it can indicate if preventive or corrective action is required. Interpreting work performance data and the additional information as a whole provides a context that provides a sound foundation for project decisions. 4.5.1.4 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. If the project is outsourcing part of the work the project manager needs to oversee the contractor’s work to make certain that all the agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. 4.5.1.5 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Monitor and Control Project Work process include but are not limited to: uu Project management information systems such as scheduling cost resourcing tools performance indicators databases project records and financials uu Infrastructure e.g. existing facilities and equipment organization´s telecommunications channels uu Stakeholders’ expectations and risk thresholds and uu Government or industry standards e.g. regulatory agency regulations product standards quality standards and workmanship standards.

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110 Part 1 - Guide 4.5.1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Monitor and Control Project Work process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational standard policies processes and procedures uu Financial controls procedures e.g. required expenditure and disbursement reviews accounting codes and standard contract provisions uu Monitoring and reporting methods uu Issue management procedures defining issue controls issue identification and resolution and action item tracking uu Defect management procedures defining defect controls defect identification and resolution and action item tracking and uu Organizational knowledge base in particular process measurement and the lessons learned repository. 4.5.2 MONITOR AND CONTROL PROJECT WORK: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.5.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Earned value analysis uu Interpretation and contextualization of data uu Techniques to estimate duration and costs uu Trend analysis uu Technical knowledge on the industry and focus area of the project uu Risk management and uu Contract management.

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111 4.5.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis is used to select the corrective actions or a combination of corrective and preventive actions to implement when a deviation occurs. uu Cost-benefit analysis. Described in Section 8.1.2.3. Cost-benefit analysis helps to determine the best corrective action in terms of cost in case of project deviations. uu Earned value analysis. Described in Section 7.4.2.2. Earned value provides an integrated perspective on scope schedule and cost performance. uu Root cause analysis. Described in Section 8.2.2.2. Root cause analysis focuses on identifying the main reasons of a problem. It can be used to identify the reasons for a deviation and the areas the project manager should focus on in order to achieve the objectives of the project. uu Trend analysis. Trend analysis is used to forecast future performance based on past results. It looks ahead in the project for expected slippages and warns the project manager ahead of time that there may be problems later in the schedule if established trends persist. This information is made available early enough in the project timeline to give the project team time to analyze and correct any anomalies. The results of trend analysis can be used to recommend preventive actions if necessary. uu Variance analysis. Variance analysis reviews the differences or variance between planned and actual performance. This can include duration estimates cost estimates resources utilization resources rates technical performance and other metrics. Variance analysis may be conducted in each Knowledge Area based on its particular variables. In Monitor and Control Project Work the variance analysis reviews the variances from an integrated perspective considering cost time technical and resource variances in relation to each other to get an overall view of variance on the project. This allows for the appropriate preventive or corrective actions to be initiated. 4.5.2.3 DECISION MAKING A decision-making technique that can be used includes but is not limited to voting. Described in Section 5.2.2.4. Voting can include making decisions based on unanimity majority or plurality. 4.5.2.4 MEETINGS Meetings may be face-to-face virtual formal or informal. They may include project team members and other project stakeholders when appropriate. Types of meetings include but are not limited to user groups and review meetings.

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112 Part 1 - Guide 4.5.3 MONITOR AND CONTROL PROJECT WORK: OUTPUTS 4.5.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE REPORTS Work performance information is combined recorded and distributed in a physical or electronic form in order to create awareness and generate decisions or actions. Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information intended to generate decisions actions or awareness. They are circulated to the project stakeholders through the communication processes as defined in the project communications management plan. Examples of work performance reports include status reports and progress reports. Work performance reports can contain earned value graphs and information trend lines and forecasts reserve burndown charts defect histograms contract performance information and risk summaries. They can be presented as dashboards heat reports stop light charts or other representations useful for creating awareness and generating decisions and actions. 4.5.3.2 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. As a result of comparing planned results to actual results change requests may be issued to expand adjust or reduce project scope product scope or quality requirements and schedule or cost baselines. Change requests may necessitate the collection and documentation of new requirements. Changes can impact the project management plan project documents or product deliverables. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Changes may include but are not limited to: uu Corrective action. An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan. uu Preventive action. An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. uu Defect repair. An intentional activity that modifies a nonconforming product or product component. 4.5.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Changes identified during the Monitor and Control Project Work process may affect the overall project management plan.

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113 4.5.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Cost forecasts. Described in Section 7.4.3.2. Changes in cost forecasts resulting from this process are recorded using cost management processes. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. New issues raised as a result of this process are recorded in the issue log. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with effective responses for variances and corrective and preventive actions. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks identified during this process are recorded in the risk register and managed using the risk management processes. uu Schedule forecasts. Described in Section 6.6.3.2. Changes in schedule forecasts resulting from this process are recorded using schedule management processes. 4.6 PERFORM INTEGRATED CHANGE CONTROL Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests approving changes and managing changes to deliverables project documents and the project management plan and communicating the decisions. This process reviews all requests for changes to project documents deliverables or the project management plan and determines the resolution of the change requests. The key benefit of this process is that it allows for documented changes within the project to be considered in an integrated manner while addressing overall project risk which often arises from changes made without consideration of the overall project objectives or plans. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-12. Figure 4-13 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-12. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Perform Integrated Change Control .1 Expert judgment .2 Change control tools .3 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Cost-benefit analysis .4 Decision making • Voting • Autocratic decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .5 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Change management plan • Configuration management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .2 Project documents • Basis of estimates • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk report .3 Work performance reports .4 Change requests .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .1 Approved change requests .2 Project management plan updates • Any component .3 Project documents updates • Change log

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114 Part 1 - Guide 12.3 Control Procurements 8.3 Control Quality 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement 12.1 Plan Procurement Management 10.3 Monitor Communications 9.3 Acquire Resources 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work 12.2 Conduct Procurements 11.5 Plan Risk Responses 9.4 Develop Team 5.5 Validate Scope 12.3 Control Procurements 11.6 Implement Risk Responses 9.5 Manage Team 5.6. Control Scope 13.1 Identify Stakeholders 11.7 Monitor Risks 9.6 Control Resources 6.6 Control Schedule 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement 8.3 Control Quality 8.2 Manage Quality 7.4. Control Costs • Project charter 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control • Work performance reports • Change requests • Approved change requests • Approved change requests • Change requests • Approved change requests Project documents updates • Change log Project management plan updates • Any component Project management plan • Change management plan • Configuration management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project documents • Basis of estimates· • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk report Project Management Plan Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Figure 4-13. Perform Integrated Change Control: Data Flow Diagram

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115 The Perform Integrated Change Control process is conducted from project start through completion and is the ultimate responsibility of the project manager. Change requests can impact the project scope and the product scope as well as any project management plan component or any project document. Changes may be requested by any stakeholder involved with the project and may occur at any time throughout the project life cycle. The applied level of change control is dependent upon the application area complexity of the specific project contract requirements and the context and environment in which the project is performed. Before the baselines are established changes are not required to be formally controlled by the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Once the project is baselined change requests go through this process. As a general rule each project’s configuration management plan should define which project artifacts need to be placed under configuration control. Any change in a configuration element should be formally controlled and will require a change request. Although changes may be initiated verbally they should be recorded in written form and entered into the change management and/or configuration management system. Change requests may require information on estimated schedule impacts and estimated cost impacts prior to approval. Whenever a change request may impact any of the project baselines a formal integrated change control process is always required. Every documented change request needs to be either approved deferred or rejected by a responsible individual usually the project sponsor or project manager. The responsible individual will be identified in the project management plan or by organizational procedures. When required the Perform Integrated Change Control process includes a change control board CCB which is a formally chartered group responsible for reviewing evaluating approving deferring or rejecting changes to the project and for recording and communicating such decisions. Approved change requests can require new or revised cost estimates activity sequences schedule dates resource requirements and/or analysis of risk response alternatives. These changes can require adjustments to the project management plan and other project documents. Customer or sponsor approval may be required for certain change requests after CCB approval unless they are part of the CCB.

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116 Part 1 - Guide 4.6.1 PERFORM INTEGRATED CHANGE CONTROL: INPUTS 4.6.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Change management plan. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The change management plan provides the direction for managing the change control process and documents the roles and responsibilities of the change control board CCB. uu Configuration management plan. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The configuration management plan describes the configurable items of the project and identifies the items that will be recorded and updated so that the product of the project remains consistent and operable. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline provides the project and product definition. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. The schedule baseline is used to assess the impact of the changes in the project schedule. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline is used to assess the impact of the changes to the project cost. 4.6.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Basis of estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.2. Basis of estimates indicate how the duration cost and resources estimates were derived and can be used to calculate the impact of the change in time budget and resources. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix helps assess the impact of the change on the project scope. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report presents information on sources of overall and individual project risks involved by the change requested. 4.6.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE REPORTS Described in Section 4.5.3.1. Work performance reports of particular interest to the Perform Integrated Change Control process include resource availability schedule and cost data earned value reports and burnup or burndown charts.

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117 4.6.1.4 CHANGE REQUESTS Many processes produce change requests as an output. Change requests described in Section 4.3.3.4 may include corrective action preventive action defect repairs as well as updates to formally controlled documents or deliverables to reflect modified or additional ideas or content. Changes may or may not impact the project baselines— sometimes only the performance against the baseline is affected. Decisions on those changes are usually made by the project manager. Change requests that have an impact on the project baselines should normally include information about the cost of implementing the change modifications in the scheduled dates resource requirements and risks. These changes should be approved by the CCB if it exists and by the customer or sponsor unless they are part of the CCB. Only approved changes should be incorporated into a revised baseline. 4.6.1.5 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Perform Integrated Change Control process include but are not limited to: uu Legal restrictions such as country or local regulations uu Government or industry standards e.g. product standards quality standards safety standards and workmanship standards uu Legal and regulatory requirements and/or constraints uu Organizational governance framework a structured way to provide control direction and coordination through people policies and processes to meet organizational strategic and operational goals and uu Contracting and purchasing constraints. 4.6.1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Perform Integrated Change Control process include but are not limited to: uu Change control procedures including the steps by which organizational standards policies plans procedures or any project documents will be modified and how any changes will be approved and validated uu Procedures for approving and issuing change authorizations and uu Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official organizational standards policies procedures and any project documents.

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118 Part 1 - Guide 4.6.2 PERFORM INTEGRATED CHANGE CONTROL: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.6.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of or training in the following topics: uu Technical knowledge of the industry and focus area of the project uu Legislation and regulations uu Legal and procurement uu Configuration management and uu Risk management. 4.6.2.2 CHANGE CONTROL TOOLS In order to facilitate configuration and change management manual or automated tools may be used. Configuration control is focused on the specification of both the deliverables and the processes while change control is focused on identifying documenting and approving or rejecting changes to the project documents deliverables or baselines. Tool selection should be based on the needs of the project stakeholders including organizational and environmental considerations and/or constraints. Tools should support the following configuration management activities: uu Identify configuration item. Identification and selection of a configuration item to provide the basis for which the product configuration is defined and verified products and documents are labeled changes are managed and accountability is maintained. uu Record and report configuration item status. Information recording and reporting about each configuration item. uu Perform configuration item verification and audit. Configuration verification and configuration audits ensure that the composition of a project’s configuration items is correct and that corresponding changes are registered assessed approved tracked and correctly implemented. This ensures that the functional requirements defined in the configuration documentation are met.

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119 Tools should support the following change management activities as well: uu Identify changes. Identifying and selecting a change item for processes or project documents. uu Document changes. Documenting the change into a proper change request. uu Decide on changes. Reviewing the changes approving rejecting deferring or making any other decision about changes to the project documents deliverables or baselines. uu Track changes. Verifying that the changes are registered assessed approved and tracked and communicating final results to stakeholders. Tools are also used to manage the change requests and the resulting decisions. Additional considerations should be made for communications to assist the change control board CCB members in their duties as well as to distribute the decisions to the appropriate stakeholders. 4.6.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. Described in Section 9.2.2.5. This technique is used to assess the requested changes and decide which are accepted rejected or need to be modified to be finally accepted. uu Cost-benefit analysis. Described in Section 8.1.2.3. This analysis helps to determine if the requested change is worth its associated cost. 4.6.2.4 DECISION MAKING Decision-making techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Voting. Described in Section 5.2.2.4. Voting can take the form of unanimity majority or plurality to decide on whether to accept defer or reject change requests. uu Autocratic decision making. In this decision-making technique one individual takes the responsibility for making the decision for the entire group. uu Multicriteria decision analysis. Described in Section 8.1.2.4. This technique uses a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach to evaluate the requested changes according to a set of predefined criteria.

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120 Part 1 - Guide 4.6.2.5 MEETINGS Change control meetings are held with a change control board CCB that is responsible for meeting and reviewing the change requests and approving rejecting or deferring change requests. Most changes will have some sort of impact on time cost resources or risks. Assessing the impact of the changes is an essential part of the meeting. Alternatives to the requested changes may also be discussed and proposed. Finally the decision is communicated to the request owner or group. The CCB may also review configuration management activities. The roles and responsibilities of these boards are clearly defined and agreed upon by the appropriate stakeholders and are documented in the change management plan. CCB decisions are documented and communicated to the stakeholders for information and follow-up actions. 4.6.3 PERFORM INTEGRATED CHANGE CONTROL: OUTPUTS 4.6.3.1 APPROVED CHANGE REQUESTS Change requests described in Section 4.3.3.4 are processed according to the change management plan by the project manager CCB or an assigned team member. As a result changes may be approved deferred or rejected. Approved change requests will be implemented through the Direct and Manage Project Work process. Deferred or rejected change requests are communicated to the person or group requesting the change. The disposition of all change requests are recorded in the change log as a project document update. 4.6.3.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any formally controlled component of the project management plan may be changed as a result of this process. Changes to baselines are only made from the last baseline forward. Past performance is not changed. This protects the integrity of the baselines and the historical data of past performance. 4.6.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Any formally controlled project document may be changed as a result of this process. A project document that is normally updated as a result of this process is the change log. The change log is used to document changes that occur during a project.

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121 4.7 CLOSE PROJECT OR PHASE Close Project or Phase is the process of finalizing all activities for the project phase or contract. The key benefits of this process are the project or phase information is archived the planned work is completed and organizational team resources are released to pursue new endeavors. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 4-14. Figure 4-15 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 4-14. Close Project or Phase: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Close Project or Phase .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Document analysis • Regression analysis • Trend analysis • Variance analysis .3 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • All components .3 Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Change log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project communications • Quality control measurements • Quality reports • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Risk report .4 Accepted deliverables .5 Business documents • Business case • Benefits management plan .6 Agreements .7 Procurement documentation .8 Organizational process assets .1 Project documents updates • Lessons learned register .2 Final product service or result transition .3 Final report .4 Organizational process assets updates

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122 Part 1 - Guide Figure 4-15. Close Project or Phase: Data Flow Diagram • Project charter 5.5 Validate Scope 12.1 Plan Procurement Management 4.1 Develop Project Charter Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.7 Close Project or Phase Enterprise/ Organization Enterprise/ Organization Customer • Accepted deliverables • Project Charter • Procurement documentation 12.2 Conduct Procurements • Organizational process assets • Final product service or result transition Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Final report • Organizational process assets updates Project management plan • All components Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Change log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project communications • Quality control measurements • Quality reports • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Risk report Project Documents • Agreements • Business case • Benefits management plan

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123 When closing the project the project manager reviews the project management plan to ensure that all project work is completed and that the project has met its objectives. The activities necessary for the administrative closure of the project or phase include but are not limited to: uu Actions and activities necessary to satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or project such as: u n Making certain that all documents and deliverables are up-to-date and that all issues are resolved u n Confirming the delivery and formal acceptance of deliverables by the customer u n Ensuring that all costs are charged to the project u n Closing project accounts u n Reassigning personnel u n Dealing with excess project material u n Reallocating project facilities equipment and other resources and u n Elaborating the final project reports as required by organizational policies. uu Activities related to the completion of the contractual agreements applicable to the project or project phase such as: u n Confirming the formal acceptance of the seller’s work u n Finalizing open claims u n Updating records to reflect final results and u n Archiving such information for future use. uu Activities needed to: u n Collect project or phase records u n Audit project success or failure u n Manage knowledge sharing and transfer u n Identify lessons learned and u n Archive project information for future use by the organization. uu Actions and activities necessary to transfer the project’s products services or results to the next phase or to production and/or operations. uu Collecting any suggestions for improving or updating the policies and procedures of the organization and sending them to the appropriate organizational unit. uu Measuring stakeholder satisfaction. The Close Project or Phase process also establishes the procedures to investigate and document the reasons for actions taken if a project is terminated before completion. In order to successfully achieve this the project manager needs to engage all the proper stakeholders in the process.

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124 Part 1 - Guide 4.7.1 CLOSE PROJECT OR PHASE: INPUTS 4.7.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter documents the project success criteria the approval requirements and who will sign off on the project. 4.7.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. All components of the project management plan are an input to this process. 4.7.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that may be inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log has a record of all the assumptions and constraints that guided the technical specifications estimates schedule risks etc. uu Basis of estimates. Described in Sections 6.4.3.2 and 7.2.3.2. The basis of estimates is used to evaluate how the estimation of durations cost resources and cost control compared to the actual results. uu Change log. Described in Section 4.6.3.3. The change log contains the status of all change requests throughout the project or phase. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log is used to check that there is no open issue. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.3.3.1. The lessons learned in the phase or project will be finalized before being entered into the lessons learned repository. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The milestone list shows the final dates on which the project milestones have been accomplished. uu Project communications. Described in Section 10.2.3.1. Project communications include any and all communications that have been created throughout the project. uu Quality control measurements. Described in Section 8.3.3.1. The quality control measurements document the results of Control Quality activities and demonstrate compliance with the quality requirements. uu Quality reports. Described in Section 8.2.3.1. The information presented in the quality report may include all quality assurance issues managed or escalated by the team recommendations for improvement and the summary of findings from the Control Quality process. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation is used to demonstrate compliance with the project scope.

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125 uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register provides information on risks that have occurred throughout the project. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report provides information on the risk status and is used to check that there are no open risks at the end of the project. 4.7.1.4 ACCEPTED DELIVERABLES Described in Section 5.5.3.1. Accepted deliverables may include approved product specifications delivery receipts and work performance documents. Partial or interim deliverables may also be included for phased or cancelled projects. 4.7.1.5 BUSINESS DOCUMENTS Described in Section 1.2.6. Business documents include but are not limited to: uu Business case. The business case documents the business need and the cost benefit analysis that justify the project. uu Benefits management plan. The benefits management plan outlines the target benefits of the project. The business case is used to determine if the expected outcomes from the economic feasibility study used to justify the project occurred. The benefits management plan is used to measure whether the benefits of the project were achieved as planned. 4.7.1.6 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. The requirements for formal procurement closure are usually defined in the terms and conditions of the contract and are included in the procurement management plan. A complex project may involve managing multiple contracts simultaneously or in sequence. 4.7.1.7 PROCUREMENT DOCUMENTATION Described in Section 12.3.1.4. To close the contract all procurement documentation is collected indexed and filed. Information on contract schedule scope quality and cost performance along with all contract change documentation payment records and inspection results are cataloged. “As-built” plans/drawing or “as-developed” documents manuals troubleshooting and other technical documentation should also be considered as part of the procurement documents when closing a project. This information can be used for lessons learned information and as a basis for evaluating contractors for future contracts.

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126 Part 1 - Guide 4.7.1.8 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Close Project or Phase process include but are not limited to: uu Project or phase closure guidelines or requirements e.g. lessons learned final project audits project evaluations product validations acceptance criteria contract closure resource reassignment team performance appraisals and knowledge transfer. uu Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official organizational standards policies procedures and any project documents. 4.7.2 CLOSE PROJECT OR PHASE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 4.7.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Management control uu Audit uu Legal and procurement and uu Legislation and regulations. 4.7.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used in project closeout include but are not limited to: uu Document analysis. Described in Section 5.2.2.3. Assessing available documentation will allow identifying lessons learned and knowledge sharing for future projects and organizational assets improvement. uu Regression analysis. This technique analyzes the interrelationships between different project variables that contributed to the project outcomes to improve performance on future projects. uu Trend analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Trend analysis can be used to validate the models used in the organization and to implement adjustments for future projects. uu Variance analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Variance analysis can be used to improve the metrics of the organization by comparing what was initially planned and the end result.

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127 4.7.2.3 MEETINGS Meetings are used to confirm that the deliverables have been accepted to validate that the exit criteria have been met to formalize the completion of the contracts to evaluate the satisfaction of the stakeholders to gather lessons learned to transfer knowledge and information from the project and to celebrate success. Attendees may include project team members and other stakeholders involved in or affected by the project. Meetings may be face-to-face virtual formal or informal. Types of meetings include but are not limited to close-out reporting meetings customer wrap-up meetings lessons learned meetings and celebration meetings. 4.7.3 CLOSE PROJECT OR PHASE: OUTPUTS 4.7.3.1 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES All project documents may be updated and marked as final versions as a result of project closure. Of particular interest is the lessons learned register which is finalized to include final information on phase or project closure. The final lessons learned register may include information on benefits management accuracy of the business case project and development life cycles risk and issue management stakeholder engagement and other project management processes. 4.7.3.2 FINAL PRODUCT SERVICE OR RESULT TRANSITION A product service or result once delivered by the project may be handed over to a different group or organization that will operate maintain and support it throughout its life cycle. This output refers to this transition of the final product service or result that the project was authorized to produce or in the case of phase closure the intermediate product service or result of that phase from one team to another. 4.7.3.3 FINAL REPORT The final report provides a summary of the project performance. It can include information such as: uu Summary level description of the project or phase. uu Scope objectives the criteria used to evaluate the scope and evidence that the completion criteria were met. uu Quality objectives the criteria used to evaluate the project and product quality the verification and actual milestone delivery dates and reasons for variances. uu Cost objectives including the acceptable cost range actual costs and reasons for any variances. uu Summary of the validation information for the final product service or result.

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128 Part 1 - Guide uu Schedule objectives including whether results achieved the benefits that the project was undertaken to address. If the benefits are not met at the close of the project indicate the degree to which they were achieved and estimate for future benefits realization. uu Summary of how the final product service or result achieved the business needs identified in the business plan. If the business needs are not met at the close of the project indicate the degree to which they were achieved and estimate for when the business needs will be met in the future. uu Summary of any risks or issues encountered on the project and how they were addressed. 4.7.3.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSET UPDATES Organizational process assets that are updated include but are not limited to: uu Project documents. Documentation resulting from the project’s activities for example project management plan scope cost schedule and project calendars and change management documentation. uu Operational and support documents. Documents required for an organization to maintain operate and support the product or service delivered by the project. These may be new documents or updates to existing documents. uu Project or phase closure documents. Project or phase closure documents consisting of formal documentation that indicates completion of the project or phase and the transfer of the completed project or phase deliverables to others such as an operations group or to the next phase. During project closure the project manager reviews prior phase documentation customer acceptance documentation from the Validate Scope process Section 5.5 and the agreement if applicable to ensure that all project requirements are completed prior to finalizing the closure of the project. If the project was terminated prior to completion the formal documentation indicates why the project was terminated and formalizes the procedures for the transfer of the finished and unfinished deliverables of the cancelled project to others. uu Lessons learned repository. Lessons learned and knowledge gained throughout the project are transferred to the lessons learned repository for use by future projects.

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129 5 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required and only the work required to complete the project successfully. Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project. The Project Scope Management processes are: 5.1 Plan Scope Management—The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project and product scope will be defined validated and controlled. 5.2 Collect Requirements—The process of determining documenting and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives. 5.3 Define Scope—The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product. 5.4 Create WBS—The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller more manageable components. 5.5 Validate Scope—The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. 5.6 Control Scope—The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. Figure 5-1 provides an overview of the Project Scope Management processes. The Project Scope Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide.

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130 Part 1 - Guide .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Scope management plan .2 Requirements management plan .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Business documents .5 Agreements .6 Enterprise environmental factors .7 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Data analysis .4 Decision making .5 Data representation .6 Interpersonal and team skills .7 Context diagram .8 Prototypes .3 Outputs .1 Requirements documentation .2 Requirements traceability matrix .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Decision making .4 Interpersonal and team skills .5 Product analysis .3 Outputs .1 Project scope statement .2 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Decomposition .3 Outputs .1 Scope baseline .2 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Verified deliverables .4 Work performance data .2 Tools Techniques .1 Inspection .2 Decision making .3 Outputs .1 Accepted deliverables .2 Work performance information .3 Change requests .4 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance data .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Data analysis .3 Outputs .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates Project Scope Management Overview 5.2 Collect Requirements 5.1 Plan Scope Management 5.3 Define Scope 5.4 Create WBS 5.5 Validate Scope 5.6 Control Scope Figure 5-1. Project Scope Management Overview

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131 KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT In the project context the term “scope” can refer to: uu Product scope. The features and functions that characterize a product service or result. uu Project scope. The work performed to deliver a product service or result with the specified features and functions. The term “project scope” is sometimes viewed as including product scope. Project life cycles can range along a continuum from predictive approaches at one end to adaptive or agile approaches at the other. In a predictive life cycle the project deliverables are defined at the beginning of the project and any changes to the scope are progressively managed. In an adaptive or agile life cycle the deliverables are developed over multiple iterations where a detailed scope is defined and approved for each iteration when it begins. Projects with adaptive life cycles are intended to respond to high levels of change and require ongoing stakeholder engagement. The overall scope of an adaptive project will be decomposed into a set of requirements and work to be performed sometimes referred to as a product backlog. At the beginning of an iteration the team will work to determine how many of the highest-priority items on the backlog list can be delivered within the next iteration. Three processes Collect Requirements Define Scope and Create WBS are repeated for each iteration. On the contrary in a predictive project these processes are performed toward the beginning of the project and updated as necessary using the integrated change control process. In an adaptive or agile life cycle the sponsor and customer representatives should be continuously engaged with the project to provide feedback on deliverables as they are created and to ensure that the product backlog reflects their current needs. Two processes Validate Scope and Control Scope are repeated for each iteration. On the contrary in a predictive project Validate Scope occurs with each deliverable or phase review and Control Scope is an ongoing process. In predictive projects the scope baseline for the project is the approved version of the project scope statement work breakdown structure WBS and its associated WBS dictionary. A baseline can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison while performing Validate Scope and Control Scope processes as well as other controlling processes. Projects with adaptive life cycles use backlogs including product requirements and user stories to reflect their current needs. Completion of the project scope is measured against the project management plan while completion of the product scope is measured against the product requirements. The term “requirement” is defined as a condition or capability that is required to be present in a product service or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification. Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. The verified deliverables obtained from the Control Quality process are an input to the Validate Scope process. One of the outputs of Validate Scope is accepted deliverables that are formally signed off and approved by the authorized stakeholder. Therefore the stakeholder needs to get involved early on during planning sometimes initiating as well and to provide inputs about quality of deliverables so that Control Quality can assess the performance and recommend necessary changes.

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132 Part 1 - Guide TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT Requirements have always been a concern in project management and have continued to gain more attention in the profession. As the global environment becomes more complex organizations are starting to recognize how to use business analysis to their competitive advantage by defining managing and controlling requirements activities. Activities of business analysis may start before a project is initiated and a project manager is assigned. According to Requirements Management: A Practice Guide 14 the requirements management process starts with a needs assessment which may begin in portfolio planning in program planning or within a discrete project. Eliciting documenting and managing stakeholder requirements takes place within the Project Scope Management processes. Trends and emerging practices for Project Scope Management include but are not limited to a focus on collaborating with business analysis professionals to: uu Determine problems and identify business needs uu Identify and recommend viable solutions for meeting those needs uu Elicit document and manage stakeholder requirements in order to meet business and project objectives and uu Facilitate the successful implementation of the product service or end result of the program or project 7. The process ends with the requirements closure which transitions the product service or result to the recipient in order to measure monitor realize and sustain benefits over time. The role with responsibility to conduct business analysis should be assigned to resources with sufficient business analysis skills and expertise. If a business analyst is assigned to a project requirement-related activities are the responsibility of that role. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that requirements-related work is accounted for in the project management plan and that requirements-related activities are performed on time and within budget and deliver value. The relationship between a project manager and a business analyst should be a collaborative partnership. A project will have a higher likelihood of being successful if project managers and business analysts fully understand each other’s roles and responsibilities to successfully achieve project objectives.

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133 TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique the project manager will need to tailor the way Project Scope Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Knowledge and requirements management. Does the organization have formal or informal knowledge and requirements management systems What guidelines should the project manager establish for requirements to be reused in the future uu Validation and control. Does the organization have existing formal or informal validation and control-related policies procedures and guidelines uu Development approach. Does the organization use agile approaches in managing projects Is the development approach iterative or incremental Is a predictive approach used Will a hybrid approach be productive uu Stability of requirements. Are there areas of the project with unstable requirements Do unstable requirements necessitate the use of lean agile or other adaptive techniques until they are stable and well defined uu Governance. Does the organization have formal or informal audit and governance policies procedures and guidelines CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS In projects with evolving requirements high risk or significant uncertainty the scope is often not understood at the beginning of the project or it evolves during the project. Agile methods deliberately spend less time trying to define and agree on scope in the early stage of the project and spend more time establishing the process for its ongoing discovery and refinement. Many environments with emerging requirements find that there is often a gap between the real business requirements and the business requirements that were originally stated. Therefore agile methods purposefully build and review prototypes and release versions in order to refine the requirements. As a result scope is defined and redefined throughout the project. In agile approaches the requirements constitute the backlog.

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134 Part 1 - Guide 5.1 PLAN SCOPE MANAGEMENT Plan Scope Management is the process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project and product scope will be defined validated and controlled. The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 5-2. Figure 5-3 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 5-2. Plan Scope Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 5-3. Plan Scope Management: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Scope Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis .3 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Quality management plan • Project life cycle description • Development approach .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Scope management plan .2 Requirements management plan • Project charter 5.1 Plan Scope Management Enterprise/ Organization 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Project charter • Quality management plan • Project life cycle description • Development approach • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Management Plan

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135 The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined developed monitored controlled and validated. The development of the scope management plan and the detailing of the project scope begin with the analysis of information contained in the project charter Section 4.1.3.1 the latest approved subsidiary plans of the project management plan Section 4.2.3.1 historical information contained in the organizational process assets Section 2.3 and any other relevant enterprise environmental factors Section 2.2. 5.1.1 PLAN SCOPE MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 5.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter documents the project purpose high-level project description assumptions constraints and high-level requirements that the project is intended to satisfy. 5.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. The way the project and product scope will be managed can be influenced by how the organization’s quality policy methodologies and standards are implemented on the project. uu Project life cycle description. The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project. uu Development approach. The development approach defines whether waterfall iterative adaptive agile or a hybrid development approach will be used. 5.1.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Scope Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organization’s culture uu Infrastructure uu Personnel administration and uu Marketplace conditions.

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136 Part 1 - Guide 5.1.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Scope Management process include but are not limited to: uu Policies and procedures and uu Historical information and lessons learned repositories. 5.1.2 PLAN SCOPE MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1 Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Previous similar projects and uu Information in the industry discipline and application area. 5.1.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS A data analysis technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to alternatives analysis. Various ways of collecting requirements elaborating the project and product scope creating the product validating the scope and controlling the scope are evaluated. 5.1.2.3 MEETINGS Project teams may attend project meetings to develop the scope management plan. Attendees may include the project manager the project sponsor selected project team members selected stakeholders anyone with responsibility for any of the scope management processes and others as needed.

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137 5.1.3 PLAN SCOPE MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 5.1.3.1 SCOPE MANAGEMENT PLAN The scope management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the scope will be defined developed monitored controlled and validated. The components of a scope management plan include: uu Process for preparing a project scope statement uu Process that enables the creation of the WBS from the detailed project scope statement uu Process that establishes how the scope baseline will be approved and maintained and uu Process that specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained. The scope management plan can be formal or informal broadly framed or highly detailed based on the needs of the project. 5.1.3.2 REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT PLAN The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project and product requirements will be analyzed documented and managed. According to Business Analysis for Practitioners: A Practice Guide 7 some organizations refer to it as a business analysis plan. Components of the requirements management plan can include but are not limited to: uu How requirements activities will be planned tracked and reported uu Configuration management activities such as: how changes will be initiated how impacts will be analyzed how they will be traced tracked and reported as well as the authorization levels required to approve these changes uu Requirements prioritization process uu Metrics that will be used and the rationale for using them and uu Traceability structure that reflects the requirement attributes captured on the traceability matrix.

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138 Part 1 - Guide 5.2 COLLECT REQUIREMENTS Collect Requirements is the process of determining documenting and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet objectives. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the basis for defining the product scope and project scope. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 5-4. Figure 5-5 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 5-4. Collect Requirements: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Collect Requirements .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Brainstorming • Interviews • Focus groups • Questionnaires and surveys • Benchmarking .3 Data analysis • Document analysis .4 Decision making • Voting • Multicriteria decision analysis .5 Data representation • Affinity diagrams • Mind mapping .6 Interpersonal and team skills • Nominal group technique • Observation/conversation • Facilitation .7 Context diagram .8 Prototypes .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .3 Project documents • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Stakeholder register .4 Business documents • Business case .5 Agreements .6 Enterprise environmental factors .7 Organizational process assets .1 Requirements documentation .2 Requirements traceability matrix

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139 • Project charter 5.2 Collect Requirements Enterprise/ Organization 12.2 Conduct Procurements 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix • Agreements • Project charter Project documents • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Stakeholder register Business documents • Business case Project management plan • Requirements management plan • Scope management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents Business Documents Figure 5-5. Collect Requirements: Data Flow Diagram

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140 Part 1 - Guide The PMBOK ® Guide does not specifically address product requirements since those are industry specific. Note that Business Analysis for Practitioners: A Practice Guide 7 provides more in-depth information about product requirements. The project’s success is directly influenced by active stakeholder involvement in the discovery and decomposition of needs into project and product requirements and by the care taken in determining documenting and managing the requirements of the product service or result of the project. Requirements include conditions or capabilities that are required to be present in a product service or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification. Requirements include the quantified and documented needs and expectations of the sponsor customer and other stakeholders. These requirements need to be elicited analyzed and recorded in enough detail to be included in the scope baseline and to be measured once project execution begins. Requirements become the foundation of the WBS. Cost schedule quality planning and procurement are all based on these requirements. 5.2.1 COLLECT REQUIREMENTS: INPUTS 5.2.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter documents the high-level project description and high-level requirements that will be used to develop detailed requirements. 5.2.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1. The scope management plan contains information on how the project scope will be defined and developed. uu Requirements management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.2. The requirements management plan has information on how project requirements will be collected analyzed and documented. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan is used to understand stakeholder communication requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement in order to assess and adapt to the level of stakeholder participation in requirements activities.

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141 5.2.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Examples of project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption Log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log identified assumptions about the product project environment stakeholders and other factors that can influence requirements. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is used to provide information on effective requirements collection techniques especially for projects that are using an iterative or adaptive product development methodology. uu Stakeholder Register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register is used to identify stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements. It also captures requirements and expectations that stakeholders have for the project. 5.2.1.4 BUSINESS DOCUMENTS Described in Section 1.2.6. A business document that can influence the Collect Requirements process is the business case which can describe required desired and optional criteria for meeting the business needs. 5.2.1.5 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. Agreements can contain project and product requirements. 5.2.1.6 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Collect Requirements process include but are not limited to: uu Organization’s culture uu Infrastructure uu Personnel administration and uu Marketplace conditions. 5.2.1.7 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Collect Requirements process include but are not limited to: uu Policies and procedures and uu Historical information and lessons learned repository with information from previous projects.

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142 Part 1 - Guide 5.2.2 COLLECT REQUIREMENTS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5.2.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Business analysis uu Requirements elicitation uu Requirements analysis uu Requirements documentation uu Project requirements in previous similar projects uu Diagramming techniques uu Facilitation and uu Conflict management. 5.2.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Brainstorming. Described in Section 4.1.2.2. Brainstorming is a technique used to generate and collect multiple ideas related to project and product requirements. uu Interviews. An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants sponsors other executives and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information. uu Focus groups. Focus groups bring together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product service or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.

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143 uu Questionnaires and surveys. Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents. Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with varied audiences when a quick turnaround is needed when respondents are geographically dispersed and where statistical analysis could be appropriate. uu Benchmarking. Described in Section 8.1.2.2. Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned products processes and practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices generate ideas for improvement and provide a basis for measuring performance. The organizations compared during benchmarking can be internal or external. 5.2.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to document analysis. Document analysis consists of reviewing and assessing any relevant documented information. In this process document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying information relevant to the requirements. There is a wide range of documents that may be analyzed to help elicit relevant requirements. Examples of documents that may be analyzed include but are not limited to: uu Agreements uu Business plans uu Business process or interface documentation uu Business rules repositories uu Current process flows uu Marketing literature uu Problem/issue logs uu Policies and procedures uu Regulatory documentation such as laws codes or ordinances etc. uu Requests for proposal and uu Use cases.

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144 Part 1 - Guide 5.2.2.4 DECISION MAKING Decision-making techniques that can be used in the Collect Requirements process include but are not limited to: uu Voting. Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate classify and prioritize product requirements. Examples of voting techniques include: u n Unanimity. A decision that is reached whereby everyone agrees on a single course of action. u n Majority. A decision that is reached with support obtained from more than 50 of the members of the group. Having a group size with an uneven number of participants can ensure that a decision will be reached rather than resulting in a tie. u n Plurality. A decision that is reached whereby the largest block in a group decides even if a majority is not achieved. This method is generally used when the number of options nominated is more than two. uu Autocratic decision making. In this method one individual takes responsibility for making the decision for the group. uu Multicriteria decision analysis. A technique that uses a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria such as risk levels uncertainty and valuation to evaluate and rank many ideas. 5.2.2.5 DATA REPRESENTATION Data representation techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Affinity diagrams. Affinity diagrams allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis. uu Mind mapping. Mind mapping consolidates ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas. 5.2.2.6 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Described in Section 4.1.2.3. The interpersonal and team skills that can be used in this process include but are not limited to: uu Nominal group technique. The nominal group technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization. The nominal group technique is a structured form of brainstorming consisting of four steps:

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145 u n A question or problem is posed to the group. Each person silently generates and writes down their ideas. u n The moderator writes down the ideas on a flip chart until all ideas are recorded. u n Each recorded idea is discussed until all group members have a clear understanding. u n Individuals vote privately to prioritize the ideas usually using a scale of 1 – 5 with 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest. Voting may take place in many rounds to reduce and focus in on ideas. After each round the votes are tallied and the highest scoring ideas are selected. uu Observation/conversation. Observation and conversation provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes. It is particularly helpful for detailed processes when the people who use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. Observation is also known as “job shadowing.” It is usually done externally by an observer viewing a business expert performing a job. It can also be done by a “participant observer” who actually performs a process or procedure to experience how it is done to uncover hidden requirements. uu Facilitation. Described in Section 4.1.2.3. Facilitation is used with focused sessions that bring key stakeholders together to define product requirements. Workshops can be used to quickly define cross-functional requirements and reconcile stakeholder differences. Because of their interactive group nature well-facilitated sessions can build trust foster relationships and improve communication among the participants which can lead to increased stakeholder consensus. In addition issues can be discovered earlier and resolved more quickly than in individual sessions. Facilitation skills are used in the following situations but are not limited to: u n Joint application design/development JAD. JAD sessions are used in the software development industry. These facilitated sessions focus on bringing business subject matter experts and the development team together to gather requirements and improve the software development process. u n Quality function deployment QFD. In the manufacturing industry QFD is another facilitation technique that helps determine critical characteristics for new product development. QFD starts by collecting customer needs also known as voice of the customer VOC. These needs are then objectively sorted and prioritized and goals are set for achieving them. u n User stories. User stories which are short textual descriptions of required functionality are often developed during a requirements workshop. User stories describe the stakeholder role who benefits from the feature role what the stakeholder needs to accomplish goal and the benefit to the stakeholder motivation.

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146 Part 1 - Guide 5.2.2.7 CONTEXT DIAGRAM The context diagram is an example of a scope model. Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system process equipment computer system etc. and how people and other systems actors interact with it see Figure 5-6. Context diagrams show inputs to the business system the actors providing the input the outputs from the business system and the actors receiving the output. Figure 5-6. Context Diagram Hiring Managers Internal Associates Internal Full-Time and Part-Time Contractors Recruiting Agencies Job Seekers HR Talent Management Systems of ABC Company External Jobs Websites External Users Internal Users External Users Internal Users Internal Users Internal Data Flow External Users LEGEND External Data Flow External Jobs Postings External User Profiles Internal Jobs Postings Internal User Profiles

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147 5.2.2.8 PROTOTYPES Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a model of the expected product before actually building it. Examples of prototypes are small-scale products computer generated 2D and 3D models mock-ups or simulations. Prototypes allow stakeholders to experiment with a model of the final product rather than being limited to discussing abstract representations of their requirements. Prototypes support the concept of progressive elaboration in iterative cycles of mock-up creation user experimentation feedback generation and prototype revision. When enough feedback cycles have been performed the requirements obtained from the prototype are sufficiently complete to move to a design or build phase. Storyboarding is a prototyping technique showing sequence or navigation through a series of images or illustrations. Storyboards are used on a variety of projects in a variety of industries such as film advertising instructional design and on agile and other software development projects. In software development storyboards use mock-ups to show navigation paths through web pages screens or other user interfaces. 5.2.3 COLLECT REQUIREMENTS: OUTPUTS 5.2.3.1 REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTATION Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more information about the requirements is known. Before being baselined requirements need to be unambiguous measurable and testable traceable complete consistent and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of the requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary detailed descriptions and attachments.

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148 Part 1 - Guide Many organizations categorize requirements into different types such as business and technical solutions the former referring to stakeholder needs and the latter as to how those needs will be implemented. Requirements can be grouped into classifications allowing for further refinement and detail as the requirements are elaborated. These classifications include: uu Business requirements. These describe the higher-level needs of the organization as a whole such as the business issues or opportunities and reasons why a project has been undertaken. uu Stakeholder requirements. These describe needs of a stakeholder or stakeholder group. uu Solution requirements. These describe features functions and characteristics of the product service or result that will meet the business and stakeholder requirements. Solution requirements are further grouped into functional and nonfunctional requirements: u n Functional requirements. Functional requirements describe the behaviors of the product. Examples include actions processes data and interactions that the product should execute. u n Nonfunctional requirements. Nonfunctional requirements supplement functional requirements and describe the environmental conditions or qualities required for the product to be effective. Examples include: reliability security performance safety level of service supportability retention/purge etc. uu Transition and readiness requirements. These describe temporary capabilities such as data conversion and training requirements needed to transition from the current as-is state to the desired future state. uu Project requirements. These describe the actions processes or other conditions the project needs to meet. Examples include milestone dates contractual obligations constraints etc. uu Quality requirements. These capture any condition or criteria needed to validate the successful completion of a project deliverable or fulfillment of other project requirements. Examples include tests certifications validations etc. 5.2.3.2 REQUIREMENTS TRACEABILITY MATRIX The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

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149 Tracing requirements includes but is not limited to: uu Business needs opportunities goals and objectives uu Project objectives uu Project scope and WBS deliverables uu Product design uu Product development uu Test strategy and test scenarios and uu High-level requirements to more detailed requirements. Attributes associated with each requirement can be recorded in the requirements traceability matrix. These attributes help to define key information about the requirement. Typical attributes used in the requirements traceability matrix may include: a unique identifier a textual description of the requirement the rationale for inclusion owner source priority version current status such as active cancelled deferred added approved assigned completed and status date. Additional attributes to ensure that the requirement has met stakeholders’ satisfaction may include stability complexity and acceptance criteria. Figure 5-7 provides an example of a requirements traceability matrix with its associated attributes. Figure 5-7. Example of a Requirements Traceability Matrix Requirements Traceability Matrix Requirements Description ID Business Needs Opportunities Goals Objectives Project Objectives Associate ID WBS Deliverables Product Design Product Development Test Cases Programs Portfolios Project Name: Cost Center: Project Description: 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 4.0 5.0 001 002 003 004 005

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150 Part 1 - Guide 5.3 DEFINE SCOPE Define Scope is the process of developing a detailed description of the project and product. The key benefit of this process is that it describes the product service or result boundaries and acceptance criteria. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 5-8. Figure 5-9 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 5-8. Define Scope: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Define Scope .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis .3 Decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Facilitation .5 Product analysis .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Scope management plan .3 Project documents • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Risk register .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Project scope statement .2 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix • Stakeholder register

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151 • Project charter 5.3 Define Scope Enterprise/ Organization 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Project scope statement • Project charter Project documents • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project management plan • Scope management plan Project Management Plan Project Documents Project document updates • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix • Stakeholder register Figure 5-9. Define Scope: Data Flow Diagram Since all the requirements identified in Collect Requirements may not be included in the project the Define Scope process selects the final project requirements from the requirements documentation developed during the Collect Requirements process. It then develops a detailed description of the project and product service or result. The preparation of a detailed project scope statement builds upon the major deliverables assumptions and constraints that are documented during project initiation. During project planning the project scope is defined and described with greater specificity as more information about the project is known. Existing risks assumptions and constraints are analyzed for completeness and added or updated as necessary. The Define Scope process can be highly iterative. In iterative life cycle projects a high-level vision will be developed for the overall project but the detailed scope is determined one iteration at a time and the detailed planning for the next iteration is carried out as work progresses on the current project scope and deliverables.

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152 Part 1 - Guide 5.3.1 DEFINE SCOPE: INPUTS 5.3.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter provides the high-level project description product characteristics and approval requirements. 5.3.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. A project management plan component includes but is not limited to the scope management plan as described in Section 5.1.3.1 which documents how the project scope will be defined validated and controlled. 5.3.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Examples of project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log identifies assumptions and constraints about the product project environment stakeholders and other factors that can influence the project and product scope. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation identifies requirements that will be incorporated into the scope. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains response strategies that may affect the project scope such as reducing or changing project and product scope to avoid or mitigate a risk. 5.3.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Define Scope process include but are not limited to: uu Organization’s culture uu Infrastructure uu Personnel administration and uu Marketplace conditions. 5.3.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Define Scope process include but are not limited to: uu Policies procedures and templates for a project scope statement uu Project files from previous projects and uu Lessons learned from previous phases or projects.

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153 5.3.2 DEFINE SCOPE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5.3.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with knowledge of or experience with similar projects. 5.3.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS An example of a data analysis technique that can be used in this process includes but is not limited to alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis can be used to evaluate ways to meet the requirements and the objectives identified in the charter. 5.3.2.3 DECISION MAKING Described in Section 5.1.2.2. A decision-making technique that can be used in this process includes but is not limited to multicriteria decision analysis. Described in Section 8.1.2.4 multicriteria decision analysis is a technique that uses a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria such as requirements schedule budget and resources in order to refine the project and product scope for the project. 5.3.2.4 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Described in Section 4.1.2.3. An example of an interpersonal and team skills technique is facilitation. Facilitation is used in workshops and working sessions with key stakeholders who have a variety of expectations or fields of expertise. The goal is to reach a cross-functional and common understanding of the project deliverables and project and product boundaries. 5.3.2.5 PRODUCT ANALYSIS Product analysis can be used to define products and services. It includes asking questions about a product or service and forming answers to describe the use characteristics and other relevant aspects of what is going to be delivered. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product or service descriptions into meaningful deliverables. Requirements are captured at a high level and decomposed to the level of detail needed to design the final product. Examples of product analysis techniques include but are not limited to: uu Product breakdown uu Requirements analysis uu Systems analysis uu Systems engineering uu Value analysis and uu Value engineering.

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154 Part 1 - Guide 5.3.3 DEFINE SCOPE: OUTPUTS 5.3.3.1 PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT The project scope statement is the description of the project scope major deliverables assumptions and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope including project and product scope. It describes the project’s deliverables in detail. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning guides the project team’s work during execution and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s boundaries. The degree and level of detail to which the project scope statement defines the work that will be performed and the work that is excluded can help determine how well the project management team can control the overall project scope. The detailed project scope statement either directly or by reference to other documents includes the following: uu Product scope description. Progressively elaborates the characteristics of the product service or result described in the project charter and requirements documentation. uu Deliverables. Any unique and verifiable product result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process phase or project. Deliverables also include ancillary results such as project management reports and documentation. These deliverables may be described at a summary level or in great detail. uu Acceptance criteria. A set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted. uu Project exclusions. Identifies what is excluded from the project. Explicitly stating what is out of scope for the project helps manage stakeholders’ expectations and can reduce scope creep. Although the project charter and the project scope statement are sometimes perceived as containing a certain degree of redundancy they are different in the level of detail contained in each. The project charter contains high- level information while the project scope statement contains a detailed description of the scope components. These components are progressively elaborated throughout the project. Table 5-1 describes some of the key elements for each document.

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155 Project Charter Project purpose Measurable project objectives and related success criteria High-level requirements High-level project description boundaries and key deliverables Overall project risk Summary milestone schedule Preapproved financial resources Key stakeholder list Project approval requirements i.e. what constitutes success who decides the project is successful who signs off on the project Project exit criteria i.e. what are the conditions to be met in order to close or to cancel the project or phase Assigned project manager responsibility and authority level Name and authority of the sponsor or other persons authorizing the project charter Project Scope Statement Project scope description progressively elaborated Project deliverables Acceptance criteria Project exclusions Table 5-1. Elements of the Project Charter and Project Scope Statement 5.3.3.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log is updated with additional assumptions or constraints that were identified during this process. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation may be updated with additional or changed requirements. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix may be updated to reflect updates in requirement documentation. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. Where additional information on existing or new stakeholders is gathered as a result of this process it is recorded in the stakeholder register.

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156 Part 1 - Guide 5.4 CREATE WBS Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller more manageable components. The key benefit of this process is that it provides a framework of what has to be delivered. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 5-10. Figure 5-11 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 5-10. Create WBS: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 5-11. Create WBS: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Create WBS .1 Expert judgment .2 Decomposition .1 Project management plan • Scope management plan .2 Project documents • Project scope statement • Requirements documentation .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Scope baseline .2 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Project charter 5.4 Create WBS Enterprise/ Organization • Scope baseline Project management plan • Scope management plan Project documents • Project scope statement • Requirements documentation • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Management Plan Project Documents Project document updates • Assumption log • Requirements documentation Project Management Plan

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157 The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement. The planned work is contained within the lowest level of WBS components which are called work packages. A work package can be used to group the activities where work is scheduled and estimated monitored and controlled. In the context of the WBS work refers to work products or deliverables that are the result of activity and not to the activity itself. 5.4.1 CREATE WBS: INPUTS 5.4.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN A project management plan component includes but is not limited to the scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1 the scope management plan documents how the WBS will be created from the project scope statement. 5.4.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Examples of project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Project scope statement. Described in Section 5.3.3.1. The project scope statement describes the work that will be performed and the work that is excluded. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Detailed requirements describe how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. 5.4.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Create WBS process include but are not limited to industry-specific WBS standards that are relevant to the nature of the project. These industry-specific standards may serve as external reference sources for creating the WBS. 5.4.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Create WBS process include but are not limited to: uu Policies procedures and templates for the WBS uu Project files from previous projects and uu Lessons learned from previous projects.

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158 Part 1 - Guide 5.4.2 CREATE WBS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5.4.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with knowledge of or experience with similar projects. 5.4.2.2 DECOMPOSITION Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller more manageable parts. The work package is the work defined at the lowest level of the WBS for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed. The level of decomposition is often guided by the degree of control needed to effectively manage the project. The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project. Decomposition of the total project work into work packages generally involves the following activities: uu Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work uu Structuring and organizing the WBS uu Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower-level detailed components uu Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components and uu Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the deliverables is appropriate. A portion of a WBS with some branches of the WBS decomposed down through the work package level is shown in Figure 5-12. Figure 5-12. Sample WBS Decomposed Down Through Work Packages 1.0 Value Management System Project 1.1 Needs Assessment 1.2 Standards Development 1.3 Systems Engineering 1.4 Project Management The WBS is illustrative only. It is not intended to represent the full project scope of any specific project nor to imply that this is the only way to organize a WBS on this type of project. 1.1.1.1 Components Identification 1.1.2.1 Gap Assessment 1.1.3.1 Alternatives Identification 1.1.4 System Requirements Development 1.1.3 Alternatives Development 1.1.2 Requirements Determination 1.1.1 Current System Audit 1.1.1.2 Components Analysis 1.1.2.2 Requirements Changes Identification 1.1.3.2 Alternatives Analysis

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159 A WBS structure may be created through various approaches. Some of the popular methods include the top-down approach the use of organization-specific guidelines and the use of WBS templates. A bottom-up approach can be used to group subcomponents. The WBS structure can be represented in a number of forms such as: uu Using phases of the project life cycle as the second level of decomposition with the product and project deliverables inserted at the third level as shown in Figure 5-13 uu Using major deliverables as the second level of decomposition as shown in Figure 5-14 and uu Incorporating subcomponents that may be developed by organizations outside the project team such as contracted work. The seller then develops the supporting contract WBS as part of the contracted work. Figure 5-13. Sample WBS Organized by Phase Planning Software Product Release 5.0 Detail Design Construct Integration and Test Project Management Product Requirements Software Software Software Software Meetings User Documentation User Documentation User Documentation User Documentation Administration Training Program Materials Training Program Materials Training Program Materials Training Program Materials The WBS is illustrative only. It is not intended to represent the full project scope of any specific project nor to imply that this is the only way to organize a WBS on this type of project.

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160 Part 1 - Guide System Engineering Management Supporting PM Activities Aircraft System Project Management Equipment Training Facilities Training Services Training Training Technical Orders Engineering Data Management Data Data Air Vehicle Organizational Level SE Intermediate Level SE Depot Level SE Support Equipment Airframe Engine Communication System Navigation System Fire Control System Base Buildings Maintenance Facility Facilities Mock-ups Operational Test Developmental Test Test Test and Evaluation The WBS is illustrative only. It is not intended to represent the full project scope of any specific project nor to imply that this is the only way to organize a WBS on this type of project. Figure 5-14. Sample WBS with Major Deliverables Decomposition of the upper-level WBS components requires subdividing the work for each of the deliverables or subcomponents into its most fundamental components where the WBS components represent verifiable products services or results. If an agile approach is used epics can be decomposed into user stories. The WBS may be structured as an outline an organizational chart or other method that identifies a hierarchical breakdown. Verifying the correctness of the decomposition requires determining that the lower-level WBS components are those that are necessary and sufficient for completion of the corresponding higher-level deliverables. Different deliverables can have different levels of decomposition. To arrive at a work package the work for some deliverables needs to be decomposed only to the next level while others need additional levels of decomposition. As the work is decomposed to greater levels of detail the ability to plan manage and control the work is enhanced. However excessive decomposition can lead to nonproductive management effort inefficient use of resources decreased efficiency in performing the work and difficulty aggregating data over different levels of the WBS. Decomposition may not be possible for a deliverable or subcomponent that will be accomplished far into the future. The project management team usually waits until the deliverable or subcomponent is agreed on so the details of the WBS can be developed. This technique is sometimes referred to as rolling wave planning.

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161 The WBS represents all product and project work including the project management work. The total of the work at the lowest levels should roll up to the higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is performed. This is sometimes called the 100 percent rule. For specific information regarding the WBS refer to the Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures – Second Edition 15. This standard contains industry-specific examples of WBS templates that can be tailored to specific projects in a particular application area. 5.4.3 CREATE WBS: OUTPUTS 5.4.3.1 SCOPE BASELINE The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement WBS and its associated WBS dictionary which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan. Components of the scope baseline include: uu Project scope statement. The project scope statement includes the description of the project scope major deliverables assumptions and constraints Section 5.3.3.1. uu WBS. The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. Each descending level of the WBS represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. uu Work package. The lowest level of the WBS is a work package with a unique identifier. These identifiers provide a structure for hierarchical summation of costs schedule and resource information and form a code of accounts. Each work package is part of a control account. A control account is a management control point where scope budget and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement. A control account has two or more work packages though each work package is associated with a single control account. uu Planning package. A control account may include one or more planning packages. A planning package is a work breakdown structure component below the control account and above the work package with known work content but without detailed schedule activities.

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162 Part 1 - Guide uu WBS dictionary. The WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed deliverable activity and scheduling information about each component in the WBS. The WBS dictionary is a document that supports the WBS. Most of the information included in the WBS dictionary is created by other processes and added to this document at a later stage. Information in the WBS dictionary may include but is not limited to: u n Code of account identifier u n Description of work u n Assumptions and constraints u n Responsible organization u n Schedule milestones u n Associated schedule activities u n Resources required u n Cost estimates u n Quality requirements u n Acceptance criteria u n Technical references and u n Agreement information. 5.4.3.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: u n Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log is updated with additional assumptions or constraints that were identified during the Create WBS process. u n Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation may be updated to include approved changes resulting from the Create WBS process.

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163 5.5 VALIDATE SCOPE Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. The key benefit of this process is that it brings objectivity to the acceptance process and increases the probability of final product service or result acceptance by validating each deliverable. This process is performed periodically throughout the project as needed. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 5-15. Figure 5-16 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 5-15. Validate Scope: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Validate Scope .1 Inspection .2 Decision making • Voting .1 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Quality reports • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix .3 Verified deliverables .4 Work performance data .1 Accepted deliverables .2 Work performance information .3 Change requests .4 Project document updates • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix

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164 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 8.3 Control Quality 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution • Work performance data • Verified deliverables • Accepted deliverables • Change requests • Work performance information Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Lessons learned register • Quality report • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.7 Close Project or Phase 5.5 Validate Scope Figure 5-16. Validate Scope: Data Flow Diagram The verified deliverables obtained from the Control Quality process are reviewed with the customer or sponsor to ensure they are completed satisfactorily and have received formal acceptance of the deliverables by the customer or sponsor. In this process the outputs obtained as a result of the Planning processes in the Project Scope Management Knowledge Area such as the requirements documentation or the scope baseline as well as the work performance data obtained from the Execution processes in other Knowledge Areas are the basis for performing the validation and for final acceptance. The Validate Scope process differs from the Control Quality process in that the former is primarily concerned with acceptance of the deliverables while the latter is primarily concerned with correctness of the deliverables and meeting the quality requirements specified for the deliverables. Control Quality is generally performed before Validate Scope although the two processes may be performed in parallel.

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165 5.5.1 VALIDATE SCOPE: INPUTS 5.5.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1. The project management plan specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained. uu Requirements management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.2. The requirements management plan describes how the project requirements are validated. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary. 5.5.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register: Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of validating deliverables. uu Quality reports. Described in Section 8.2.3.1. The information presented in the quality report may include all quality assurance issues managed or escalated by the team recommendations for improvement and the summary of findings from the Control Quality process. This information is reviewed prior to product acceptance. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements are compared to the actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix contains information about requirements including how they will be validated. 5.5.1.3 VERIFIED DELIVERABLES Verified deliverables are project deliverables that are completed and checked for correctness through the Control Quality process. 5.5.1.4 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data can include the degree of compliance with requirements number of nonconformities severity of the nonconformities or the number of validation cycles performed in a period of time.

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166 Part 1 - Guide 5.5.2 VALIDATE SCOPE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5.5.2.1 INSPECTION Described in Section 8.3.2.3. Inspection includes activities such as measuring examining and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. Inspections are sometimes called reviews product reviews and walkthroughs. In some application areas these different terms have unique and specific meanings. 5.5.2.2 DECISION MAKING Described in Section 5.2.2.4. An example of decision making that may be used in this process includes but is not limited to voting. Voting is used to reach a conclusion when the validation is performed by the project team and other stakeholders. 5.5.3 VALIDATE SCOPE: OUTPUTS 5.5.3.1 ACCEPTED DELIVERABLES Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor. Formal documentation received from the customer or sponsor acknowledging formal stakeholder acceptance of the project’s deliverables is forwarded to the Close Project or Phase process Section 4.7. 5.5.3.2 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Work performance information includes information about project progress such as which deliverables have been accepted and which have not been accepted and the reasons why. This information is documented as described in Section 10.3.3.1 and communicated to stakeholders. 5.5.3.3 CHANGE REQUESTS The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented along with the reasons for non-acceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests described in Section 4.3.3.4 are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6.

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167 5.5.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well for validating deliverables. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. The requirements documentation may be updated with the actual results of validation activity. Of particular interest is when the actual results are better than the requirement or where a requirement was waived. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix is updated with the results of the validation including the method used and the outcome. 5.6 CONTROL SCOPE Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. The key benefit of this process is that the scope baseline is maintained throughout the project. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 5-17. Figure 5-18 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 5-17. Control Scope: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Control Scope .1 Data analysis • Variance analysis • Trend analysis .1 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Change management plan • Configuration management plan • Scope baseline • Performance measurement baseline .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix .3 Work performance data .4 Organizational process assets .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates • Scope management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline .4 Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix

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168 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work • Work performance data Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Change management plan • Configuration management plan • Scope baseline • Performance measurement baseline Project documents • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 5.6 Control Scope Enterprise/ Organization • Organizational process assets • Work performance information • Change requests Project Management Plan Project management plan updates • Scope management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix Figure 5-18. Control Scope: Data Flow Diagram Controlling the project scope ensures all requested changes and recommended corrective or preventive actions are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process see Section 4.6. Control Scope is also used to manage the actual changes when they occur and is integrated with the other control processes. The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without adjustments to time cost and resources is referred to as scope creep. Change is inevitable therefore some type of change control process is mandatory for every project.

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169 5.6.1 CONTROL SCOPE: INPUTS 5.6.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1. The scope management plan documents how the project and product scope will be controlled. uu Requirements management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.2. The requirements management plan describes how the project requirements will be managed. uu Change management plan. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The change management plan defines the process for managing change on the project. uu Configuration management plan. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The configuration management plan defines those items that are configurable those items that require formal change control and the process for controlling changes to such items. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary. uu Performance measurement baseline. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. When using earned value analysis the performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary. 5.6.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve scope control. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation is used to detect any deviation in the agreed-upon scope for the project or product. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix helps to detect the impact of any change or deviation from the scope baseline on the project objectives. It may also provide status of requirements being controlled. 5.6.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Work performance data can include the number of change requests received the number of requests accepted and the number of deliverables verified validated and completed.

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170 Part 1 - Guide 5.6.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Control Scope process include but are not limited to: uu Existing formal and informal scope control-related policies procedures guidelines and uu Monitoring and reporting methods and templates to be used. 5.6.2 CONTROL SCOPE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 5.6.2.1 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used in the Control Scope process include but are not limited to: uu Variance analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Variance analysis is used to compare the baseline to the actual results and determine if the variance is within the threshold amount or if corrective or preventive action is appropriate. uu Trend analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Trend analysis examines project performance over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline Section 5.4.3.1 and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. 5.6.3 CONTROL SCOPE: OUTPUTS 5.6.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Work performance information produced includes correlated and contextualized information on how the project and product scope are performing compared to the scope baseline. It can include the categories of the changes received the identified scope variances and their causes how they impact schedule or cost and the forecast of the future scope performance. 5.6.3.2 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Analysis of project performance may result in a change request to the scope and schedule baselines or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6.

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171 5.6.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1. The scope management plan may be updated to reflect a change in how the scope is managed. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. Changes to the scope baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope scope statement the WBS or the WBS dictionary. In some cases scope variances can be so severe that a revised scope baseline is needed to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. Changes to the schedule baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope resources or schedule estimates. In some cases schedule variances can be so severe that a revised schedule baseline is needed to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope resources or cost estimates. In some cases cost variances can be so severe that a revised cost baseline is needed to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement. uu Performance measurement baseline. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Changes to the performance measurement baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope schedule performance or cost estimates. In some cases the performance variances can be so severe that a change request is put forth to revise the performance measurement baseline to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement. 5.6.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that are efficient and effective in controlling scope including causes of variances and corrective actions chosen. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation may be updated with additional or changed requirements. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix may be updated to reflect updates in requirement documentation.

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172 Part 1 - Guide

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173 6 PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT Project Schedule Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project. The Project Schedule Management processes are: 6.1 Plan Schedule Management—The process of establishing the policies procedures and documentation for planning developing managing executing and controlling the project schedule. 6.2 Define Activities—The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. 6.3 Sequence Activities—The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations—The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with the estimated resources. 6.5 Develop Schedule—The process of analyzing activity sequences durations resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model for project execution and monitoring and controlling. 6.6 Control Schedule—The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project schedule and manage changes to the schedule baseline. Figure 6-1 provides an overview of the Project Schedule Management processes. The Project Schedule Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide.

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174 Part 1 - Guide .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Schedule management plan .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Enterprise environmental factors .3 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Decomposition .3 Rolling wave planning .4 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Activity list .2 Activity attributes .3 Milestone list .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Precedence diagramming method .2 Dependency determination and integration .3 Leads and lags .4 Project management information system .3 Outputs .1 Project schedule network diagrams .2 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Analogous estimating .3 Parametric estimating .4 Three-point estimating .5 Bottom-up estimating .6 Data analysis .7 Decision making .8 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Duration estimates .2 Basis of estimates .3 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Agreements .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Schedule network analysis .2 Critical path method .3 Resource optimization .4 Data analysis .5 Leads and lags .6 Schedule compression .7 Project management information system .8 Agile release planning .3 Outputs .1 Schedule baseline .2 Project schedule .3 Schedule data .4 Project calendars .5 Change requests .6 Project management plan updates .7 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance data .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Data analysis .2 Critical path method .3 Project management information system .4 Resource optimization .5 Leads and lags .6 Schedule compression .3 Outputs .1 Work performance information .2 Schedule forecasts .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates .5 Project documents updates Project Schedule Management Overview 6.2 Define Activities 6.1 Plan Schedule Management 6.3 Sequence Activities 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations 6.5 Develop Schedule 6.6 Control Schedule Figure 6-1. Project Schedule Management Overview

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175 KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT Project scheduling provides a detailed plan that represents how and when the project will deliver the products services and results defined in the project scope and serves as a tool for communication managing stakeholders’ expectations and as a basis for performance reporting. The project management team selects a scheduling method such as critical path or an agile approach. Then the project-specific data such as the activities planned dates durations resources dependencies and constraints are entered into a scheduling tool to create a schedule model for the project. The result is a project schedule. Figure 6-2 provides a scheduling overview that shows how the scheduling method scheduling tool and outputs from the Project Schedule Management processes interact to create a schedule model. For smaller projects defining activities sequencing activities estimating activity durations and developing the schedule model are so tightly linked that they are viewed as a single process that can be performed by a person over a relatively short period of time. These processes are presented here as distinct elements because the tools and techniques for each process are different. Some of these processes are presented more fully in the Practice Standard for Scheduling 2. When possible the detailed project schedule should remain flexible throughout the project to adjust for knowledge gained increased understanding of the risk and value-added activities.

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176 Part 1 - Guide Examples of Project Schedule Presentations Network Diagram Bar Chart Activity List Project Schedule Schedule Model Project Information Scheduling Method Scheduling Tool Output Generates Project Specific Data e.g. WBS activities resources durations dependencies constraints calendars milestones lags etc. For example CPM Figure 6-2. Scheduling Overview

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177 TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT With high levels of uncertainty and unpredictability in a fast-paced highly competitive global marketplace where long term scope is difficult to define it is becoming even more important to have a contextual framework for effective adoption and tailoring of development practices to respond to the changing needs of the environment. Adaptive planning defines a plan but acknowledges that once work starts the priorities may change and the plan needs to reflect this new knowledge. Some of the emerging practices for project scheduling methods include but are not limited to: u u Iterative scheduling with a backlog. This is a form of rolling wave planning based on adaptive life cycles such as the agile approach for product development. The requirements are documented in user stories that are then prioritized and refined just prior to construction and the product features are developed using time-boxed periods of work. This approach is often used to deliver incremental value to the customer or when multiple teams can concurrently develop a large number of features that have few interconnected dependencies. This scheduling method is appropriate for many projects as indicated by the widespread and growing use of adaptive life cycles for product development. The benefit of this approach is that it welcomes changes throughout the development life cycle. u u On-demand scheduling. This approach typically used in a Kanban system is based on the theory-of- constraints and pull-based scheduling concepts from lean manufacturing to limit a team’s work in progress in order to balance demand against the team’s delivery throughput. On-demand scheduling does not rely on a schedule that was developed previously for the development of the product or product increments but rather pulls work from a backlog or intermediate queue of work to be done immediately as resources become available. On-demand scheduling is often used for projects that evolve the product incrementally in operational or sustainment environments and where tasks may be made relatively similar in size and scope or can be bundled by size and scope.

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178 Part 1 - Guide TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique the project manager may need to tailor the way Project Schedule Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Life cycle approach. What is the most appropriate life cycle approach that allows for a more detailed schedule uu Resource availability. What are the factors influencing durations such as the correlation between available resources and their productivity uu Project dimensions. How will the presence of project complexity technological uncertainty product novelty pace or progress tracking such as earned value percentage complete red-yellow-green stop light indicators impact the desired level of control uu Technology support. Is technology used to develop record transmit receive and store project schedule model information and is it readily accessible For more specific information regarding scheduling refer to the Practice Standard for Scheduling 16. CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS Adaptive approaches use short cycles to undertake work review the results and adapt as necessary. These cycles provide rapid feedback on the approaches and suitability of deliverables and generally manifest as iterative scheduling and on-demand pull-based scheduling as discussed in the section on Key Trends and Emerging Practices in Project Schedule Management. In large organizations there may be a mixture of small projects and large initiatives requiring long-term roadmaps to manage the development of these programs using scaling factors e.g. team size geographical distribution regulatory compliance organizational complexity and technical complexity. To address the full delivery life cycle for larger enterprise-wide systems a range of techniques utilizing a predictive approach adaptive approach or a hybrid of both may need to be adopted. The organization may need to combine practices from several core methods or adopt a method that has already done so and adopt a few principles and practices of more traditional techniques. The role of the project manager does not change based on managing projects using a predictive development life cycle or managing projects in adaptive environments. However to be successful in using adaptive approaches the project manager will need to be familiar with the tools and techniques to understand how to apply them effectively.

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179 6.1 PLAN SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT Plan Schedule Management is the process of establishing the policies procedures and documentation for planning developing managing executing and controlling the project schedule. The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 6-3. Figure 6-4 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 6-3. Plan Schedule Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 6-4. Plan Schedule Management: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Schedule Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Development approach .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Schedule management plan • Project charter 6.1 Plan Schedule Management Enterprise/ Organization 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Schedule management plan • Project charter Project management plan • Scope management plan • Development approach • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Management Plan

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180 Part 1 - Guide 6.1.1 PLAN SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 6.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter defines the summary milestone schedule that will influence the management of the project schedule. 6.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.3.2.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Scope management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.1. The scope management plan describes how the scope will be defined and developed which will provide information on how the schedule will be developed. uu Development approach. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The product development approach will help define the scheduling approach estimating techniques scheduling tools and techniques for controlling the schedule. 6.1.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Schedule Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational culture and structure uu Team resource availability and skills and physical resource availability uu Scheduling software uu Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes and procedures to satisfy the specific needs of the project and uu Commercial databases such as standardized estimating data. 6.1.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Schedule Management process include but are not limited to: uu Historical information and lessons learned repositories uu Existing formal and informal schedule development management- and control-related policies procedures and guidelines uu Templates and forms and uu Monitoring and reporting tools.

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181 6.1.2 PLAN SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 6.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1 Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in previous similar projects: uu Schedule development management and control uu Scheduling methodologies e.g. predictive or adaptive life cycle uu Scheduling software and uu The specific industry for which the project is developed. 6.1.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS A data analysis technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis can include determining which schedule methodology to use or how to combine various methods on the project. It can also include determining how detailed the schedule needs to be the duration of waves for rolling wave planning and how often it should be reviewed and updated. An appropriate balance between the level of detail needed to manage the schedule and the amount of time it takes to keep it up to date needs to be reached for each project. 6.1.2.3 MEETINGS Project teams may hold planning meetings to develop the schedule management plan. Participants at these meetings may include the project manager the project sponsor selected project team members selected stakeholders anyone with responsibility for schedule planning or execution and others as needed. 6.1.3 PLAN SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 6.1.3.1 SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PLAN The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing monitoring and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal highly detailed or broadly framed based on the needs of the project and includes appropriate control thresholds.

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182 Part 1 - Guide The schedule management plan can establish the following: uu Project schedule model development. The scheduling methodology and the scheduling tool to be used in the development of the project schedule model are specified. uu Release and iteration length. When using an adaptive life cycle the time-boxed periods for releases waves and iterations are specified. Time-boxed periods are durations during which the team works steadily toward completion of a goal. Time-boxing helps to minimize scope creep as it forces the teams to process essential features first then other features when time permits. uu Level of accuracy. The level of accuracy specifies the acceptable range used in determining realistic activity duration estimates and may include an amount for contingencies. uu Units of measure. Each unit of measurement such as staff hours staff days or weeks for time measures or meters liters tons kilometers or cubic yards for quantity measures is defined for each of the resources. uu Organizational procedures links. The work breakdown structure WBS Section 5.4 provides the framework for the schedule management plan allowing for consistency with the estimates and resulting schedules. uu Project schedule model maintenance. The process used to update the status and record progress of the project in the schedule model during the execution of the project is defined. uu Control thresholds. Variance thresholds for monitoring schedule performance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken. Thresholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations from the parameters established in the baseline plan. uu Rules of performance measurement. Earned value management EVM rules or other physical measurement rules of performance measurement are set. For example the schedule management plan may specify: u n Rules for establishing percent complete u n EVM techniques e.g. baselines fixed-formula percent complete etc. to be employed for more specific information refer to the Practice Standard for Earned Value Management 17 and u n Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance SV and schedule performance index SPI used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline. uu Reporting formats. The formats and frequency for the various schedule reports are defined.

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183 6.2 DEFINE ACTIVITIES Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. The key benefit of this process is that it decomposes work packages into schedule activities that provide a basis for estimating scheduling executing monitoring and controlling the project work. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 6-5. Figure 6-6 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 6-5. Define Activities: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 6-6. Define Activities: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Define Activities .1 Expert judgment .2 Decomposition .3 Rolling wave planning .4 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline .2 Enterprise environmental factors .3 Organizational process assets .1 Activity list .2 Activity attributes .3 Milestone list .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline • Project charter 6.2 Define Activities Enterprise/ Organization • Activity list • Activity attributes • Milestone list • Change requests Project management plan • Scope management plan • Scope baseline • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Management Plan Project management plan updates • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project Management Plan 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control

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184 Part 1 - Guide 6.2.1 DEFINE ACTIVITIES: INPUTS 6.2.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan defines the schedule methodology the duration of waves for rolling wave planning and the level of detail necessary to manage the work. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The project WBS deliverables constraints and assumptions documented in the scope baseline are considered explicitly while defining activities. 6.2.1.2 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Enterprise environmental factors that influence the Define Activities process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational cultures and structure uu Published commercial information from commercial databases and uu Project management information system PMIS. 6.2.1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Define Activities process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned repository containing historical information regarding activity lists used by previous similar projects uu Standardized processes uu Templates that contain a standard activity list or a portion of an activity list from a previous project and uu Existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies procedures and guidelines such as the scheduling methodology that are considered in developing the activity definitions. 6.2.2 DEFINE ACTIVITIES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 6.2.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of similar past projects and the work being performed.

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185 6.2.2.2 DECOMPOSITION Described in Section 5.4.2.2. Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller more manageable parts. Activities represent the effort needed to complete a work package. The Define Activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables as done in the Create WBS process Section 5.4. The activity list WBS and WBS dictionary can be developed either sequentially or concurrently with the WBS and WBS dictionary used as the basis for development of the final activity list. Each work package within the WBS is decomposed into the activities required to produce the work package deliverables. Involving team members in the decomposition can lead to better and more accurate results. 6.2.2.3 ROLLING WAVE PLANNING Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail while work further in the future is planned at a higher level. It is a form of progressive elaboration applicable to work packages planning packages and release planning when using an agile or waterfall approach. Therefore work can exist at various levels of detail depending on where it is in the project life cycle. During early strategic planning when information is less defined work packages may be decomposed to the known level of detail. As more is known about the upcoming events in the near term work packages can be decomposed into activities. 6.2.2.4 MEETINGS Meetings may be face-to-face virtual formal or informal. Meetings may be held with team members or subject matter experts to define the activities needed to complete the work. 6.2.3 DEFINE ACTIVITIES: OUTPUTS 6.2.3.1 ACTIVITY LIST The activity list includes the schedule activities required on the project. For projects that use rolling wave planning or agile techniques the activity list will be updated periodically as the project progresses. The activity list includes an activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed.

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186 Part 1 - Guide 6.2.3.2 ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project they include the unique activity identifier ID WBS ID and activity label or name. When completed they may include activity descriptions predecessor activities successor activities logical relationships leads and lags Section 6.3.2.3 resource requirements imposed dates constraints and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the place where the work has to be performed the project calendar the activity is assigned to and the type of effort involved. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting ordering and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports 6.2.3.3 MILESTONE LIST A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list identifies all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory such as those required by contract or optional such as those based on historical information. Milestones have zero duration because they represent a significant point or event. 6.2.3.4 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Once the project has been baselined the progressive elaboration of deliverables into activities may reveal work that was not initially part of the project baselines. This may result in a change request. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. 6.2.3.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. Throughout the project work packages are progressively elaborated into activities. This process may reveal work that was not part of the initial schedule baseline necessitating a change to delivery dates or other significant schedule milestones that are part of the schedule baseline. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in schedule activities.

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187 6.3 SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 6-7. Figure 6-8 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 6-7. Sequence Activities: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 6-8. Sequence Activities: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Sequence Activities .1 Precedence diagramming method .2 Dependency determination and integration .3 Leads and lags .4 Project management information system .1 Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Milestone list .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Project schedule network diagrams .2 Project documents updates • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Milestone list 6.3 Sequence Activities Enterprise/ Organization Project documents updates • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Milestone list • Project schedule network diagrams Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Milestone list • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Documents Project Management Plan

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188 Part 1 - Guide Every activity except the first and last should be connected to at least one predecessor and at least one successor activity with an appropriate logical relationship. Logical relationships should be designed to create a realistic project schedule. It may be necessary to use lead or lag time between activities to support a realistic and achievable project schedule. Sequencing can be performed by using project management software or by using manual or automated techniques. The Sequence Activities process concentrates on converting the project activities from a list to a diagram to act as a first step to publish the schedule baseline. 6.3.1 SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES: INPUTS 6.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan defines the method used and the level of accuracy along with other criteria required to sequence activities. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The project WBS deliverables constraints and assumptions documented in the scope baseline are considered explicitly while sequencing activities. 6.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. Activity attributes may describe a necessary sequence of events or defined predecessor or successor relationships as well as defined lead and lag and logical relationships between the activities. uu Activity list. Described in Section 6.2.3.1. The activity list contains all schedule activities required on the project that are to be sequenced. Dependencies and other constraints for these activities can influence the sequencing of the activities. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Assumptions and constraints recorded in the assumption log may influence the way activities are sequenced the relationship between activities and the need for leads and lags and may give rise to individual project risks that may impact the project schedule. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The milestone list may have scheduled dates for specific milestones which may influence the way activities are sequenced.

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189 6.3.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Sequence Activities process include but are not limited to: uu Government or industry standards uu Project management information system PMIS uu Scheduling tools and uu Organization work authorization systems. 6.3.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Sequence Activities process include but are not limited to: uu Portfolio and program plans and project dependencies and relationships uu Existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies procedures and guidelines such as the scheduling methodology that is considered in developing logical relationships uu Templates that can be used to expedite the preparation of networks for project activities. Related activity attributes information in templates can also contain additional descriptive information useful in sequencing activities and uu Lessons learned repository containing historical information that can help optimize the sequencing process. 6.3.2 SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 6.3.2.1 PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMING METHOD The precedence diagramming method PDM is a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. PDM includes four types of dependencies or logical relationships. A predecessor activity is an activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule. A successor activity is a dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule. These relationships are defined below and are illustrated in Figure 6-9:

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190 Part 1 - Guide uu Finish-to-start FS. A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished. For example installing the operating system on a PC successor cannot start until the PC hardware is assembled predecessor. uu Finish-to-finish FF. A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished. For example writing a document predecessor is required to finish before editing the document successor can finish. uu Start-to-start SS. A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started. For example level concrete successor cannot begin until pour foundation predecessor begins. uu Start-to-finish SF. A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started. For example a new accounts payable system successor has to start before the old accounts payable system can be shut down predecessor. In PDM FS is the most commonly used type of precedence relationship. The SF relationship is very rarely used but is included to present a complete list of the PDM relationship types. Two activities can have two logical relationships at the same time for example SS and FF. Multiple relationships between the same activities are not recommended so a decision has to be made to select the relationship with the highest impact. Closed loops are also not recommended in logical relationships. Figure 6-9. Precedence Diagramming Method PDM Relationship Types Activity A Activity B Activity A Activity A Activity B Activity B Activity A Activity B Finish to Start FS Start to Finish SF Start to Start SS Finish to Finish FF

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191 6.3.2.2 DEPENDENCY DETERMINATION AND INTEGRATION Dependencies may be characterized by the following attributes: mandatory or discretionary internal or external as described below. Dependency has four attributes but two can be applicable at the same time in the following ways: mandatory external dependencies mandatory internal dependencies discretionary external dependencies or discretionary internal dependencies. uu Mandatory dependencies. Mandatory dependencies are those that are legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations such as on a construction project where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built or on an electronics project where a prototype has to be built before it can be tested. Mandatory dependencies are sometimes referred to as hard logic or hard dependencies. Technical dependencies may not be mandatory. The project team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of sequencing the activities. Mandatory dependencies should not be confused with assigning schedule constraints in the scheduling tool. uu Discretionary dependencies. Discretionary dependencies are sometimes referred to as preferred logic preferential logic or soft logic. Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired even though there may be other acceptable sequences. For example generally accepted best practices recommend that during construction the electrical work should start after finishing the plumbing work. This order is not mandatory and both activities may occur at the same time in parallel but performing the activities in sequential order reduces the overall project risk. Discretionary dependencies should be fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options. When fast tracking techniques are employed these discretionary dependencies should be reviewed and considered for modification or removal. The project team determines which dependencies are discretionary during the process of sequencing the activities.

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192 Part 1 - Guide uu External dependencies. External dependencies involve a relationship between project activities and non- project activities. These dependencies are usually outside of the project team’s control. For example the testing activity in a software project may be dependent on the delivery of hardware from an external source or governmental environmental hearings may need to be held before site preparation can begin on a construction project. The project management team determines which dependencies are external during the process of sequencing the activities. uu Internal dependencies. Internal dependencies involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team’s control. For example if the team cannot test a machine until they assemble it there is an internal mandatory dependency. The project management team determines which dependencies are internal during the process of sequencing the activities. 6.3.2.3 LEADS AND LAGS A lead is the amount of time a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity. For example on a project to construct a new office building the landscaping could be scheduled to start 2 weeks prior to the scheduled punch list completion. This would be shown as a finish-to-start with a 2-week lead as shown in Figure 6-10. Lead is often represented as a negative value for lag in scheduling software. Figure 6-10. Examples of Lead and Lag Complete Punch List Write Draft Landscape Building Lot Edit Draft SS – 15 Days Lag FS – 2 Weeks Lead

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193 A lag is the amount of time a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity. For example a technical writing team may begin editing the draft of a large document 15 days after they begin writing it. This can be shown as a start-to-start relationship with a 15-day lag as shown in Figure 6-10. Lag can also be represented in project schedule network diagrams as shown in Figure 6-11 in the relationship between activities H and I as indicated by the nomenclature SS+10 start-to-start plus 10 days lag even though the offset is not shown relative to a timescale. The project management team determines the dependencies that may require a lead or a lag to accurately define the logical relationship. The use of leads and lags should not replace schedule logic. Also duration estimates do not include any leads or lags. Activities and their related assumptions should be documented. Figure 6-11. Project Schedule Network Diagram 6.3.2.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems includes scheduling software that has the capability to help plan organize and adjust the sequence of the activities insert the logical relationships lead and lag values and differentiate the different types of dependencies. A B C D E Begin H F G End I J K L FF FS + 15 SS + 10 SS

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194 Part 1 - Guide 6.3.3 SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES: OUTPUTS 6.3.3.1 PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS A project schedule network diagram is a graphical representation of the logical relationships also referred to as dependencies among the project schedule activities. Figure 6-11 illustrates a project schedule network diagram. A project schedule network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details or have one or more summary activities. A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities. Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative. Activities that have multiple predecessor activities indicate a path convergence. Activities that have multiple successor activities indicate a path divergence. Activities with divergence and convergence are at greater risk as they are affected by multiple activities or can affect multiple activities. Activity I is called a path convergence as it has more than one predecessor while activity K is called a path divergence as it has more than one successor. 6.3.3.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. Activity attributes may describe a necessary sequence of events or defined predecessor or successor relationships as well as defined lead and lag and logical relationships between the activities. uu Activity list. Described in Section 6.2.3.1. The activity list may be impacted by the change in relationships among the project activities during the sequencing activities. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Assumptions and constraints recorded in the assumption log may need to be updated based on the sequencing relationship determination and leads and lags and may give rise to individual project risks that may impact the project schedule. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The scheduled dates for specific milestones may be impacted by changes in relationships among the project activities during the sequencing activities.

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195 6.4 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS Estimate Activity Durations is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 6-12. Figure 6-13 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 6-12. Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Estimate Activity Durations .1 Expert judgment .2 Analogous estimating .3 Parametric estimating .4 Three-point estimating .5 Bottom-up estimating .6 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Reserve analysis .7 Decision making .8 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project team assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Resource calendars • Resource requirements • Risk register .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Duration estimates .2 Basis of estimates .3 Project documents updates • Activity attributes • Assumption log • Lessons learned register

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196 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations Enterprise/ Organization • Duration estimates • Basis of estimates Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project team assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Resource calendars • Resource requirements • Risk register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Management Plan Project Documents Project document updates • Activity attributes • Assumption log • Lessons learned register Figure 6-13. Estimate Activity Durations: Data Flow Diagram Estimating activity durations uses information from the scope of work required resource types or skill levels estimated resource quantities and resource calendars. Other factors that may influence the duration estimates include constraints imposed on the duration effort involved or type of resources e.g. fixed duration fixed effort or work fixed number of resources as well as the schedule network analysis technique used. The inputs for the estimates of duration originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work in the specific activity. The duration estimate is progressively elaborated and the process considers the quality and availability of the input data. For example as more detailed and precise data are available about the project engineering and design work the accuracy and quality of the duration estimates improve.

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197 The Estimate Activity Durations process requires an estimation of the amount of work effort required to complete the activity and the amount of available resources estimated to complete the activity. These estimates are used to approximate the number of work periods activity duration needed to complete the activity using the appropriate project and resource calendars. In many cases the number of resources that are expected to be available to accomplish an activity along with the skill proficiency of those resources may determine the activity’s duration. A change to a driving resource allocated to the activity will usually have an effect on the duration but this is not a simple “straight-line” or linear relationship. Sometimes the intrinsic nature of the work i.e. constraints imposed on the duration effort involved or number of resources will take a predetermined amount of time to complete regardless of the resource allocation e.g. a 24-hour stress test. Other factors for consideration when estimating duration include: uu Law of diminishing returns. When one factor e.g. resource used to determine the effort required to produce a unit of work is increased while all other factors remain fixed a point will eventually be reached at which additions of that one factor start to yield progressively smaller or diminishing increases in output. uu Number of resources. Increasing the number of resources to twice the original number of the resources does not always reduce the time by half as it may increase extra duration due to risk and at some point adding too many resources to the activity may increase duration due to knowledge transfer learning curve additional coordination and other factors involved. uu Advances in technology. This may also play an important role in determining duration estimates. For example an increase in the output of a manufacturing plant may be achieved by procuring the latest advances in technology which may impact duration and resource needs. uu Motivation of staff. The project manager also needs to be aware of Student Syndrome—or procrastination— when people start to apply themselves only at the last possible moment before the deadline and Parkinson’s Law where work expands to fill the time available for its completion. All data and assumptions that support duration estimating are documented for each activity duration estimate.

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198 Part 1 - Guide 6.4.1 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS: INPUTS 6.4.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan defines the method used as well as the level of accuracy and other criteria required to estimate activity durations. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline includes the WBS dictionary which contains technical details that can influence the effort and duration estimates. 6.4.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. Activity attributes may describe defined predecessor or successor relationships as well as defined lead and lag and logical relationships between the activities that may impact duration estimates. uu Activity list. Described in Section 6.2.3.1. The activity list contains all schedule activities required on the project which are to be estimated. Dependencies and other constraints for these activities can influence the duration estimates. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Assumptions and constraints recorded in the assumption log may give rise to individual project risks that may impact the project schedule. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to effort and duration estimating can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the accuracy and precision of effort and duration estimates. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The milestone list may have scheduled dates for specific milestones that may impact the duration estimates. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. The project is staffed when the appropriate people have been assigned to the team. uu Resource breakdown structure. Described in Section 9.2.3.3. The resource breakdown structure provides a hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type.

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199 uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.2.1.2. The resource calendars influence the duration of schedule activities due to the availability of specific resources type of resources and resources with specific attributes. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. The estimated activity resource requirements will have an effect on the duration of the activity since the level to which the resources assigned to the activity meet the requirements will significantly influence the duration of most activities. For example if additional or lower- skilled resources are assigned to an activity there may be reduced efficiency or productivity due to increased communication training and coordination needs leading to a longer duration estimate. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. Individual project risks may impact resource selection and availability. Updates to the risk register are included with project documents updates described in Section 11.5.3.2 from Plan Risk Responses. 6.4.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Estimate Activity Durations process include but are not limited to: uu Duration estimating databases and other reference data uu Productivity metrics uu Published commercial information and uu Location of team members. 6.4.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Estimate Activity Durations process include but are not limited to: uu Historical duration information uu Project calendars uu Estimating policies uu Scheduling methodology and uu Lessons learned repository.

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200 Part 1 - Guide 6.4.2 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 6.4.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Schedule development management and control uu Expertise in estimating and uu Discipline or application knowledge. 6.4.2.2 ANALOGOUS ESTIMATING Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous similar project such as duration budget size weight and complexity as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. When estimating durations this technique relies on the actual duration of previous similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project. It is a gross value estimating approach sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity. Analogous duration estimating is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project. Analogous estimating is generally less costly and less time-consuming than other techniques but it is also less accurate. Analogous duration estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project and may be used in conjunction with other estimating methods. Analogous estimating is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance and the project team members preparing the estimates have the needed expertise. 6.4.2.3 PARAMETRIC ESTIMATING Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables e.g. square footage in construction to calculate an estimate for activity parameters such as cost budget and duration.

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201 Durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by the number of labor hours per unit of work. For example duration on a design project is estimated by the number of drawings multiplied by the number of labor hours per drawing or on a cable installation the meters of cable multiplied by the number of labor hours per meter. If the assigned resource is capable of installing 25 meters of cable per hour the duration required to install 1000 meters is 40 hours 1000 meters divided by 25 meters per hour. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending on the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric schedule estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project in conjunction with other estimating methods. 6.4.2.4 THREE-POINT ESTIMATING The accuracy of single-point duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. Using three-point estimates helps define an approximate range for an activity’s duration: uu Most likely tM. This estimate is based on the duration of the activity given the resources likely to be assigned their productivity realistic expectations of availability for the activity dependencies on other participants and interruptions. uu Optimistic tO. The activity duration based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity. uu Pessimistic tP. The duration based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity. Depending on the assumed distribution of values within the range of the three estimates the expected duration tE can be calculated. One commonly used formula is triangular distribution: tE tO + tM + tP / 3. Triangular distribution is used when there is insufficient historical data or when using judgmental data. Duration estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected duration and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected duration.

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202 Part 1 - Guide 6.4.2.5 BOTTOM-UP ESTIMATING Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower- level components of the WBS. When an activity’s duration cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The detail durations are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s durations. Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources. If there are dependencies this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity. 6.4.2.6 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis is used to compare various levels of resource capability or skills scheduling compression techniques described in Section 6.5.2.6 different tools manual versus automated and make rent or buy decisions regarding the resources. This allows the team to weigh resource cost and duration variables to determine an optimal approach for accomplishing project work. uu Reserve analysis. Reserve analysis is used to determine the amount of contingency and management reserve needed for the project. Duration estimates may include contingency reserves sometimes referred to as schedule reserves to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted. Contingency reserves are associated with the known-unknowns which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration or a fixed number of work periods. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated. As more precise information about the project becomes available the contingency reserve may be used reduced or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in the schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of schedule for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the unknown-unknowns that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.

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203 6.4.2.7 DECISION MAKING Described in Section 5.2.2.4. Decision-making techniques that can be used in this process include but are not limited to voting. One variation of the voting method that is often used in agile-based projects is called the fist of five also called fist to five. In this technique the project manager asks the team to show their level of support for a decision by holding up a closed fist indicating no support up to five fingers indicating full support. If a team member holds up fewer than three fingers the team member is given the opportunity to discuss any objections with the team. The project manager continues the fist-of-five process until the team achieves consensus everyone holds up three or more fingers or agrees to move on to the next decision. 6.4.2.8 MEETINGS The project team may hold meetings to estimate activity durations. When using an agile approach it is necessary to conduct sprint or iteration planning meetings to discuss prioritized product backlog items user stories and decide which of these items the team will commit to work on in the upcoming iteration. The team breaks down user stories to low-level tasks with estimates in hours and then validates that the estimates are achievable based on team capacity over the duration iteration. This meeting is usually held on the first day of the iteration and is attended by the product owner the Scrum team and the project manager. The outcome of the meeting includes an iteration backlog as well as assumptions concerns risks dependencies decisions and actions. 6.4.3 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS: OUTPUTS 6.4.3.1 DURATION ESTIMATES Duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity a phase or a project. Duration estimates do not include any lags as described in Section 6.3.2.3. Duration estimates may include some indication of the range of possible results. For example: uu A range of 2 weeks ± 2 days which indicates that the activity will take at least 8 days and not more than 12 assuming a 5-day work week or uu A 15 probability of exceeding 3 weeks which indicates a high probability—85—that the activity will take 3 weeks or less.

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204 Part 1 - Guide 6.4.3.2 BASIS OF ESTIMATES The amount and type of additional details supporting the duration estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the duration estimate was derived. Supporting detail for duration estimates may include: uu Documentation of the basis of the estimate i.e. how it was developed uu Documentation of all assumptions made uu Documentation of any known constraints uu Indication of the range of possible estimates e.g. ±10 to indicate that the duration is estimated between a range of values uu Indication of the confidence level of the final estimate and uu Documentation of individual project risks influencing this estimate. 6.4.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. Activity duration estimates produced during this process are documented as part of the activity attributes. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. This includes assumptions made in developing the duration estimate such as resource skill levels and availability as well as a basis of estimates for durations. Additionally constraints arising out of the scheduling methodology and scheduling tool are also documented. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were efficient and effective in developing effort and duration estimates.

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205 6.5 DEVELOP SCHEDULE Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences durations resource requirements and schedule constraints to create a schedule model for project execution and monitoring and controlling. The key benefit of this process is that it generates a schedule model with planned dates for completing project activities. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 6-14. Figure 6-15 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 6-14. Develop Schedule: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Develop Schedule .1 Schedule network analysis .2 Critical path method .3 Resource optimization .4 Data analysis • What-if scenario analysis • Simulation .5 Leads and lags .6 Schedule compression .7 Project management information system .8 Agile release planning .1 Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Duration estimates • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project schedule network diagrams • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Resource requirements • Risk register .3 Agreements .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Schedule baseline .2 Project schedule .3 Schedule data .4 Project calendars .5 Change requests .6 Project management plan updates • Schedule management plan • Cost baseline .7 Project documents updates • Activity attributes • Assumption log • Duration estimates • Lessons learned register • Resource requirements • Risk register

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206 Part 1 - Guide Figure 6-15. Develop Schedule: Data Flow Diagram • Project charter 12.2 Conduct Procurements • Agreements • Change requests Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Duration estimates • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Project schedule network diagrams • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Resource requirements • Risk register Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 6.5 Develop Schedule Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Schedule baseline Project management plan updates • Schedule management plan • Cost baseline • Project schedule • Schedule data • Project calendars Project documents updates • Activity attributes • Assumption log • Duration estimates • Lessons learned register • Resource requirements • Risk register Project Management Plan

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207 Developing an acceptable project schedule is an iterative process. The schedule model is used to determine the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones based on the best available information. Schedule development can require the review and revision of duration estimates resource estimates and schedule reserves to establish an approved project schedule that can serve as a baseline to track progress. Key steps include defining the project milestones identifying and sequencing activities and estimating durations. Once the activity start and finish dates have been determined it is common to have the project staff assigned to the activities review their assigned activities. The staff confirms that the start and finish dates present no conflict with resource calendars or assigned activities on other projects or tasks and thus are still valid. The schedule is then analyzed to determine conflicts with logical relationships and if resource leveling is required before the schedule is approved and baselined. Revising and maintaining the project schedule model to sustain a realistic schedule continues throughout the duration of the project as described in Section 6.7. For more specific information regarding scheduling refer to the Practice Standard for Scheduling. 6.5.1 DEVELOP SCHEDULE: INPUTS 6.5.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan identifies the scheduling method and tool used to create the schedule and how the schedule is to be calculated. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope statement WBS and WBS dictionary have details about the project deliverables that are considered when building the schedule model. 6.5.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. The activity attributes provide the details used to build the schedule model. uu Activity list. Described in Section 6.2.3.1. The activity list identifies the activities that will be included in the schedule model. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Assumptions and constraints recorded in the assumption log may give rise to individual project risks that may impact the project schedule.

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208 Part 1 - Guide uu Basis of estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.2. The amount and type of additional details supporting the duration estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the duration estimate was derived. uu Duration estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.1. The duration estimates contain the quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. This will be used to calculate the schedule. uu Lessons learned. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to developing the schedule model can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the validity of the schedule model. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. The milestone list has scheduled dates for specific milestones. uu Project schedule network diagrams. Described in Section 6.3.3.1. The project schedule network diagrams contain the logical relationships of predecessors and successors that will be used to calculate the schedule. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. The project team assignments specify which resources are assigned to each activity. uu Resource calendars. Described in Sections 9.2.1.2. The resource calendars contain information on the availability of resources during the project. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. The activity resource requirements identify the types and quantities of resources required for each activity used to create the schedule model. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register provides the details of all identified risks and their characteristics that affect the schedule model. Risk information relevant to the schedule is reflected in schedule reserves using the expected or mean risk impact. 6.5.1.3 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. Vendors may have an input to the project schedule as they develop the details of how they will perform the project work to meet contractual commitments.

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209 6.5.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Develop Schedule process include but are not limited to: uu Government or industry standards and uu Communication channels. 6.5.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Develop Schedule process include but are not limited to: uu Scheduling methodology containing the policies governing schedule model development and maintenance and uu Project calendars. 6.5.2 DEVELOP SCHEDULE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 6.5.2.1 SCHEDULE NETWORK ANALYSIS Schedule network analysis is the overarching technique used to generate the project schedule model. It employs several other techniques such as critical path method described in Section 6.5.2.2 resource optimization techniques described in Section 6.5.2.3 and modeling techniques described in Section 6.5.2.4. Additional analysis includes but is not limited to: uu Assessing the need to aggregate schedule reserves to reduce the probability of a schedule slip when multiple paths converge at a single point in time or when multiple paths diverge from a single point in time to reduce the probability of a schedule slip. uu Reviewing the network to see if the critical path has high-risk activities or long lead items that would necessitate use of schedule reserves or the implementation of risk responses to reduce the risk on the critical path. Schedule network analysis is an iterative process that is employed until a viable schedule model is developed.

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210 Part 1 - Guide 6.5.2.2 CRITICAL PATH METHOD The critical path method is used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of schedule flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. This schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start early finish late start and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network as shown in Figure 6-16. In this example the longest path includes activities A C and D and therefore the sequence of A-C-D is the critical path. The critical path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project which determines the shortest possible project duration. The longest path has the least total float—usually zero. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule rather they indicate the time periods within which the activity could be executed using the parameters entered in the schedule model for activity durations logical relationships leads lags and other known constraints. The critical path method is used to calculate the critical paths and the amount of total and free float or schedule flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. On any network path the total float or schedule flexibility is measured by the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint. A critical path is normally characterized by zero total float on the critical path. As implemented with the precedence diagramming method sequencing critical paths may have positive zero or negative total float depending on the constraints applied. Positive total float is caused when the backward pass is calculated from a schedule constraint that is later than the early finish date that has been calculated during forward pass calculation. Negative total float is caused when a constraint on the late dates is violated by duration and logic. Negative float analysis is a technique that helps to find possible accelerated ways of bringing a delayed schedule back on track. Schedule networks may have multiple near-critical paths. Many software packages allow the user to define the parameters used to determine the critical paths. Adjustments to activity durations when more resources or less scope can be arranged logical relationships when the relationships were discretionary to begin with leads and lags or other schedule constraints may be necessary to produce network paths with a zero or positive total float. Once the total float and the free float have been calculated the free float is the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint. For example the free float for Activity B in Figure 6-16 is 5 days.

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211 Critical Path Link Non-Critical Path Link Activity Node Start Finish A 15 5 10 5 C 61015 60 15 B 65 10 11515 D 16 15 30 16030 Activity Name Early Start Duration Early Finish Late Start Total Float Late Finish Path A–B–D 25 Path A–C–D 30 Critical Path KEY NOTE: This example uses the accepted convention of the project starting on day 1 for calculating start and finish dates. There are other accepted conventions that may be used. Figure 6-16. Example of Critical Path Method 6.5.2.3 RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION Resource optimization is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities to adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability. Examples of resource optimization techniques that can be used to adjust the schedule model due to demand and supply of resources include but are not limited to: uu Resource leveling. A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing the demand for resources with the available supply. Resource leveling can be used when shared or critically required resources are available only at certain times or in limited quantities or are over- allocated such as when a resource has been assigned to two or more activities during the same time period as shown in Figure 6-17 or there is a need to keep resource usage at a constant level. Resource leveling can often cause the original critical path to change. Available float is used for leveling resources. Consequently the critical path through the project schedule may change. uu Resource smoothing. A technique that adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits. In resource smoothing as opposed to resource leveling the project’s critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed. In other words activities may only be delayed within their free and total float. Resource smoothing may not be able to optimize all resources.

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212 Part 1 - Guide Figure 6-17. Resource Leveling Start Activity A Tom: 8 hrs Sue: 8 hrs Activity B Sue: 8 hrs Activity C Tom: 8 hrs Tom: 8 hrs Sue: 16 hrs Tom: 8 hrs Day 2Day 3 Day 1 Start Activity A Tom: 8 hrs Sue: 8 hrs Activity B Sue: 8 hrs Activity C Tom: 8 hrs Tom: 8 hrs Sue: 8 hrs Sue: 8 hrsTom: 8 hrs Day 2Day 3 Day 1 Activities Before Resource Leveling Activities After Resource Leveling

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213 6.5.2.4 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu What-if scenario analysis. What-if scenario analysis is the process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect positive or negative on project objectives. This is an analysis of the question “What if the situation represented by scenario X happens” A schedule network analysis is performed using the schedule to compute the different scenarios such as delaying a major component delivery extending specific engineering durations or introducing external factors such as a strike or a change in the permit process. The outcome of the what-if scenario analysis can be used to assess the feasibility of the project schedule under different conditions and in preparing schedule reserves and response plans to address the impact of unexpected situations. uu Simulation. Simulation models the combined effects of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty to evaluate their potential impact on achieving project objectives. The most common simulation technique is Monte Carlo analysis see Section 11.4.2.5 in which risks and other sources of uncertainty are used to calculate possible schedule outcomes for the total project. Simulation involves calculating multiple work package durations with different sets of activity assumptions constraints risks issues or scenarios using probability distributions and other representations of uncertainty see Section 11.4.2.4. Figure 6-18 shows a probability distribution for a project with the probability of achieving a certain target date i.e. project finish date. In this example there is a 10 probability that the project will finish on or before the target date of May 13 while there is a 90 probability of completing the project by May 28.

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214 Part 1 - Guide Project Finish Date 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 100.0 87.5 75.0 62.5 50.0 37.5 25.0 12.5 0.0 10.0 05/28/17 19:45 05/13/2017 20:30 80.0 10.0 05/05/2017 05/10/2017 05/15/2017 05/20/2017 05/25/2017 05/30/2017 06/04/2017 06/09/2017 06/14/2017 Figure 6-18. Example Probability Distribution of a Target Milestone For more information on how Monte Carlo simulation is used for schedule models see the Practice Standard for Scheduling. 6.5.2.5 LEADS AND LAGS Described in Section 6.3.2.3. Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.

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215 6.5.2.6 SCHEDULE COMPRESSION Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten or accelerate the schedule duration without reducing the project scope in order to meet schedule constraints imposed dates or other schedule objectives. A helpful technique is the negative float analysis. The critical path is the one with the least float. Due to violating a constraint or imposed date the total float can become negative. Schedule compression techniques are compared in Figure 6-19 and include: uu Crashing. A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. Examples of crashing include approving overtime bringing in additional resources or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path. Crashing works only for activities on the critical path where additional resources will shorten the activity’s duration. Crashing does not always produce a viable alternative and may result in increased risk and/or cost. uu Fast tracking. A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. An example is constructing the foundation for a building before completing all of the architectural drawings. Fast tracking may result in rework and increased risk. Fast tracking only works when activities can be overlapped to shorten the project duration on the critical path. Using leads in case of schedule acceleration usually increases coordination efforts between the activities concerned and increases quality risk. Fast tracking may also increase project costs. Figure 6-19. Schedule Compression Comparison Normal Crashing Fast Tracking 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 121 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 High Risk High Cost

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216 Part 1 - Guide 6.5.2.7 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems include scheduling software that expedites the process of building a schedule model by generating start and finish dates based on the inputs of activities network diagrams resources and activity durations. 6.5.2.8 AGILE RELEASE PLANNING Agile release planning provides a high-level summary timeline of the release schedule typically 3 to 6 months based on the product roadmap and the product vision for the product’s evolution. Agile release planning also determines the number of iterations or sprints in the release and allows the product owner and team to decide how much needs to be developed and how long it will take to have a releasable product based on business goals dependencies and impediments. Since features represent value to the customer the timeline provides a more easily understood project schedule as it defines which feature will be available at the end of each iteration which is exactly the depth of information the customer is looking for. Figure 6-20 shows the relationship among product vision product roadmap release planning and iteration planning. Figure 6-20. Relationship Between Product Vision Release Planning and Iteration Planning Release 3 Release 2 Release 1 Release Plan Iteration Plan Iteration 0 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration n Feature D User Story 5 Feature C User Story 4 Feature B User Story 3 Feature A User Story 2 Feature A User Story 1 5 Hours 8 Hours 4 Hours 12 Hours Task A Task B Task C Task D Product vision drives product roadmap Product roadmap drives release plans Release plan establishes the iterations Iteration plans schedules feature development Tasks estimated in hours created to deliver user stories Prioritized features delivered by user stories estimated in story points

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217 6.5.3 DEVELOP SCHEDULE: OUTPUTS 6.5.3.1 SCHEDULE BASELINE A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine if variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan. 6.5.3.2 PROJECT SCHEDULE The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates durations milestones and resources. At a minimum the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan Section 4.2.3.1. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule may be presented in summary form sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule or presented in detail. Although a project schedule model can be presented in tabular form it is more often presented graphically using one or more of the following formats: uu Bar charts. Also known as Gantt charts bar charts represent schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis dates are shown on the horizontal axis and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates. Bar charts are relatively easy to read and are commonly used. Depending on the audience float can be depicted or not. For control and management communications the broader more comprehensive summary activity is used between milestones or across multiple interdependent work packages and is displayed in bar chart reports. An example is the summary schedule portion of Figure 6-21 that is presented in a WBS-structured format.

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218 Part 1 - Guide uu Milestone charts. These charts are similar to bar charts but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces. An example is the milestone schedule portion of Figure 6-21. uu Project schedule network diagrams. These diagrams are commonly presented in the activity-on-node diagram format showing activities and relationships without a time scale sometimes referred to as a pure logic diagram as shown in Figure 6-11 or presented in a time-scaled schedule network diagram format that is sometimes called a logic bar chart as shown for the detailed schedule in Figure 6-21. These diagrams with activity date information usually show both the project network logic and the project’s critical path schedule activities. This example also shows how each work package is planned as a series of related activities. Another presentation of the project schedule network diagram is a time-scaled logic diagram. These diagrams include a time scale and bars that represent the duration of activities with the logical relationships. They are optimized to show the relationships between activities where any number of activities may appear on the same line of the diagram in sequence. Figure 6-21 shows schedule presentations for a sample project being executed with the work in progress reported through as-of date or status date. For a simple project schedule model Figure 6-21 reflects schedule presentations in the forms of 1 a milestone schedule as a milestone chart 2 a summary schedule as a bar chart and 3 a detailed schedule as a project schedule linked bar chart diagram. Figure 6-21 also visually shows the relationships among the different levels of detail of the project schedule.

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219 Project Schedule Time Frame Period 5 Period 1Period 2Period 3 Activity Identifier 1.1.MB Begin New Product Z Period 4 Calendar units Calendar units Calendar units Complete Component 1 Complete Component 2 Finish New Product Z 0 0 0 0 Activity Description Project Schedule Time Frame Period 5 Period 1Period 2Period 3 Activity Identifier 1.1.MB 0 120 67 20 33 14 0 53 14 28 11 0 53 14 32 0 7 0 Period 4 Activity Description 1.1.1.M1 1.1.2.M1 1.1.3.MF Complete Integration of Components 1 2 0 1.1.3.M1 Project Schedule Time Frame Period 5 Period 1Period 2Period 3 Activity Identifier 1.1Develop and Deliver New Product Z Period 4 Work Package 1: Component 1 Work Package 2: Component 2 Work Package 3: Integrated Components 1 and 2 120 67 53 53 Activity Description 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Milestone Schedule Data Date Data Date Detailed Schedule 1.1.1.T 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.1.D 1.1.1.B 1.1.2.T 1.1.1.M1 1.1.2 1.1.2.D 1.1.2.B 1.1.3.M1 1.1.2.M1 1.1.3 1.1.3.G 1.1.3.T Data Date SS FS 1.1.3.P 1.1.3.MF Summary Schedule Begin New Product Z Develop and Deliver Product Z Work Package 1: Component 1 Design Component 1 Build Component 1 Test Component 1 Complete Component 1 Work Package 2: Component 2 Design Component 2 Build Component 2 Test Component 2 Complete Component 2 Work Package 3: Integrated Components 1 and 2 Integrate Components 1 and 2 as Product Z Complete Integration of Components 1 and 2 Test Integrated Components as Product Z Deliver Product Z Finish New Product Z Figure 6-21. Project Schedule Presentations—Examples

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220 Part 1 - Guide 6.5.3.3 SCHEDULE DATA The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes at a minimum the schedule milestones schedule activities activity attributes and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area. Information frequently supplied as supporting detail includes but is not limited to: uu Resource requirements by time period often in the form of a resource histogram uu Alternative schedules such as best-case or worst-case not resource-leveled or resource-leveled or with or without imposed dates and uu Applied schedule reserves. Schedule data could also include such items as resource histograms cash-flow projections order and delivery schedules or other relevant information. 6.5.3.4 PROJECT CALENDARS A project calendar identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities. It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are available to complete scheduled activities from time periods that are not available for work. A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the project schedule. The project calendars may be updated. 6.5.3.5 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Modifications to the project scope or project schedule may result in change requests to the scope baseline and/or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Preventive actions may include recommended changes to eliminate or reduce the probability of negative schedule variances.

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221 6.5.3.6 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan may be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule was developed and will be managed. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope resources or cost estimates. In some cases cost variances can be so severe that a revised cost baseline is needed to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement. 6.5.3.7 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. Activity attributes are updated to include any revised resource requirements and any other revisions generated by the Develop Schedule process. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log may be updated with changes to assumptions in duration resource utilization sequencing or other information that is revealed as a result of developing the schedule model. uu Duration estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.1. The number and availability of resources along with the activity dependencies can result in a change to the duration estimates. If the resource-leveling analysis changes the resource requirements then the duration estimates will likely need to be updated as well. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were efficient and effective in developing the schedule model. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource leveling can have a significant effect on preliminary estimates for the types and quantities of resources required. If the resource-leveling analysis changes the resource requirements then the resource requirements are updated. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register may need to be updated to reflect opportunities or threats perceived through scheduling assumptions.

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222 Part 1 - Guide 6.6 CONTROL SCHEDULE Control Schedule is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project schedule and managing changes to the schedule baseline. The key benefit of this process is that the schedule baseline is maintained throughout the project. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 6-22. Figure 6-23 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 6-22. Control Schedule: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Control Schedule .1 Data analysis • Earned value analysis • Iteration burndown chart • Performance reviews • Trend analysis • Variance analysis • What-if scenario analysis .2 Critical path method .3 Project management information system .4 Resource optimization .6 Leads and lags .7 Schedule compression .1 Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Schedule baseline • Scope baseline • Performance measurement baseline .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project calendars • Project schedule • Resource calendars • Schedule data .3 Work performance data .4 Organizational process assets .1 Work performance information .2 Schedule forecasts .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates • Schedule management plan • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline .5 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resource calendars • Risk register • Schedule data

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223 • Project charter 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work • Work performance data Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Schedule baseline • Scope baseline • Performance measurement baseline Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project calendars • Project schedule • Resource calendars • Schedule data Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 6.6 Control Schedule Enterprise/ Organization • Organizational process assets • Work performance information • Change requests • Schedule forecasts Project documents updates • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resource calendars • Risk register • Schedule data Project management plan updates • Schedule management plan • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline Project Management Plan Figure 6-23. Control Schedule: Data Flow Diagram Updating the schedule model requires knowing the actual performance to date. Any change to the schedule baseline can only be approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Control Schedule as a component of the Perform Integrated Change Control process is concerned with: uu Determining the current status of the project schedule uu Influencing the factors that create schedule changes uu Reconsidering necessary schedule reserves uu Determining if the project schedule has changed and uu Managing the actual changes as they occur.

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224 Part 1 - Guide When an agile approach is used Control Schedule is concerned with: uu Determining the current status of the project schedule by comparing the total amount of work delivered and accepted against the estimates of work completed for the elapsed time cycle uu Conducting retrospectives scheduled reviews to record lessons learned for correcting processes and improving if required uu Reprioritizing the remaining work plan backlog uu Determining the rate at which the deliverables are produced validated and accepted velocity in the given time per iteration agreed-upon work cycle duration typically 2 weeks or 1 month uu Determining that the project schedule has changed and uu Managing the actual changes as they occur. When work is being contracted regular and milestone status updates from contractors and suppliers are a means of ensuring the work is progressing as agreed upon to ensure the schedule is under control. Scheduled status reviews and walkthroughs should be done to ensure the contractor reports are accurate and complete. 6.6.1 CONTROL SCHEDULE: INPUTS 6.6.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management describes the frequency that the schedule will be updated how reserve will be used and how the schedule will be controlled. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. The schedule baseline is compared with actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The project WBS deliverables constraints and assumptions documented in the scope baseline are considered explicitly when monitoring and controlling the schedule baseline. uu Performance measurement baseline. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. When using earned value analysis the performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary.

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225 6.6.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve schedule control. uu Project calendars. Described in Section 6.5.3.4. A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the schedule forecasts. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. Project schedule refers to the most recent version with notations to indicate updates completed activities and started activities as of the indicated date. uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.2.1.2. Resource calendars show the availability of team and physical resources. uu Schedule data. Described in Section 6.5.3.3. Schedule data will be reviewed and updated in the Control Schedule process. 6.6.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data contains data on project status such as which activities have started their progress e.g. actual duration remaining duration and physical percent complete and which activities have finished. 6.6.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Control Schedule process include but are not limited to: uu Existing formal and informal schedule control-related policies procedures and guidelines uu Schedule control tools and uu Monitoring and reporting methods to be used.

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226 Part 1 - Guide 6.6.2 CONTROL SCHEDULE: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 6.6.2.1 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Earned value analysis. Described in Section 7.4.2.2. Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance SV and schedule performance index SPI are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline. uu Iteration burndown chart. This chart tracks the work that remains to be completed in the iteration backlog. It is used to analyze the variance with respect to an ideal burndown based on the work committed from iteration planning see Section 6.4.2.8. A forecast trend line can be used to predict the likely variance at iteration completion and take appropriate actions during the course of the iteration. A diagonal line representing the ideal burndown and daily actual remaining work is then plotted. A trend line is then calculated to forecast completion based on remaining work. Figure 6-24 is an example of an iteration burndown chart. Figure 6-24. Iteration Burndown Chart Iteration Burndown Chart Iteration Days Remaining Work 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 123456789 10 11 12 Actual Remaining Work Ideal Remaining Work Forecast Remaining Work

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227 uu Performance reviews. Performance reviews measure compare and analyze schedule performance against the schedule baseline such as actual start and finish dates percent complete and remaining duration for work in progress. uu Trend analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Trend analysis examines project performance over time to determine whether performance is improving or deteriorating. Graphical analysis techniques are valuable for understanding performance to date and for comparing to future performance goals in the form of completion dates. uu Variance analysis. Variance analysis looks at variances in planned versus actual start and finish dates planned versus actual durations and variances in float. Part of variance analysis is determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the schedule baseline see Section 6.5.3.1 estimating the implications of those variances for future work to completion and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. For example a major delay on any activity not on the critical path may have little effect on the overall project schedule while a much shorter delay on a critical or near-critical activity may require immediate action. uu What-if scenario analysis. Described in Section 6.5.2.4. What-if scenario analysis is used to assess the various scenarios guided by the output from the Project Risk Management processes to bring the schedule model into alignment with the project management plan and approved baseline. 6.6.2.2 CRITICAL PATH METHOD Described in Section 6.5.2.2. Comparing the progress along the critical path can help determine schedule status. The variance on the critical path will have a direct impact on the project end date. Evaluating the progress of activities on near critical paths can identify schedule risk. 6.6.2.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems include scheduling software that provides the ability to track planned dates versus actual dates to report variances to and progress made against the schedule baseline and to forecast the effects of changes to the project schedule model. 6.6.2.4 RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION Described in Section 6.5.2.3. Resource optimization techniques involve the scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both the resource availability and the project time.

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228 Part 1 - Guide 6.6.2.5 LEADS AND LAGS Adjusting leads and lags is applied during network analysis to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan. For example on a project to construct a new office building the landscaping can be adjusted to start before the exterior work of the building is completed by increasing the lead time in the relationship or a technical writing team can adjust the start of editing the draft of a large document immediately after the document is written by eliminating or decreasing lag time. 6.6.2.6 SCHEDULE COMPRESSION Schedule compression techniques see Section 6.5.2.6 are used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan by fast tracking or crashing the schedule for the remaining work. 6.6.3 CONTROL SCHEDULE: OUTPUTS 6.6.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Described in Section 4.5.1.3. Work performance information includes information on how the project work is performing compared to the schedule baseline. Variances in the start and finish dates and the durations can be calculated at the work package level and control account level. For projects using earned value analysis the SV and SPI are documented for inclusion in work performance reports see Section 4.5.3.1. 6.6.3.2 SCHEDULE FORECASTS Schedule updates are forecasts of estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed. The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance based on corrective or preventive actions. This can include earned value performance indicators as well as schedule reserve information that could impact the project in the future.

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229 6.6.3.3 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Schedule variance analysis as well as reviews of progress reports results of performance measures and modifications to the project scope or project schedule may result in change requests to the schedule baseline scope baseline and/or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Preventive actions may include recommended changes to eliminate or reduce the probability of negative schedule variances. 6.6.3.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan may be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule is managed. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. Changes to the schedule baseline are incorporated in response to approved change requests related to change in project scope resources or activity duration estimates. The schedule baseline may be updated to reflect changes caused by schedule compression techniques or performance issues. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope resources or cost estimates. uu Performance measurement baseline. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Changes to the performance measurement baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope schedule performance or cost estimates. In some cases the performance variances can be so severe that a change request is put forth to revise the performance measurement baseline to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement.

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230 Part 1 - Guide 6.6.3.5 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Schedule performance may indicate the need to revise assumptions on activity sequencing durations and productivity. uu Basis of estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.2. Schedule performance may indicate the need to revise the way duration estimates were developed. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were effective in maintaining the schedule causes of variances and corrective actions that were used to respond to schedule variances. uu Project schedule. An updated project schedule see Section 6.5.3.2 will be generated from the schedule model populated with updated schedule data to reflect the schedule changes and manage the project. uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.2.1.2. Resource calendars are updated to reflect changes to the utilization of resource calendars that were the result of optimizing resources schedule compression and corrective or preventive actions. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register and risk response plans within it may be updated based on the risks that may arise due to schedule compression techniques. uu Schedule data. Described in Section 6.5.3.3. New project schedule network diagrams may be developed to display approved remaining durations and approved modifications to the schedule. In some cases project schedule delays can be so severe that a new target schedule with forecasted start and finish dates is needed to provide realistic data for directing the work measuring performance and measuring progress.

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231 7 PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning estimating budgeting financing funding managing and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. The Project Cost Management processes are: 7.1 Plan Cost Management—The process of defining how the project costs will be estimated budgeted managed monitored and controlled. 7.2 Estimate Costs—The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project work. 7.3 Determine Budget—The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline. 7.4 Control Costs—The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and manage changes to the cost baseline. Figure 7-1 provides an overview of the Project Cost Management processes. The Project Cost Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide. These processes interact with each other and with processes in other Knowledge Areas. On some projects especially those of smaller scope cost estimating and cost budgeting are tightly linked and can be viewed as a single process that can be performed by a single person over a relatively short period of time. They are presented here as distinct processes because the tools and techniques for each are different. The ability to influence cost is greatest at the early stages of the project making early scope definition critical see Section 5.3.

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232 Part 1 - Guide .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Cost management plan .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Analogous estimating .3 Parametric estimating .4 Bottom-up estimating .5 Three-point estimating .6 Data analysis .7 Project management information system .8 Decision making .3 Outputs .1 Cost estimates .2 Basis of estimates .3 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Business documents .4 Agreements .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Cost aggregation .3 Data analysis .4 Historical information review .5 Funding limit reconciliation .6 Financing .3 Outputs .1 Cost baseline .2 Project funding requirements .3 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Project funding requirements .4 Work performance data .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 To-complete performance index .4 Project management information system .3 Outputs .1 Work performance information .2 Cost forecasts .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates .5 Project documents updates Project Cost Management Overview 7.2 Estimate Costs 7.1 Plan Cost Management 7.3 Determine Budget 7.4 Control Costs Figure 7-1. Project Cost Management Overview

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233 KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT Project Cost Management is primarily concerned with the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities. Project Cost Management should consider the effect of project decisions on the subsequent recurring cost of using maintaining and supporting the product service or result of the project. For example limiting the number of design reviews can reduce the cost of the project but could increase the resulting product’s operating costs. Another aspect of cost management is recognizing that different stakeholders measure project costs in different ways and at different times. For example the cost of an acquired item may be measured when the acquisition decision is made or committed the order is placed the item is delivered or the actual cost is incurred or recorded for project accounting purposes. In many organizations predicting and analyzing the prospective financial performance of the project’s product is performed outside of the project. In others such as a capital facilities project Project Cost Management can include this work. When such predictions and analyses are included Project Cost Management may address additional processes and numerous general financial management techniques such as return on investment discounted cash flow and investment payback analysis. TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT Within the practice of Project Cost Management trends include the expansion of earned value management EVM to include the concept of earned schedule ES. ES is an extension to the theory and practice of EVM. Earned schedule theory replaces the schedule variance measures used in traditional EVM earned value − planned value with ES and actual time AT. Using the alternate equation for calculating schedule variance ES − AT if the amount of earned schedule is greater than 0 then the project is considered ahead of schedule. In other words the project earned more than planned at a given point in time. The schedule performance index SPI using earned schedule metrics is ES/AT. This indicates the efficiency with which work is being accomplished. Earned schedule theory also provides formulas for forecasting the project completion date using earned schedule actual time and estimated duration.

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234 Part 1 - Guide TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique the project manager may need to tailor the way Project Cost Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Knowledge management. Does the organization have a formal knowledge management and financial database repository that a project manager is required to use and that is readily accessible uu Estimating and budgeting. Does the organization have existing formal or informal cost estimating and budgeting-related policies procedures and guidelines uu Earned value management. Does the organization use earned value management in managing projects uu Use of agile approach. Does the organization use agile methodologies in managing projects How does this impact cost estimating uu Governance. Does the organization have formal or informal audit and governance policies procedures and guidelines CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS Projects with high degrees of uncertainty or those where the scope is not yet fully defined may not benefit from detailed cost calculations due to frequent changes. Instead lightweight estimation methods can be used to generate a fast high-level forecast of project labor costs which can then be easily adjusted as changes arise. Detailed estimates are reserved for short-term planning horizons in a just-in-time fashion. In cases where high-variability projects are also subject to strict budgets the scope and schedule are more often adjusted to stay within cost constraints.

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235 7.1 PLAN COST MANAGEMENT Plan Cost Management is the process of defining how the project costs will be estimated budgeted managed monitored and controlled. The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project costs will be managed throughout the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 7-2. Figure 7-3 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 7-2. Plan Cost Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 7-3. Plan Cost Management: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Cost Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Risk management plan .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Cost management plan • Project charter 7.1 Plan Cost Management Enterprise/ Organization 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Cost management plan • Project charter Project management plan • Schedule management plan • Risk management plan • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Management Plan

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236 Part 1 - Guide The cost management planning effort occurs early in project planning and sets the framework for each of the cost management processes so that performance of the processes will be efficient and coordinated. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan. The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan. 7.1.1 PLAN COST MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 7.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The project charter provides the preapproved financial resources from which the detailed project costs are developed. The project charter also defines the project approval requirements that will influence the management of the project costs. 7.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan establishes the criteria and the activities for developing monitoring and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan provides processes and controls that will impact cost estimation and management. uu Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. The risk management plan provides the approach for identifying analyzing and monitoring risks. The risk management plan provides processes and controls that will impact cost estimation and management. 7.1.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Cost Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational culture and structure can influence cost management. uu Market conditions describe what products services and results are available in the regional and global markets. uu Currency exchange rates for project costs are sourced from more than one country.

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237 uu Published commercial information such as resource cost rate information is often available from commercial databases that track skills and human resource costs and provide standard costs for material and equipment. Published seller price lists are another source of information. uu Project management information system provides alternative possibilities for managing cost. uu Productivity differences in different parts of the world can have a large influence on the cost of projects. 7.1.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Cost Management process include but are not limited to: uu Financial controls procedures e.g. time reporting required expenditure and disbursement reviews accounting codes and standard contract provisions uu Historical information and lessons learned repository uu Financial databases and uu Existing formal and informal cost estimating and budgeting-related policies procedures and guidelines. 7.1.2 PLAN COST MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 7.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1 Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Previous similar projects uu Information in the industry discipline and application area uu Cost estimating and budgeting and uu Earned value management.

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238 Part 1 - Guide 7.1.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS A data analysis technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis can include reviewing strategic funding options such as: self-funding funding with equity or funding with debt. It can also include consideration of ways to acquire project resources such as making purchasing renting or leasing. 7.1.2.3 MEETINGS Project teams may hold planning meetings to develop the cost management plan. Attendees may include the project manager the project sponsor selected project team members selected stakeholders anyone with responsibility for project costs and others as needed. 7.1.3 PLAN COST MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 7.1.3.1 COST MANAGEMENT PLAN The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned structured and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan. For example the cost management plan can establish the following: uu Units of measure. Each unit used in measurements such as staff hours staff days or weeks for time measures meters liters tons kilometers or cubic yards for quantity measures or lump sum in currency form is defined for each of the resources. uu Level of precision. This is the degree to which cost estimates will be rounded up or down e.g. US995.59 to US1000 based on the scope of the activities and magnitude of the project. uu Level of accuracy. The acceptable range e.g. ±10 used in determining realistic cost estimates is specified and may include an amount for contingencies.

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239 uu Organizational procedures links. The work breakdown structure WBS Section 5.4 provides the framework for the cost management plan allowing for consistency with the estimates budgets and control of costs. The WBS component used for the project cost accounting is called the control account. Each control account is assigned a unique code or account numbers that links directly to the performing organization’s accounting system. uu Control thresholds. Variance thresholds for monitoring cost performance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken. Thresholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations from the baseline plan. uu Rules of performance measurement. Earned value management EVM rules of performance measurement are set. For example the cost management plan may: u n Define the points in the WBS at which measurement of control accounts will be performed u n Establish the EVM techniques e.g. weighted milestones fixed-formula percent complete etc. to be employed and u n Specify tracking methodologies and the EVM computation equations for calculating projected estimate at completion EAC forecasts to provide a validity check on the bottom-up EAC. uu Reporting formats. The formats and frequency for the various cost reports are defined. uu Additional details. Additional details about cost management activities include but are not limited to: u n Description of strategic funding choices u n Procedure to account for fluctuations in currency exchange rates and u n Procedure for project cost recording. For more specific information regarding earned value management refer to the Practice Standard for Earned Value Management – Second Edition 17.

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240 Part 1 - Guide 7.2 ESTIMATE COSTS Estimate Costs is the process of developing an approximation of the cost of resources needed to complete project work. The key benefit of this process is that it determines the monetary resources required for the project. This process is performed periodically throughout the project as needed. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 7-4. Figure 7-5 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 7-4. Estimate Costs: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 7-5. Estimate Costs: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Estimate Costs .1 Expert judgment .2 Analogous estimating .3 Parametric estimating .4 Bottom-up estimating .5 Three-point estimating .6 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Reserve analysis • Cost of quality .7 Project management information system .8 Decision making • Voting .1 Project management plan • Cost management plan • Quality management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resources requirements • Risk register .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Cost estimates .2 Basis of estimates .3 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Risk register 7.2 Estimate Costs Enterprise/ Organization Project documents updates • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Cost estimates • Basis of estimates Project management plan • Cost management plan • Quality management.plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resources requirements • Risk register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Documents Project Management Plan

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241 A cost estimate is a quantitative assessment of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. It is a prediction that is based on the information known at a given point in time. Cost estimates include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project. Cost trade-offs and risks should be considered such as make versus buy buy versus lease and the sharing of resources in order to achieve optimal costs for the project. Cost estimates are generally expressed in units of some currency i.e. dollars euros yen etc. although in some instances other units of measure such as staff hours or staff days are used to facilitate comparisons by eliminating the effects of currency fluctuations. Cost estimates should be reviewed and refined during the course of the project to reflect additional detail as it becomes available and assumptions are tested. The accuracy of a project estimate will increase as the project progresses through the project life cycle. For example a project in the initiation phase may have a rough order of magnitude ROM estimate in the range of −25 to +75. Later in the project as more information is known definitive estimates could narrow the range of accuracy to −5 to +10. In some organizations there are guidelines for when such refinements can be made and the degree of confidence or accuracy that is expected. Costs are estimated for all resources that will be charged to the project. This includes but is not limited to labor materials equipment services and facilities as well as special categories such as an inflation allowance cost of financing or contingency costs. Cost estimates may be presented at the activity level or in summary form. 7.2.1 ESTIMATE COSTS: INPUTS 7.2.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. The cost management plan describes estimating methods that can be used and the level of precision and accuracy required for the cost estimate. uu Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. The quality management plan describes the activities and resources necessary for the project management team to achieve the quality objectives set for the project.

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242 Part 1 - Guide uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline includes the project scope statement WBS and WBS dictionary: u n Project scope statement. The scope statement Section 5.3.3.1 reflects funding constraints by period for the expenditure of project funds or other financial assumptions and constraints. u n Work breakdown structure. The WBS Section 5.4.3.1 provides the relationships among all the project deliverables and their various components. u n WBS dictionary. The WBS dictionary Section 5.4.3. and related detailed statements of work provide an identification of the deliverables and a description of the work in each WBS component required to produce each deliverable. 7.2.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to developing cost estimates can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the accuracy and precision of the cost estimates. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The schedule includes the type quantity and amount of time that team and physical resources will be active on the project. The duration estimates Section 6.4.3.1 will affect cost estimates when resources are charged per unit of time and when there are seasonal fluctuations in costs. The schedule also provides useful information for projects that incorporate the cost of financing including interest charges. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource requirements identify the types and quantities of resources required for each work package or activity. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains details of individual project risks that have been identified and prioritized and for which risk responses are required. The risk register provides detailed information that can be used to estimate costs.

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243 7.2.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Estimate Costs process include but are not limited to: uu Market conditions. These conditions describe what products services and results are available in the market from whom and under what terms and conditions. Regional and/or global supply and demand conditions greatly influence resource costs. uu Published commercial information. Resource cost rate information is often available from commercial databases that track skills and human resource costs and provide standard costs for material and equipment. Published seller price lists are another source of information. uu Exchange rates and inflation. For large-scale projects that extend multiple years with multiple currencies the fluctuations of currencies and inflation need to be understood and built into the Estimate Cost process. 7.2.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Estimate Costs process include but are not limited to: uu Cost estimating policies uu Cost estimating templates uu Historical information and lessons learned repository. 7.2.2 ESTIMATE COSTS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 7.2.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1 Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Previous similar projects uu Information in the industry discipline and application area and uu Cost estimating methods.

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244 Part 1 - Guide 7.2.2.2 ANALOGOUS ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.2. Analogous cost estimating uses values or attributes of a previous project that are similar to the current project. Values and attributes of the projects may include but are not limited to: scope cost budget duration and measures of scale e.g. size weight. Comparison of these project values or attributes becomes the basis for estimating the same parameter or measurement for the current project. 7.2.2.3 PARAMETRIC ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.3. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between relevant historical data and other variables e.g. square footage in construction to calculate a cost estimate for project work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending on the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric cost estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project in conjunction with other estimating methods. 7.2.2.4 BOTTOM-UP ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.5. Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating a component of work. The cost of individual work packages or activities is estimated to the greatest level of specified detail. The detailed cost is then summarized or “rolled up” to higher levels for subsequent reporting and tracking purposes. The cost and accuracy of bottom-up cost estimating are typically influenced by the size or other attributes of the individual activity or work package. 7.2.2.5 THREE-POINT ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.4. The accuracy of single-point cost estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk and using three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s cost: uu Most likely cM. The cost of the activity based on realistic effort assessment for the required work and any predicted expenses. uu Optimistic cO. The cost based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity. uu Pessimistic cP. The cost based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity.

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245 Depending on the assumed distribution of values within the range of the three estimates the expected cost cE can be calculated using a formula. Two commonly used formulas are triangular and beta distributions. The formulas are: uu Triangular distribution. cE cO + cM + cP / 3 uu Beta distribution. cE cO + 4cM + cP / 6 Cost estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected cost and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected cost. 7.2.2.6 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used in the Estimate Costs process include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis is a technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project. An example would be evaluating the cost schedule resource and quality impacts of buying versus making a deliverable. uu Reserve analysis. Cost estimates may include contingency reserves sometimes called contingency allowances to account for cost uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the budget within the cost baseline that is allocated for identified risks. Contingency reserves are often viewed as the part of the budget intended to address the known- unknowns that can affect a project. For example rework for some project deliverables could be anticipated while the amount of this rework is unknown. Contingency reserves may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. Contingency reserves can be provided at any level from the specific activity to the entire project. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated cost a fixed number or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods. As more precise information about the project becomes available the contingency reserve may be used reduced or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in cost documentation. Contingency reserves are part of the cost baseline and the overall funding requirements for the project. uu Cost of quality. Assumptions about costs of quality Section 8.1.2.3 may be used to prepare the estimates. This includes evaluating the cost impact of additional investment in conformance versus the cost of nonconformance. It can also include looking at short-term cost reductions versus the implication of more frequent problems later on in the product life cycle.

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246 Part 1 - Guide 7.2.2.7 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. The project management information system can include spreadsheets simulation software and statistical analysis tools to assist with cost estimating. Such tools simplify the use of some cost-estimating techniques and thereby facilitate rapid consideration of cost estimate alternatives. 7.2.2.8 DECISION MAKING The decision-making techniques that can be used in the Estimate Costs process include but are not limited to voting. Described in Section 5.2.2.4 voting is an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques are useful for engaging team members to improve estimate accuracy and commitment to the emerging estimates. 7.2.3 ESTIMATE COSTS: OUTPUTS 7.2.3.1 COST ESTIMATES Cost estimates include quantitative assessments of the probable costs required to complete project work as well as contingency amounts to account for identified risks and management reserve to cover unplanned work. Cost estimates can be presented in summary form or in detail. Costs are estimated for all resources that are applied to the cost estimate. This includes but is not limited to direct labor materials equipment services facilities information technology and special categories such as cost of financing including interest charges an inflation allowance exchange rates or a cost contingency reserve. Indirect costs if they are included in the project estimate can be included at the activity level or at higher levels.

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247 7.2.3.2 BASIS OF ESTIMATES The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived. Supporting detail for cost estimates may include: uu Documentation of the basis of the estimate i.e. how it was developed uu Documentation of all assumptions made uu Documentation of any known constraints uu Documentation of identified risks included when estimating costs uu Indication of the range of possible estimates e.g. US10000 ±10 to indicate that the item is expected to cost between a range of values and uu Indication of the confidence level of the final estimate. 7.2.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. During the Cost Estimates process new assumptions may be made new constraints may be identified and existing assumptions or constraints may be revisited and changed. The assumption log should be updated with this new information. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were efficient and effective in developing cost estimates. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register may be updated when appropriate risk responses are chosen and agreed upon during the Estimate Cost process.

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248 Part 1 - Guide 7.3 DETERMINE BUDGET Determine Budget is the process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline. The key benefit of this process is that it determines the cost baseline against which project performance can be monitored and controlled. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 7-6. Figure 7-7 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. A project budget includes all the funds authorized to execute the project. The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget that includes contingency reserves but excludes management reserves. Figure 7-6. Determine Budget: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Determine Budget .1 Expert judgment .2 Cost aggregation .3 Data analysis • Reserve analysis .4 Historical information review .5 Funding limit reconciliation .6 Financing .1 Project management plan • Cost management plan • Resource management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Basis of estimates • Cost estimates • Project schedule • Risk register .3 Business documents • Business case • Benefits management plan .4 Agreements .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .1 Cost baseline .2 Project funding requirements .3 Project documents updates • Cost estimates • Project schedule • Risk register

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249 Figure 7-7. Determine Budget: Data Flow Diagram • Project charter 12.2 Conduct Procurements • Agreements Project management plan • Cost management plan • Resource management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Basis of estimates • Cost estimates • Project schedule • Risk register • Business case • Benefits management plan Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents Business Documents 7.4 Control Costs 7.3 Determine Budget Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Cost baseline • Project funding requirements Project documents updates • Cost estimates • Project schedule • Risk register Project Management Plan

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250 Part 1 - Guide 7.3.1 DETERMINE BUDGET: INPUTS 7.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. The cost management plan describes how the project costs will be structured into the project budget. uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan provides information on rates personnel and other resources estimation of travel costs and other foreseen costs that are necessary to estimate the overall project budget. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline includes the project scope statement WBS and WBS dictionary details for cost estimation and management. 7.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Examples of project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Basis of estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.2. Supporting detail for cost estimates contained in the basis for estimates should specify any basic assumptions dealing with the inclusion or exclusion of indirect or other costs in the project budget. uu Cost estimates. Described in Section 7.2.3.1. Cost estimates for each activity within a work package are aggregated to obtain a cost estimate for each work package. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule includes planned start and finish dates for the project’s activities milestones work packages and control accounts. This information can be used to aggregate costs to the calendar periods in which the costs are planned to be incurred. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register should be reviewed to consider how to aggregate the risk response costs. Updates to the risk register are included with project documents updates described in Section 11.5.3.3.

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251 7.3.1.3 BUSINESS DOCUMENTS Described in Section 1.2.6. The business documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Business case. The business case identifies the critical success factors for the project including financial success factors. uu Benefits management plan. The benefits management plan includes the target benefits such as net present value calculations timeframe for realizing benefits and the metrics associated with the benefits. 7.3.1.4 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. Applicable agreement information and costs relating to products services or results that have been or will be purchased are included when determining the budget. 7.3.1.5 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Estimate Costs process include but are not limited to exchange rates. For large-scale projects that extend multiple years with multiple currencies the fluctuations of currencies need to be understood and built into the Determine Budget process. 7.3.1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Determine Budget process include but are not limited to: uu Existing formal and informal cost budgeting-related policies procedures and guidelines uu Historical information and lessons learned repository. uu Cost budgeting tools and uu Reporting methods.

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252 Part 1 - Guide 7.3.2 DETERMINE BUDGET: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 7.3.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Previous similar projects uu Information in the industry discipline and application area uu Financial principles and uu Funding requirement and sources. 7.3.2.2 COST AGGREGATION Cost estimates are aggregated by work packages in accordance with the WBS. The work package cost estimates are then aggregated for the higher component levels of the WBS such as control accounts and ultimately for the entire project. 7.3.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS A data analysis technique that can be used in the Determine Budget process includes but is not limited to reserve analysis which can establish the management reserves for the project. Management reserves are an amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the unknown unknowns that can affect a project. The management reserve is not included in the cost baseline but is part of the overall project budget and funding requirements. When an amount of management reserves is used to fund unforeseen work the amount of management reserve used is added to the cost baseline thus requiring an approved change to the cost baseline.

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253 7.3.2.4 HISTORICAL INFORMATION REVIEW Reviewing historical information can assist in developing parametric estimates or analogous estimates. Historical information may include project characteristics parameters to develop mathematical models to predict total project costs. Such models may be simple e.g. residential home construction is based on a certain cost per square foot of space or complex e.g. one model of software development costing uses multiple separate adjustment factors each of which has numerous points within it. Both the cost and accuracy of analogous and parametric models can vary widely. They are most likely to be reliable when: uu Historical information used to develop the model is accurate uu Parameters used in the model are readily quantifiable and uu Models are scalable such that they work for large projects small projects and phases of a project. 7.3.2.5 FUNDING LIMIT RECONCILIATION The expenditure of funds should be reconciled with any funding limits on the commitment of funds for the project. A variance between the funding limits and the planned expenditures will sometimes necessitate the rescheduling of work to level out the rate of expenditures. This is accomplished by placing imposed date constraints for work into the project schedule. 7.3.2.6 FINANCING Financing entails acquiring funding for projects. It is common for long-term infrastructure industrial and public services projects to seek external sources of funds. If a project is funded externally the funding entity may have certain requirements that are required to be met.

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254 Part 1 - Guide 7.3.3 DETERMINE BUDGET: OUTPUTS 7.3.3.1 COST BASELINE The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget excluding any management reserves which can only be changed through formal change control procedures. It is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. The cost baseline is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities. Figure 7-8 illustrates the various components of the project budget and cost baseline. Cost estimates for the various project activities along with any contingency reserves see Section 7.2.2.6 for these activities are aggregated into their associated work package costs. The work package cost estimates along with any contingency reserves estimated for the work packages are aggregated into control accounts. The summation of the control accounts make up the cost baseline. Since the cost estimates that make up the cost baseline are directly tied to the schedule activities this enables a time-phased view of the cost baseline which is typically displayed in the form of an S-curve as is illustrated in Figure 7-9. For projects that use earned value management the cost baseline is referred to as the performance measurement baseline. Management reserves Section 7.2.2.3 are added to the cost baseline to produce the project budget. As changes warranting the use of management reserves arise the change control process is used to obtain approval to move the applicable management reserve funds into the cost baseline.

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255 Figure 7-8. Project Budget Components Figure 7-9. Cost Baseline Expenditures and Funding Requirements Activity Cost Estimates Activity Contingency Reserve Work Package Cost Estimates Contingency Reserve Cost Baseline Control Accounts Management Reserve Project Budget Project Budget Component Total Amount BAC Project Budget Management Reserve Funding Requirements Cost Baseline Expenditures Time Cumulative Values

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256 Part 1 - Guide 7.3.3.2 PROJECT FUNDING REQUIREMENTS Total funding requirements and periodic funding requirements e.g. quarterly annually are derived from the cost baseline. The cost baseline will include projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities. Funding often occurs in incremental amounts and may not be evenly distributed which appear as steps in Figure 7-9. The total funds required are those included in the cost baseline plus management reserves if any. Funding requirements may include the sources of the funding. 7.3.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Cost estimates. Described in Section 7.2.3.1. Cost estimates are updated to record any additional information. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. Estimated costs for each activity may be recorded as part of the project schedule. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks identified during this process are recorded in the risk register and managed using the risk management processes.

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257 7.4 CONTROL COSTS Control Costs is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline. The key benefit of this process is that the cost baseline is maintained throughout the project. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 7-10. Figure 7-11 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 7-10. Control Costs: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Control Costs .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Earned value analysis • Variance analysis • Trend analysis • Reserve analysis .3 To-complete performance index .4 Project management information system .1 Project management plan • Cost management plan • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register .3 Project funding requirements .4 Work performance data .5 Organizational process assets .1 Work performance information .2 Cost forecasts .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates • Cost management plan • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline .5 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost estimates • Lessons learned register • Risk register

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258 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work 7.3 Determine Budget • Work performance data Project management plan • Cost management plan • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline • Lessons learned register • Project funding requirements Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 7.4 Control Costs Enterprise/ Organization • Organizational process assets • Change requests • Cost forecasts • Work performance information Project management plan updates • Cost management plan • Cost baseline • Performance measurement baseline Project documents updates • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost estimates • Lessons learned register • Risk register Project Management Plan Figure 7-11. Control Costs: Data Flow Diagram

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259 Updating the budget requires knowledge of the actual costs spent to date. Any increase to the authorized budget can only be approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Monitoring the expenditure of funds without regard to the value of work being accomplished for such expenditures has little value to the project other than to track the outflow of funds. Much of the effort of cost control involves analyzing the relationship between the consumption of project funds and the work being accomplished for such expenditures. The key to effective cost control is the management of the approved cost baseline. Project cost control includes: uu Influencing the factors that create changes to the authorized cost baseline uu Ensuring that all change requests are acted on in a timely manner uu Managing the actual changes when and as they occur uu Ensuring that cost expenditures do not exceed the authorized funding by period by WBS component by activity and in total for the project uu Monitoring cost performance to isolate and understand variances from the approved cost baseline uu Monitoring work performance against funds expended uu Preventing unapproved changes from being included in the reported cost or resource usage uu Informing appropriate stakeholders of all approved changes and associated cost and uu Bringing expected cost overruns within acceptable limits. 7.4.1 CONTROL COSTS: INPUTS 7.4.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. The cost management plan describes how the project costs will be managed and controlled. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline is compared with actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary. uu Performance measurement baseline. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. When using earned value analysis the performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary.

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260 Part 1 - Guide 7.4.1.2. PROJECT DOCUMENTS Examples of project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to the lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve cost control. 7.4.1.3 PROJECT FUNDING REQUIREMENTS Described in Section 7.3.3.2. The project funding requirements include projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities. 7.4.1.4 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data contains data on project status such as which costs have been authorized incurred invoiced and paid. 7.4.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Control Costs process include but are not limited to: uu Existing formal and informal cost control-related policies procedures and guidelines uu Cost control tools and uu Monitoring and reporting methods to be used. 7.4.2 CONTROL COSTS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 7.4.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Examples of expert judgment during the Control Costs process include but are not limited to: uu Variance analysis uu Earned value analysis uu Forecasting and uu Financial analysis.

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261 7.4.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used to control costs include but are not limited to: uu Earned value analysis EVA. Earned value analysis compares the performance measurement baseline to the actual schedule and cost performance. EVM integrates the scope baseline with the cost baseline and schedule baseline to form the performance measurement baseline. EVM develops and monitors three key dimensions for each work package and control account: u n Planned value. Planned value PV is the authorized budget assigned to scheduled work. It is the authorized budget planned for the work to be accomplished for an activity or work breakdown structure WBS component not including management reserve. This budget is allocated by phase over the life of the project but at a given point in time planned value defines the physical work that should have been accomplished. The total of the PV is sometimes referred to as the performance measurement baseline PMB. The total planned value for the project is also known as budget at completion BAC. u n Earned value. Earned value EV is a measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work. It is the budget associated with the authorized work that has been completed. The EV being measured needs to be related to the PMB and the EV measured cannot be greater than the authorized PV budget for a component. The EV is often used to calculate the percent complete of a project. Progress measurement criteria should be established for each WBS component to measure work in progress. Project managers monitor EV both incrementally to determine current status and cumulatively to determine the long- term performance trends. u n Actual cost. Actual cost AC is the realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period. It is the total cost incurred in accomplishing the work that the EV measured. The AC needs to correspond in definition to what was budgeted in the PV and measured in the EV e.g. direct hours only direct costs only or all costs including indirect costs. The AC will have no upper limit whatever is spent to achieve the EV will be measured.

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262 Part 1 - Guide uu Variance analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Variance analysis as used in EVM is the explanation cause impact and corrective actions for cost CV EV – AC schedule SV EV – PV and variance at completion VAC BAC – EAC variances. Cost and schedule variances are the most frequently analyzed measurements. For projects not using formal earned value analysis similar variance analyses can be performed by comparing planned cost against actual cost to identify variances between the cost baseline and actual project performance. Further analysis can be performed to determine the cause and degree of variance relative to the schedule baseline and any corrective or preventive actions needed. Cost performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original cost baseline. An important aspect of project cost control includes determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the cost baseline see Section 7.3.3.1 and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. The percentage range of acceptable variances will tend to decrease as more work is accomplished. Examples of variance analysis include but are not limited to: u n Schedule variance. Schedule variance SV is a measure of schedule performance expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value. It is the amount by which the project is ahead or behind the planned delivery date at a given point in time. It is a measure of schedule performance on a project. It is equal to the earned value EV minus the planned value PV. The EVA schedule variance is a useful metric in that it can indicate when a project is falling behind or is ahead of its baseline schedule. The EVA schedule variance will ultimately equal zero when the project is completed because all of the planned values will have been earned. Schedule variance is best used in conjunction with critical path method CPM scheduling and risk management. Equation: SV EV – PV. u n Cost variance. Cost variance CV is the amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time expressed as the difference between earned value and the actual cost. It is a measure of cost performance on a project. It is equal to the earned value EV minus the actual cost AC. The cost variance at the end of the project will be the difference between the budget at completion BAC and the actual amount spent. The CV is particularly critical because it indicates the relationship of physical performance to the costs spent. Negative CV is often difficult for the project to recover. Equation: CV EV – AC.

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263 u n Schedule performance index. The schedule performance index SPI is a measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value. It measures how efficiently the project team is accomplishing the work. It is sometimes used in conjunction with the cost performance index CPI to forecast the final project completion estimates. An SPI value less than 1.0 indicates less work was completed than was planned. An SPI greater than 1.0 indicates that more work was completed than was planned. Since the SPI measures all project work the performance on the critical path also needs to be analyzed to determine whether the project will finish ahead of or behind its planned finish date. The SPI is equal to the ratio of the EV to the PV. Equation: SPI EV/PV. u n Cost performance index. The cost performance index CPI is a measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as a ratio of earned value to actual cost. It is considered the most critical EVA metric and measures the cost efficiency for the work completed. A CPI value of less than 1.0 indicates a cost overrun for work completed. A CPI value greater than 1.0 indicates a cost underrun of performance to date. The CPI is equal to the ratio of the EV to the AC. Equation: CPI EV/AC. uu Trend analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. Trend analysis examines project performance over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating. Graphical analysis techniques are valuable for understanding performance to date and for comparison to future performance goals in the form of BAC versus estimate at completion EAC and completion dates. Examples of the trend analysis techniques include but are not limited to: u n Charts. In earned value analysis three parameters of planned value earned value and actual cost can be monitored and reported on both a period-by-period basis typically weekly or monthly and on a cumulative basis. Figure 7-12 uses S-curves to display EV data for a project that is performing over budget and behind the schedule.

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264 Part 1 - Guide Figure 7-12. Earned Value Planned Value and Actual Costs u n Forecasting. As the project progresses the project team may develop a forecast for the estimate at completion EAC that may differ from the budget at completion BAC based on the project performance. If it becomes obvious that the BAC is no longer viable the project manager should consider the forecasted EAC. Forecasting the EAC involves making projections of conditions and events in the project’s future based on current performance information and other knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are generated updated and reissued based on work performance data Section 4.3.3.2 that is provided as the project is executed. The work performance information covers the project’s past performance and any information that could impact the project in the future. EACs are typically based on the actual costs incurred for work completed plus an estimate to complete ETC the remaining work. It is incumbent on the project team to predict what it may encounter to perform the ETC based on its experience to date. Earned value analysis works well in conjunction with manual forecasts of the required EAC costs. The most common EAC forecasting approach is a manual bottom-up summation by the project manager and project team. The project manager’s bottom-up EAC method builds upon the actual costs and experience incurred for the work completed and requires a new estimate to complete the remaining project work. Equation: EAC AC + Bottom-up ETC. BAC ETC Project Budget Management Reserve Planned Value PV Earned Value EV Actual Cost AC EAC Time Cumulative Cost Data Date

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265 The project manager’s manual EAC is quickly compared with a range of calculated EACs representing various risk scenarios. When calculating EAC values the cumulative CPI and SPI values are typically used. While EVM data quickly provide many statistical EACs only three of the more common methods are described as follows: u m EAC forecast for ETC work performed at the budgeted rate. This EAC method accepts the actual project performance to date whether favorable or unfavorable as represented by the actual costs and predicts that all future ETC work will be accomplished at the budgeted rate. When actual performance is unfavorable the assumption that future performance will improve should be accepted only when supported by project risk analysis. Equation: EAC AC + BAC – EV. u m EAC forecast for ETC work performed at the present CPI. This method assumes that what the project has experienced to date can be expected to continue in the future. The ETC work is assumed to be performed at the same cumulative cost performance index CPI as that incurred by the project to date. Equation: EAC BAC / CPI. u m EAC forecast for ETC work considering both SPI and CPI factors. In this forecast the ETC work will be performed at an efficiency rate that considers both the cost and schedule performance indices. This method is most useful when the project schedule is a factor impacting the ETC effort. Variations of this method weight the CPI and SPI at different values e.g. 80/20 50/50 or some other ratio according to the project manager’s judgment. Equation: EAC AC + BAC – EV / CPI × SPI. uu Reserve analysis. Described in Section 7.2.2.6. During cost control reserve analysis is used to monitor the status of contingency and management reserves for the project to determine if these reserves are still needed or if additional reserves need to be requested. As work on the project progresses these reserves may be used as planned to cover the cost of risk responses or other contingencies. Conversely when opportunities are captured and resulting in cost savings funds may be added to the contingency amount or taken from the project as margin/profit. If the identified risks do not occur the unused contingency reserves may be removed from the project budget to free up resources for other projects or operations. Additional risk analysis during the project may reveal a need to request that additional reserves be added to the project budget.

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266 Part 1 - Guide 7.4.2.3 TO-COMPLETE PERFORMANCE INDEX The to-complete performance index TCPI is a measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget. TCPI is the calculated cost performance index that is achieved on the remaining work to meet a specified management goal such as the BAC or the EAC. If it becomes obvious that the BAC is no longer viable the project manager should consider the forecasted EAC. Once approved the EAC may replace the BAC in the TCPI calculation. The equation for the TCPI based on the BAC: BAC – EV / BAC – AC. The TCPI is conceptually displayed in Figure 7-13. The equation for the TCPI is shown in the lower left as the work remaining defined as the BAC minus the EV divided by the funds remaining which can be either the BAC minus the AC or the EAC minus the AC. If the cumulative CPI falls below the baseline as shown in Figure 7-13 all future work of the project will need to be performed immediately in the range of the TCPI BAC as reflected in the top line of Figure 7-13 to stay within the authorized BAC. Whether this level of performance is achievable is a judgment call based on a number of considerations including risk time remaining in the project and technical performance. This level of performance is displayed as the TCPI EAC line. The equation for the TCPI is based on the EAC: BAC – EV / EAC – AC. The EVM formulas are provided in Table 7-1.

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267 Earned Value Analysis Lexicon Definition How Used Equation Abbreviation Name Interpretation of Result The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work. The measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work. The realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period. The sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed. The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost. The amount by which the project is ahead or behind the planned delivery date at a given point in time expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value. A projection of the amount of budget deficit or surplus expressed as the difference between the budget at completion and the estimate at completion. A measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost. A measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value. The expected total cost of com- pleting all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete. The expected cost to finish all the remaining project work. A measure of the cost performance that must be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the budget available. Planned Value Earned Value Actual Cost Budget at Completion Cost Variance Schedule Variance Variance at Completion Cost Performance Index Schedule Performance Index Estimate At Completion Estimate to Complete To Complete Performance Index PV EV AC BAC CV SV VAC CPI SPI EAC ETC TCPI The value of the work planned to be completed to a point in time usually the data date or project completion. The planned value of all the work completed earned to a point in time usually the data date without reference to actual costs. The actual cost of all the work completed to a point in time usually the data date. The value of total planned work the project cost baseline. The difference between the value of work completed to a point in time usually the data date and the actual costs to the same point in time. The difference between the work completed to a point in time usually the data date and the work planned to be completed to the same point in time. The estimated difference in cost at the completion of the project. A CPI of 1.0 means the project is exactly on budget that the work actually done so far is exactly the same as the cost so far. Other values show the percentage of how much costs are over or under the budgeted amount for work accomplished. An SPI of 1.0 means that the project is exactly on schedule that the work actually done so far is exactly the same as the work planned to be done so far. Other values show the percentage of how much costs are over or under the budgeted amount for work planned. If the CPI is expected to be the same for the remainder of the project EAC can be calculated using: If future work will be accomplished at the planned rate use: If the initial plan is no longer valid use: If both the CPI and SPI influence the remaining work use: Assuming work is proceeding on plan the cost of completing the remaining authorized work can be calculated using: Reestimate the remaining work from the bottom up. The efficiency that must be maintained in order to complete on plan. The efficiency that must be maintained in order to complete the current EAC. EV sum of the planned value of completed work CV EV – AC SV EV – PV VAC BAC – EAC CPI EV/AC SPI EV/PV EAC BAC/CPI EAC AC + BAC – EV EAC AC + Bottom-up ETC EAC AC + BAC – EV/ CPI x SPI ETC EAC – AC ETC Reestimate TCPI BAC – EV /BAC – AC TCPI BAC – EV/EAC – AC Positive Under planned cost Neutral On planned cost Negative Over planned cost Positive Ahead of Schedule Neutral On schedule Negative Behind Schedule Positive Under planned cost Neutral On planned cost Negative Over planned cost Greater than 1.0 Under planned cost Exactly 1.0 On planned cost Less than 1.0 Over planned cost Greater than 1.0 Ahead of schedule Exactly 1.0 On schedule Less than 1.0 Behind schedule Greater than 1.0 Harder to complete Exactly 1.0 Same to complete Less than 1.0 Easier to complete Greater than 1.0 Harder to complete Exactly 1.0 Same to complete Less than 1.0 Easier to complete Table 7-1. Earned Value Calculations Summary Table

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268 Part 1 - Guide Status Date 1.00 1 1 TCPI BAC TCPI EAC Baseline Plan Cumulative CPI Formula: TCPI Work Remaining BAC-EV Funds Remaining BAC-AC or EAC-AC Figure 7-13. To-Complete Performance Index TCPI 7.4.2.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems are often used to monitor the three EVM dimensions PV EV and AC to display graphical trends and to forecast a range of possible final project results. 7.4.3 CONTROL COSTS: OUTPUTS 7.4.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Described in Section 4.5.1.3. Work performance information includes information on how the project work is performing compared to the cost baseline. Variances in the work performed and the cost of the work are evaluated at the work package level and control account level. For projects using earned value analysis CV CPI EAC VAC and TCPI are documented for inclusion in work performance reports Section 4.5.3.1.

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269 7.4.3.2 COST FORECASTS Either a calculated EAC value or a bottom-up EAC value is documented and communicated to stakeholders. 7.4.3.3 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Analysis of project performance may result in a change request to the cost and schedule baselines or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. 7.4.3.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. Changes to the cost management plan such as changes to control thresholds or specified levels of accuracy required in managing the project’s cost are incorporated in response to feedback from relevant stakeholders. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope resources or cost estimates. In some cases cost variances can be so severe that a revised cost baseline is needed to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement. uu Performance measurement baseline. Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Changes to the performance measurement baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope schedule performance or cost estimates. In some cases the performance variances can be so severe that a change request is put forth to revise the performance measurement baseline to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement.

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270 Part 1 - Guide 7.4.3.5 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Cost performance may indicate the need to revise assumptions on resource productivity and other factors influencing cost performance. uu Basis of estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.2. Cost performance may indicate the need to revisit the original basis of estimates. uu Cost estimates. Described in Section 7.2.3.1. Cost estimates may need to be updated to reflect the actual cost efficiency for the project. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were effective in maintaining the budget variance analysis earned value analysis forecasting and corrective actions that were used to respond to cost variances. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register may be updated if the cost variances have crossed or are likely to cross the cost threshold.

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271 8 PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Project Quality Management includes the processes for incorporating the organization’s quality policy regarding planning managing and controlling project and product quality requirements in order to meet stakeholders’ objectives. Project Quality Management also supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization. The Project Quality Management processes are: 8.1 Plan Quality Management—The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/ or standards. 8.2 Manage Quality—The process of translating the quality management plan into executable quality activities that incorporate the organization’s quality policies into the project. 8.3 Control Quality—The process of monitoring and recording the results of executing the quality management activities to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete correct and meet customer expectations. Figure 8-1 provides an overview of the Project Quality Management processes. The Project Quality Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide. In addition these quality processes may differ within industries and companies.

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272 Part 1 - Guide .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Data gathering .2 Data analysis .3 Decision making .4 Data representation .5 Audits .6 Design for X .7 Problem solving .8 Quality improvement methods .3 Outputs .1 Quality reports .2 Test and evaluation documents .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates .5 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgement .2 Data gathering .3 Data analysis .4 Decision making .5 Data representation .6 Test and inspection planning .7 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Quality management plan .2 Quality metrics .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Approved change requests .4 Deliverables .5 Work performance data .6 Enterprise environmental factors .7 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Data gathering .2 Data analysis .3 Inspection .4 Testing/product evaluations .5 Data representation .6 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Quality control measurements .2 Verified deliverables .3 Work performance information .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates .6 Project documents updates Project Quality Management Overview 8.2 Manage Quality 8.1 Plan Quality Management 8.3 Control Quality Figure 8-1. Project Quality Management Overview Figure 8-2 provides an overview of the major inputs and outputs of the Project Quality Management processes and the interrelations of these processes in the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area. The Plan Quality Management process is concerned with the quality that the work needs to have. Manage Quality is concerned with managing the quality processes throughout the project. During the Manage Quality process quality requirements identified during the Plan Quality Management process are turned into test and evaluation instruments which are then applied during the Control Quality process to verify these quality requirements are met by the project. Control Quality is concerned with comparing the work results with the quality requirements to ensure the result is acceptable. There are two outputs specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area that are used by other Knowledge Areas: verified deliverables and quality reports.

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273 Figure 8-2. Major Project Quality Management Process Interrelations KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Project Quality Management addresses the management of the project and the deliverables of the project. It applies to all projects regardless of the nature of their deliverables. Quality measures and techniques are specific to the type of deliverables being produced by the project. For example the project quality management of software deliverables may use different approaches and measures from those used when building a nuclear power plant. In either case failure to meet the quality requirements can have serious negative consequences for any or all of the project’s stakeholders. For example: uu Meeting customer requirements by overworking the project team may result in decreased profits and increased levels of overall project risks employee attrition errors or rework. uu Meeting project schedule objectives by rushing planned quality inspections may result in undetected errors decreased profits and increased post-implementation risks. To Other Project Processes Validate Scope Manage Quality Control Quality Project Integration Management Plan Quality Management Quality templates from organizational process assets Quality management plan Quality metrics Test and evaluate documents Quality reports Quality control measurements Work performance information Quality reports Verified deliverables Deliverables Work performance data

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274 Part 1 - Guide Quality and grade are not the same concepts. Quality as a delivered performance or result is “the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements” ISO 9000 18.. Grade as a design intent is a category assigned to deliverables having the same functional use but different technical characteristics. The project manager and the project management team are responsible for managing the trade-offs associated with delivering the required levels of both quality and grade. While a quality level that fails to meet quality requirements is always a problem a low-grade product may not be a problem. For example: uu It may not be a problem if a suitable low-grade product one with a limited number of features is of high quality no obvious defects. In this example the product would be appropriate for its general purpose of use. uu It may be a problem if a high-grade product one with numerous features is of low quality many defects. In essence a high-grade feature set would prove ineffective and/or inefficient due to low quality. Prevention is preferred over inspection. It is better to design quality into deliverables rather than to find quality issues during inspection. The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting mistakes when they are found by inspection or during usage. Depending on the project and the industry area the project team may need a working knowledge of statistical control processes to evaluate data contained in the Control Quality outputs. The team should know the differences between the following pairs of terms: uu Prevention keeping errors out of the process and inspection keeping errors out of the hands of the customer uu Attribute sampling the result either conforms or does not conform and variable sampling the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity and uu Tolerances specified range of acceptable results and control limits that identify the boundaries of common variation in a statistically stable process or process performance. The cost of quality COQ includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements and failing to meet requirements rework. Failure costs are often categorized into internal found by the project team and external found by the customer. Failure costs are also called the cost of poor quality. Section 8.1.2.3 provides some examples to consider in each area. Organizations choose to invest in defect prevention because of the benefits over the life of the product. Because projects are temporary decisions about the COQ over a product’s life cycle are often the concern of program management portfolio management the PMO or operations.

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275 There are five levels of increasingly effective quality management as follows: uu Usually the most expensive approach is to let the customer find the defects. This approach can lead to warranty issues recalls loss of reputation and rework costs. uu Detect and correct the defects before the deliverables are sent to the customer as part of the quality control process. The control quality process has related costs which are mainly the appraisal costs and internal failure costs. uu Use quality assurance to examine and correct the process itself and not just special defects. uu Incorporate quality into the planning and designing of the project and product. uu Create a culture throughout the organization that is aware and committed to quality in processes and products. TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Modern quality management approaches seek to minimize variation and to deliver results that meet defined stakeholder requirements. Trends in Project Quality Management include but are not limited to: uu Customer satisfaction. Understand evaluate define and manage requirements so that customer expectations are met. This requires a combination of conformance to requirements to ensure the project produces what it was created to produce and fitness for use the product or service needs to satisfy the real needs. In agile environments stakeholder engagement with the team ensures customer satisfaction is maintained throughout the project. uu Continual improvement. The plan-do-check-act PDCA cycle is the basis for quality improvement as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming. In addition quality improvement initiatives such as total quality management TQM Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma may improve both the quality of project management as well as the quality of the end product service or result. uu Management responsibility. Success requires the participation of all members of the project team. Management retains within its responsibility for quality a related responsibility to provide suitable resources at adequate capacities. uu Mutually beneficial partnership with suppliers. An organization and its suppliers are interdependent. Relationships based on partnership and cooperation with the supplier are more beneficial to the organization and to the suppliers than traditional supplier management. The organization should prefer long-term relationships over short-term gains. A mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability for both the organization and the suppliers to create value for each other enhances the joint responses to customer needs and expectations and optimizes costs and resources.

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276 Part 1 - Guide TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Each project is unique therefore the project manager will need to tailor the way Project Quality Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Policy compliance and auditing. What quality policies and procedures exist in the organization What quality tools techniques and templates are used in the organization uu Standards and regulatory compliance. Are there any specific quality standards in the industry that need to be applied Are there any specific governmental legal or regulatory constraints that need to be taken into consideration uu Continuous improvement. How will quality improvement be managed in the project Is it managed at the organizational level or at the level of each project uu Stakeholder engagement. Is there a collaborative environment for stakeholders and suppliers CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS In order to navigate changes agile methods call for frequent quality and review steps built in throughout the project rather than toward the end of the project. Recurring retrospectives regularly check on the effectiveness of the quality processes. They look for the root cause of issues then suggest trials of new approaches to improve quality. Subsequent retrospectives evaluate any trial processes to determine if they are working and should be continued or new adjusting or should be dropped from use. In order to facilitate frequent incremental delivery agile methods focus on small batches of work incorporating as many elements of project deliverables as possible. Small batch systems aim to uncover inconsistencies and quality issues earlier in the project life cycle when the overall costs of change are lower.

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277 8.1 PLAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT Plan Quality Management is the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards. The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how quality will be managed and verified throughout the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 8.3. Figure 8.4 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 8-3. Plan Quality Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Quality Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Benchmarking • Brainstorming • Interviews .3 Data analysis • Cost-benefit analysis • Cost of quality .4 Decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .5 Data representation • Flowcharts • Logical data model • Matrix diagrams • Mind mapping .6 Test and inspection planning .7 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Requirements management plan • Risk management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan • Scope baseline .3 Project documents • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Stakeholder register .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Quality management plan .2 Quality metrics .3 Project management plan updates • Risk management plan • Scope baseline .4 Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Stakeholder register

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278 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 4.1 Develop Project Charter Project management plan • Requirements management plan • Risk management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Stakeholder register • Project charter Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 8.1 Plan Quality Management Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Quality metrics • Quality management plan Project management plan updates • Risk management plan • Scope baseline Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Stakeholder register Project Management Plan Figure 8-4. Plan Quality Management: Data Flow Diagram Quality planning should be performed in parallel with the other planning processes. For example changes proposed in the deliverables in order to meet identified quality standards may require cost or schedule adjustments and a detailed risk analysis of the impact to plans. The quality planning techniques discussed here are those used most frequently on projects. There are many others that may be useful on certain projects or in specific application areas.

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279 8.1.1 PLAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 8.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter provides the high-level project description and product characteristics. It also contains the project approval requirements measurable project objectives and related success criteria that will influence the quality management of the project. 8.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Requirements management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.2. The requirements management plan provides the approach for identifying analyzing and managing the requirements that the quality management plan and quality metrics will reference. uu Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. The risk management plan provides the approach for identifying analyzing and monitoring risks. The information in the risk management plan and quality management plan work together to successfully deliver product and project success. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan provides the method for documenting the stakeholders’ needs and expectations that provide the foundation for quality management. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The WBS along with the deliverables documented in the project scope statement are considered while determining which quality standards and objectives are suitable for the project and which project deliverables and processes will be subjected to quality review. The scope statement includes the acceptance criteria for the deliverables. The definition of acceptance criteria may significantly increase or decrease quality costs and therefore project costs. Satisfying all acceptance criteria implies the needs of the stakeholders have been met.

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280 Part 1 - Guide 8.1.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log has all the assumptions and constraints regarding quality requirements and standard compliance. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation captures the requirements that the project and product should attain to meet stakeholder expectations. The components of the requirements documentation include but are not limited to project and product quality requirements. Requirements are used by the project team to help plan how quality control will be implemented on the project. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. The requirements traceability matrix links product requirements to deliverables and helps to ensure each requirement in the requirements documentation is tested. The matrix provides an overview of the tests required to verify the requirements. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains information on threats and opportunities that may impact quality requirements. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register helps to identify stakeholders who have a particular interest in or impact on quality with the emphasis on the customer and project sponsor needs and expectations. 8.1.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Quality Management process include but are not limited to: uu Governmental agency regulations uu Rules standards and guidelines specific to the application area uu Geographic distribution uu Organizational structure uu Marketplace conditions uu Working or operating conditions of the project or its deliverables and uu Cultural perceptions.

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281 8.1.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Quality Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational quality management system including policies procedures and guidelines uu Quality templates such as check sheets traceability matrix and others and uu Historical databases and lessons learned repository. 8.1.2 PLAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 8.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Quality assurance uu Quality control uu Quality measurements uu Quality improvements and uu Quality systems. 8.1.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Benchmarking. Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned project practices or the project’s quality standards to those of comparable projects to identify best practices generate ideas for improvement and provide a basis for measuring performance. Benchmarked projects may exist within the performing organization or outside of it or can be within the same application area or other application area. Benchmarking allows for analogies from projects in a different application area or different industries to be made. uu Brainstorming. Described in Section 4.1.2.2. Brainstorming can be used to gather data creatively from a group of team members or subject matter experts to develop the quality management plan that best fits the upcoming project.

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282 Part 1 - Guide uu Interviews. Described in Section 5.2.2.2. Project and product quality needs and expectations implicit and explicit formal and informal can be identified by interviewing experienced project participants stakeholders and subject matter experts. Interviews should be conducted in an environment of trust and confidentiality to encourage honest and unbiased contributions. 8.1.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Cost-benefit analysis. A cost-benefit analysis is a financial analysis tool used to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives in order to determine the best alternative in terms of benefits provided. A cost- benefit analysis will help the project manager determine if the planned quality activities are cost effective. The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework higher productivity lower costs increased stakeholder satisfaction and increased profitability. A cost-benefit analysis for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit. uu Cost of quality. The cost of quality COQ associated with a project consists of one or more of the following costs Figure 8-5 lists examples for each cost group: u n Prevention costs. Costs related to the prevention of poor quality in the products deliverables or services of the specific project. u n Appraisal costs. Costs related to evaluating measuring auditing and testing the products deliverables or services of the specific project. u n Failure costs internal/external. Costs related to nonconformance of the products deliverables or services to the needs or expectations of the stakeholders. The optimal COQ is one that reflects the appropriate balance for investing in the cost of prevention and appraisal to avoid failure costs. Models show that there is an optimal quality cost for projects where investing in additional prevention/appraisal costs is neither beneficial nor cost effective.

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283 Cost of Conformance Cost of Nonconformance Prevention Costs Build a quality product • Training • Document processes • Equipment • Time to do it right Appraisal Costs Assess the quality • Testing • Destructive testing loss • Inspections Money spent during the project to avoid failures Internal Failure Costs Failures found by the project • Rework • Scrap External Failure Costs Failures found by the customer • Liabilities • Warranty work • Lost business Money spent during and after the project because of failures Figure 8-5. Cost of Quality 8.1.2.4 DECISION MAKING A decision-making technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to multicriteria decision analysis. Multicriteria decision analysis tools e.g. prioritization matrix can be used to identify the key issues and suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation. Criteria are prioritized and weighted before being applied to all available alternatives to obtain a mathematical score for each alternative. The alternatives are then ranked by score. As used in this process it can help prioritize quality metrics.

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284 Part 1 - Guide 8.1.2.5 DATA REPRESENTATION Data representation techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Flowcharts. Flowcharts are also referred to as process maps because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs. Flowcharts show the activities decision points branching loops parallel paths and the overall order of processing by mapping the operational details of procedures that exist within a horizontal value chain. One version of a value chain known as a SIPOC suppliers inputs process outputs and customers model is shown in Figure 8-6. Flowcharts may prove useful in understanding and estimating the cost of quality for a process. Information is obtained by using the workflow branching logic and associated relative frequencies to estimate the expected monetary value for the conformance and nonconformance work required to deliver the expected conforming output. When flowcharts are used to represent the steps in a process they are sometimes called process flows or process flow diagrams and they can be used for process improvement as well as identifying where quality defects can occur or where to incorporate quality checks. uu Logical data model. Logical data models are a visual representation of an organization’s data described in business language and independent of any specific technology. The logical data model can be used to identify where data integrity or other quality issues can arise. uu Matrix diagrams. Matrix diagrams help find the strength of relationships among different factors causes and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix. Depending on how many factors may be compared the project manager can use different shapes of matrix diagrams for example L T Y X C and roof–shaped. In this process they facilitate identifying the key quality metrics that are important for the success of the project. uu Mind mapping. Described in Section 5.2.2.3. Mind mapping is a diagrammatic method used to visually organizing information. A mind map in quality is often created around a single quality concept drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page to which associated representations of ideas such as images words and parts of words are added. The mind-mapping technique may help in the rapid gathering of project quality requirements constraints dependencies and relationships.

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285 Requirements and Feedback Loop Requirements and Feedback Loop OUTPUT INPUT PROCESSCUSTOMER SUPPLIER Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Requirements List Measurements List Requirements List Measurements List • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • NOTE: The components of this diagram are flexible and can take any direction depending upon the circumstance. Figure 8-6. The SIPOC Model 8.1.2.6 TEST AND INSPECTION PLANNING During the planning phase the project manager and the project team determine how to test or inspect the product deliverable or service to meet the stakeholders’ needs and expectations as well as how to meet the goal for the product’s performance and reliability. The tests and inspections are industry dependent and can include for example alpha and beta tests in software projects strength tests in construction projects inspection in manufacturing and field tests and nondestructive tests in engineering.

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286 Part 1 - Guide 8.1.2.7 MEETINGS Project teams may hold planning meetings to develop the quality management plan. Attendees can include the project manager the project sponsor selected project team members selected stakeholders anyone with responsibility for project quality management activities and others as needed. 8.1.3 PLAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 8.1.3.1 QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how applicable policies procedures and guidelines will be implemented to achieve the quality objectives. It describes the activities and resources necessary for the project management team to achieve the quality objectives set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal detailed or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition reductions in costs and less frequent schedule overruns that are caused by rework. The quality management plan may include but is not limited to the following components: uu Quality standards that will be used by the project uu Quality objectives of the project uu Quality roles and responsibilities uu Project deliverables and processes subject to quality review uu Quality control and quality management activities planned for the project uu Quality tools that will be used for the project and uu Major procedures relevant for the project such as dealing with nonconformance corrective actions procedures and continuous improvement procedures.

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287 8.1.3.2 QUALITY METRICS A quality metric specifically describes a project or product attribute and how the Control Quality process will verify compliance to it. Some examples of quality metrics include percentage of tasks completed on time cost performance measured by CPI failure rate number of defects identified per day total downtime per month errors found per line of code customer satisfaction scores and percentage of requirements covered by the test plan as a measure of test coverage. 8.1.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. Decisions on the quality management approach may require changes to the agreed-upon approach to managing risk on the project and these will be recorded in the risk management plan. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline may change as a result of this process if specific quality management activities need to be added. The WBS dictionary also records quality requirements which may need updating. 8.1.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered in the quality planning process. uu Requirements traceability matrix. Described in Section 5.2.3.2. Where quality requirements are specified by this process they are recorded in the requirements traceability matrix. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks identified during this process are recorded in the risk register and managed using the risk management processes. uu Stakeholder register . Described in Section 13.1.3.1. Where additional information on existing or new stakeholders is gathered as a result of this process it is recorded in the stakeholder register.

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288 Part 1 - Guide 8.2 MANAGE QUALITY Manage Quality is the process of translating the quality management plan into executable quality activities that incorporate the organization’s quality policies into the project. The key benefits of this process are that it increases the probability of meeting the quality objectives as well as identifying ineffective processes and causes of poor quality. Manage Quality uses the data and results from the control quality process to reflect the overall quality status of the project to the stakeholders. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 8-7. Figure 8-8 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 8-7. Manage Quality: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Manage Quality .1 Data gathering • Checklists .2 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Document analysis • Process analysis • Root cause analysis .3 Decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .4 Data representation • Affinity diagrams • Cause-and-effect diagrams • Flowcharts • Histograms • Matrix diagrams • Scatter diagrams .5 Audits .6 Design for X .7 Problem solving .8 Quality improvement methods .1 Project management plan • Quality management plan .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Quality control measurements • Quality metrics • Risk report .3 Organizational process assets .1 Quality reports .2 Test and evaluation documents .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates • Quality management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .5 Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register

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289 • Project charter 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control Project management plan • Quality management plan Project documents • Lessons learned register • Quality control measurements • Quality metrics • Risk report Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 8.2 Manage Quality Enterprise/ Organization • Organizational process assets • Quality reports • Test and evaluation documents • Change requests Project management plan updates • Quality management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register Project Management Plan Figure 8-8. Manage Quality: Data Flow Diagram Manage Quality is sometimes called quality assurance although Manage Quality has a broader definition than quality assurance as it is used in nonproject work. In project management the focus of quality assurance is on the processes used in the project. Quality assurance is about using project processes effectively. It involves following and meeting standards to assure stakeholders that the final product will meet their needs expectations and requirements. Manage Quality includes all the quality assurance activities and is also concerned with the product design aspects and process improvements. Manage Quality work will fall under the conformance work category in the cost of quality framework.

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290 Part 1 - Guide The Manage Quality process implements a set of planned and systematic acts and processes defined within the project’s quality management plan that helps to: uu Design an optimal and mature product by implementing specific design guidelines that address specific aspects of the product uu Build confidence that a future output will be completed in a manner that meets the specified requirements and expectations through quality assurance tools and techniques such as quality audits and failure analysis uu Confirm that the quality processes are used and that their use meets the quality objectives of the project and uu Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of processes and activities to achieve better results and performance and enhance stakeholders’ satisfaction. The project manager and project team may use the organization’s quality assurance department or other organizational functions to execute some of the Manage Quality activities such as failure analysis design of experiments and quality improvement. Quality assurance departments usually have cross-organizational experience in using quality tools and techniques and are a good resource for the project. Manage Quality is considered the work of everybody—the project manager the project team the project sponsor the management of the performing organization and even the customer. All of these have roles in managing quality in the project though the roles differ in size and effort. The level of participation in the quality management effort may differ between industries and project management styles. In agile projects quality management is performed by all team members throughout the project but in traditional projects quality management is often the responsibility of specific team members. 8.2.1 MANAGE QUALITY: INPUTS 8.2.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1 the quality management plan defines the acceptable level of project and product quality and describes how to ensure this level of quality in its deliverables and processes. The quality management plan also describes what to do with nonconforming products and what corrective action to implement.

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291 8.2.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to managing quality can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of managing quality. uu Quality control measurements. Described in Section 8.3.3.1. Quality control measurements are used to analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes and deliverables of the project against the standards of the performing organization or the requirements specified. Quality control measurements can also compare the processes used to create the measurements and validate actual measurements to determine their level of correctness. uu Quality metrics. Described in Section 8.1.3.2. Quality metrics are verified as part of the Control Quality process. The Manage Quality process uses these quality metrics as a basis for the development of test scenarios for the project and its deliverables and as a basis for improvement initiatives. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. Risk report is used in the Manage Quality process to identify sources of overall project risk and the most important drivers of overall risk exposure that can impact the quality objectives of the project. 8.2.1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Manage Quality process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational quality management system that includes policies procedures and guidelines uu Quality templates such as check sheets traceability matrix test plans test documents and others uu Results from previous audits and uu Lessons learned repository with information from similar projects.

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292 Part 1 - Guide 8.2.2 MANAGE QUALITY: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 8.2.2.1 DATA GATHERING A data-gathering technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to checklists see Section 11.2.2.2. A checklist is a structured tool usually component-specific used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed or to check if a list of requirements has been satisfied. Based on the project’s requirements and practices checklists may be simple or complex. Many organizations have standardized checklists available to ensure consistency in frequently performed tasks. In some application areas checklists are also available from professional associations or commercial service providers. Quality checklists should incorporate the acceptance criteria included in the scope baseline. 8.2.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. Described in Section 9.2.2.5. This technique is used to evaluate identified options in order to select which different quality options or approaches are most appropriate to use. uu Document analysis. Described in Section 5.2.2.3. The analysis of different documents produced as part of the output of project control processes such as quality reports test reports performance reports and variance analysis can point to and focus on processes that may be out of control and may jeopardize meeting the specified requirements or stakeholders’ expectations. uu Process analysis. Process analysis identifies opportunities for process improvements. This analysis also examines problems constraints and non-value-added activities that occur during a process. uu Root cause analysis RCA. Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance defect or risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance defect or risk. It may also be used as a technique for identifying root causes of a problem and solving them. When all root causes for a problem are removed the problem does not recur.

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293 8.2.2.3 DECISION MAKING A decision-making technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to multicriteria decision analysis. Described in Section 8.1.2.4. Multicriteria decision making is used to evaluate several criteria when discussing alternatives that impact project or product quality. Project decisions can include choosing among different implementation scenarios or suppliers. Product decisions can include evaluating the life cycle cost schedule stakeholder satisfaction and risks associated with resolving product defects. 8.2.2.4 DATA REPRESENTATION Data representation techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Affinity diagrams. Described in Section 5.2.2.5. Affinity diagrams can organize potential causes of defects into groups showing areas that should be focused on the most. uu Cause-and-effect diagrams. Cause-and-effect diagrams are also known as fishbone diagrams why-why diagrams or Ishikawa diagrams. This type of diagram breaks down the causes of the problem statement identified into discrete branches helping to identify the main or root cause of the problem. Figure 8-9 is an example of a cause-and-effect diagram. uu Flowcharts. Described in Section 8.1.2.5. Flowcharts show a series of steps that lead to a defect. uu Histograms. Histograms show a graphical representation of numerical data. Histograms can show the number of defects per deliverable a ranking of the cause of defects the number of times each process is noncompliant or other representations of project or product defects. uu Matrix diagrams. Described in Section 8.1.2.5. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships among factors causes and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix. uu Scatter diagrams. A scatter diagram is a graph that shows the relationship between two variables. Scatter diagrams can demonstrate a relationship between any element of a process environment or activity on one axis and a quality defect on the other axis.

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294 Part 1 - Guide Figure 8-9. Cause-and-Effect Diagram 8.2.2.5 AUDITS An audit is a structured independent process used to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies processes and procedures. A quality audit is usually conducted by a team external to the project such as the organization’s internal audit department PMO or by an auditor external to the organization. Quality audit objectives may include but are not limited to: uu Identifying all good and best practices being implemented uu Identifying all nonconformity gaps and shortcomings uu Sharing good practices introduced or implemented in similar projects in the organization and/or industry uu Proactively offering assistance in a positive manner to improve the implementation of processes to help raise team productivity and uu Highlighting contributions of each audit in the lessons learned repository of the organization. Product quality not matching the requirements Management Environment Material Equipment Process People Worker’s fatigue Lack of training Low quality of raw material Bad working conditions Low commitment to quality Delay in arrival Low maintenance Old technology Improper handling Not enough RD Nonoptional manufacturing methods

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295 The subsequent effort to correct any deficiencies should result in a reduced cost of quality and an increase in sponsor or customer acceptance of the project’s product. Quality audits may be scheduled or random and may be conducted by internal or external auditors. Quality audits can confirm the implementation of approved change requests including updates corrective actions defect repairs and preventive actions. 8.2.2.6 DESIGN FOR X Design for X DfX is a set of technical guidelines that may be applied during the design of a product for the optimization of a specific aspect of the design. DfX can control or even improve the product’s final characteristics. The X in DfX can be different aspects of product development such as reliability deployment assembly manufacturing cost service usability safety and quality. Using the DfX may result in cost reduction quality improvement better performance and customer satisfaction. 8.2.2.7 PROBLEM SOLVING Problem solving entails finding solutions for issues or challenges. It can include gathering additional information critical thinking creative quantitative and/or logical approaches. Effective and systematic problem solving is a fundamental element in quality assurance and quality improvement. Problems can arise as a result of the Control Quality process or from quality audits and can be associated with a process or deliverable. Using a structured problem-solving method will help eliminate the problem and develop a long-lasting solution. Problem-solving methods generally include the following elements: uu Defining the problem uu Identifying the root-cause uu Generating possible solutions uu Choosing the best solution uu Implementing the solution and uu Verifying solution effectiveness.

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296 Part 1 - Guide 8.2.2.8 QUALITY IMPROVEMENT METHODS Quality improvements can occur based on findings and recommendations from quality control processes the findings of the quality audits or problem solving in the Manage Quality process. Plan-do-check-act and Six Sigma are two of the most common quality improvement tools used to analyze and evaluate opportunities for improvement. 8.2.3 MANAGE QUALITY: OUTPUTS 8.2.3.1 QUALITY REPORTS The quality reports can be graphical numerical or qualitative. The information provided can be used by other processes and departments to take corrective actions in order to achieve the project quality expectations. The information presented in the quality reports may include all quality management issues escalated by the team recommendations for process project and product improvements corrective actions recommendations including rework defect/bugs repair 100 inspection and more and the summary of findings from the Control Quality process. 8.2.3.2 TEST AND EVALUATION DOCUMENTS Test and evaluation documents can be created based on industry needs and the organization’s templates. They are inputs to the Control Quality process and are used to evaluate the achievement of quality objectives. These documents may include dedicated checklists and detailed requirements traceability matrices as part of the document. 8.2.3.3 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. If changes occur during the Manage Quality process that impact any of the components of the project management plan project documents or project or product management processes the project manager should submit a change request and follow the Perform Integrated Change Control process as defined in Section 4.6.

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297 8.2.3.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. The agreed-upon approach to managing quality may need to be modified due to the actual results. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline may change as a result of specific quality management activities. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. The schedule baseline may change as a result of specific quality management activities. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline may change as a result of specific quality management activities. 8.2.3.5 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. New issues raised as a result of this process are recorded in the issue log. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well for the managing quality. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks identified during this process are recorded in the risk register and managed using the risk management processes.

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298 Part 1 - Guide 8.3 CONTROL QUALITY Control Quality is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality management activities in order to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete correct and meet customer expectations. The key benefit of this process is verifying that project deliverables and work meet the requirements specified by key stakeholders for final acceptance. The Control Quality process determines if the project outputs do what they were intended to do. Those outputs need to comply with all applicable standards requirements regulations and specifications. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 8-10. Figure 8-11 depicts the data flow diagram of the process. Figure 8-10. Control Quality: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Control Quality .1 Data gathering • Checklists • Check sheets • Statistical sampling • Questionnaires and surveys .2 Data analysis • Performance reviews • Root cause analysis .3 Inspection .4 Testing/product evaluations .5 Data representation • Cause-and-effect diagrams • Control charts • Histogram • Scatter diagrams .6 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Quality management plan .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Quality metrics • Test and evaluation documents .3 Approved change requests .4 Deliverables .5 Work performance data .6 Enterprise environmental factors .7 Organizational process assets .1 Quality control measurements .2 Verified deliverables .3 Work performance information .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates • Quality management plan .6 Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Test and evaluation documents

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299 • Project charter 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 5.5 Validate Scope Project management plan • Quality management plan Project documents • Lessons learned register • Quality metrics • Test and evaluation documents Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 8.3 Control Quality Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Approved change requests • Deliverables • Work performance data • Work performance information • Change requests • Quality control measurements • Verified deliverables Project management plan updates • Quality management plan Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Test and evaluation documents Project Management Plan 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work Figure 8-11. Control Quality: Data Flow Diagram The Control Quality process is performed to measure the completeness compliance and fitness for use of a product or service prior to user acceptance and final delivery. This is done by measuring all steps attributes and variables used to verify conformance or compliance to the specifications stated during the planning stage. Quality control should be performed throughout the project to formally demonstrate with reliable data that the sponsor’s and/or customer’s acceptance criteria have been met.

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300 Part 1 - Guide The level of effort to control quality and the degree of implementation may differ between industries and project management styles in pharmaceutical health transportation and nuclear industries for example there may be stricter quality control procedures compared to other industries and the effort needed to meet the standards may be extensive. For example in agile projects the Control Quality activities may be performed by all team members throughout the project life cycle. In waterfall model-based projects the quality control activities are performed at specific times toward the end of the project or phase by specified team members. 8.3.1 CONTROL QUALITY: INPUTS 8.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1 the quality management plan defines how quality control will be performed within the project. 8.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve quality control. uu Quality metrics. Described in Section 8.1.3.2. A quality metric specifically describes a project or product attribute and how the Control Quality process will verify compliance to it. uu Test and evaluation documents. Described in Section 8.2.3.2. Test and evaluation documents are used to evaluate achievement of the quality objectives.

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301 8.3.1.3 APPROVED CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.6.3.1. As part of the Perform Integrated Change Control process a change log update indicates that some changes are approved and some are not. Approved change requests may include modifications such as defect repairs revised work methods and revised schedules. Partial change completion may result in inconsistencies and later delays due to incomplete steps or corrections. The implementation of approved changes should be verified confirmed for completeness retested and certified as correct. 8.3.1.4 DELIVERABLES A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process phase or project. Deliverables that are outputs from the Direct and Manage Project Work process are inspected and compared to the acceptance criteria defined in the project scope statement. 8.3.1.5 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data contains data on product status such as observations quality metrics and measurements for technical performance as well as project quality information on schedule performance and cost performance. 8.3.1.6 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Control Quality process include but are not limited to: uu Project management information system quality management software can be used to track errors and variations in processes or deliverables uu Governmental agency regulations and uu Rules standards and guidelines specific to the application area.

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302 Part 1 - Guide 8.3.1.7 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Control Quality process include but are not limited to: uu Quality standards and policies uu Quality templates for example check sheets checklists etc. and uu Issue and defect reporting procedures and communication policies. 8.3.2 CONTROL QUALITY: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 8.3.2.1 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Checklists. Described in Section 11.2.2.2. Checklists help in managing the control quality activities in a structured manner. uu Check sheets. Check sheets are also known as tally sheets and are used to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. They are especially useful for gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects for example data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected. See Figure 8-12. Figure 8-12. Check Sheets Defects/Date Date 1 Date 2 Date 3 Date 4 Total Small scratch Large scratch Bent Missing component Wrong color Labeling error 1 0 3 5 2 1 2 1 3 0 0 2 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 3 2 7 1 9 8 6 6

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Not For Distribution Sale or Reproduction. 303 uu Statistical sampling. Statistical sampling involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection for example selecting 10 engineering drawings at random from a list of 75. The sample is taken to measure controls and verify quality. Sample frequency and sizes should be determined during the Plan Quality Management process. uu Questionnaires and Surveys. Surveys may be used to gather data about customer satisfaction after the deployment of the product or service. The cost regarding defects identified in the surveys may be considered external failure costs in the COQ model and can have extensive cost implications for the organization. 8.3.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Performance reviews. Performance reviews measure compare and analyze the quality metrics defined by the Plan Quality Management process against the actual results. uu Root cause analysis RCA. Described in Section 8.2.2.2. Root cause analysis is used to identify the source of defects. 8.3.2.3 INSPECTION An inspection is the examination of a work product to determine if it conforms to documented standards. The results of inspections generally include measurements and may be conducted at any level. The results of a single activity can be inspected or the final product of the project can be inspected. Inspections may be called reviews peer reviews audits or walkthroughs. In some application areas these terms have narrow and specific meanings. Inspections also are used to verify defect repairs. 8.3.2.4 TESTING/PRODUCT EVALUATIONS Testing is an organized and constructed investigation conducted to provide objective information about the quality of the product or service under test in accordance with the project requirements. The intent of testing is to find errors defects bugs or other nonconformance problems in the product or service. The type amount and extent of tests needed to evaluate each requirement are part of the project quality plan and depend on the nature of the project time budget and other constraints. Tests can be performed throughout the project as different components of the project become available and at the end of the project on the final deliverables. Early testing helps identify nonconformance problems and helps reduce the cost of fixing the nonconforming components.

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Not For Distribution Sale or Reproduction. 304 Part 1 - Guide Different application areas require different tests. For example software testing may include unit testing integration testing black-box white-box interface testing regression testing Alpha testing etc. In construction projects testing may include cement strength concrete workability test nondestructive tests at construction sites for testing the quality of hardened concrete structures and soil tests. In hardware development testing may include environmental stress screening burn-in tests system testing and more. 8.3.2.5 DATA REPRESENTATION Data representation techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Cause-and-effect diagrams. Described in Section 8.2.2.4. Cause-and-effect diagrams are used to identify the possible effects of quality defects and errors. uu Control charts. Control charts are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper and lower specification limits are based on the requirements and reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed. Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits. The control limits are determined using standard statistical calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural capability for a stable process. The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which corrective action will be taken to prevent performance that remains outside the control limits. Control charts can be used to monitor various types of output variables. Although used most frequently to track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots control charts may also be used to monitor cost and schedule variances volume frequency of scope changes or other management results to help determine if the project management processes are in control. uu Histograms. Described in Section 8.2.2.4. Histograms can demonstrate the number of defects by source or by component. uu Scatter diagrams. Described in Section 8.2.2.4. Scatter diagrams can show the planned performance on one axis and the actual performance on the second axis.

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305 8.3.2.6 MEETINGS The following meetings may be used as part of the Control Quality process: uu Approved change requests review. All approved change requests should be reviewed to verify that they were implemented as approved. This review should also check that partial changes are completed and all parts have been properly implemented tested completed and certified. uu Retrospectives/lesson learned. A meeting held by a project team to discuss: u n Successful elements in the project/phase u n What could be improved u n What to incorporate in the ongoing project and what in future projects and u n What to add to the organization process assets. 8.3.3 CONTROL QUALITY: OUTPUTS 8.3.3.1 QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS Quality control measurements are the documented results of Control Quality activities. They should be captured in the format that was specified in the quality management plan. 8.3.3.2 VERIFIED DELIVERABLES A goal of the Control Quality process is to determine the correctness of deliverables. The results of performing the Control Quality process are verified deliverables that become an input to the Validate Scope process Section 5.5 for formalized acceptance. If there were any change requests or improvements related to the deliverables they may be changed inspected and reverified. 8.3.3.3 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Described in Section 4.5.1.3. Work performance information includes information on project requirements fulfillment causes for rejections rework required recommendations for corrective actions lists of verified deliverables status of the quality metrics and the need for process adjustments.

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306 Part 1 - Guide 8.3.3.4 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. If changes occur during the Control Quality process that may impact any of the components of the project management plan or project documents the project manager should submit a change request. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. 8.3.3.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to the quality management plan as described in Section 8.1.3.1. 8.3.3.6 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. Many times a deliverable that does not meet the quality requirements is documented as an issue. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on the source of quality defects and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks identified during this process are recorded in the risk register and managed using the risk management processes. uu Test and evaluation documents. Described in Section 8.2.3.2. Test and evaluation documents may be modified as a result of this process in order to make future tests more effective.

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307 9 PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Project Resource Management includes the processes to identify acquire and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project. These processes help ensure that the right resources will be available to the project manager and project team at the right time and place. The Project Resource Management processes are: 9.1 Plan Resource Management—The process of defining how to estimate acquire manage and utilize physical and team resources. 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources—The process of estimating team resources and the type and quantities of material equipment and supplies necessary to perform project work. 9.3 Acquire Resources—The process of obtaining team members facilities equipment materials supplies and other resources necessary to complete project work. 9.4 Develop Team—The process of improving competencies team member interaction and the overall team environment to enhance project performance. 9.5 Manage Team—The process of tracking team member performance providing feedback resolving issues and managing team changes to optimize project performance. 9.6 Control Resources—The process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned as well as monitoring the planned versus actual use of resources and performing corrective action as necessary. Figure 9-1 provides an overview of the Project Resource Management processes. The Project Resource Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide.

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308 Part 1 - Guide .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data representation .3 Organizational theory .4 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Resource management plan .2 Team charter .3 Project documents updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Bottom-up estimating .3 Analogous estimating .4 Parametric estimating .5 Data analysis .6 Project management information system .7 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Resource requirements .2 Basis of estimates .3 Resource breakdown structure .4 Project documents updates 1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Decision making .2 Interpersonal and team skills .3 Pre-assignment .4 Virtual teams .3 Outputs .1 Physical resource assignments .2 Project team assignments .3 Resource calendars .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates .6 Project documents updates .7 Enterprise environmental factors updates .8 Organizational process assets updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Colocation .2 Virtual teams .3 Communication technology .4 Interpersonal and team skills .5 Recognition and rewards .6 Training .7 Individual and team assessments .8 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Team performance assessments .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates .5 Enterprise environmental factors updates .6 Organizational process assets updates 1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance reports .4 Team performance assessments .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Interpersonal and team skills .2 Project management information system .3 Outputs .1 Change requests .2 Project management plan updates .3 Project documents updates .4 Enterprise environmental factors updates .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance data .4 Agreements .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Data analysis .2 Problem solving .3 Interpersonal and team skills .4 Project management information system .3 Outputs .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates Project Resource Management Overview 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources 9.1 Plan Resource Management 9.3 Acquire Resources 9.4 Develop Team 9.5 Manage Team 9.6 Control Resources Figure 9-1. Project Resource Management Overview

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309 There is a distinction between the skills and competencies needed for the project manager to manage team resources versus physical resources. Physical resources include equipment materials facilities and infrastructure. Team resources or personnel refer to the human resources. Personnel may have varied skill sets may be assigned full- or part-time and may be added or removed from the project team as the project progresses. There is some overlap between Project Resource Management and Project Stakeholder Management Section 13. This section Section 9 focuses on the subset of stakeholders who make up the project team. KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The project team consists of individuals with assigned roles and responsibilities who work collectively to achieve a shared project goal. The project manager should invest suitable effort in acquiring managing motivating and empowering the project team. Although specific roles and responsibilities for the project team members are assigned the involvement of all team members in project planning and decision making is beneficial. Participation of team members during planning adds their expertise to the process and strengthens their commitment to the project. The project manager should be both leader and manager of the project team. In addition to project management activities such as initiating planning executing monitoring and controlling and closing the various project phases the project manager is responsible for the team formation as an effective group. The project manager should be aware of different aspects that influence the team such as: uu Team environment uu Geographical locations of team members uu Communications among stakeholders uu Organizational change management uu Internal and external politics uu Cultural issues and organizational uniqueness and uu Other factors that may alter project performance. As a leader the project manager is also responsible for proactively developing team skills and competencies while retaining and improving team satisfaction and motivation. The project manager should be aware of and subscribe to professional and ethical behavior and ensure that all team members adhere to these behaviors.

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310 Part 1 - Guide Physical resource management is concentrated in allocating and using the physical resources material equipment and supplies for example needed for successful completion of the project in an efficient and effective way. In order to do that organizations should have data on resource demands now and in the reasonable future resource configurations that will be required to meet those demands and the supply of resources. Failing to manage and control resources efficiently is a source of risk for successful project completion. For example: uu Failing to secure critical equipment or infrastructure on time may result in delays in the manufacturing of the final product uu Ordering low-quality material may damage the quality of the product causing a high rate of recalls or rework and uu Keeping too much inventory may result in high operations costs and reduce the organization’s profit. Unacceptably low inventory level on the other hand may result in not satisfying customer demand and again reduce the organization’s profit. TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Project management styles are shifting away from a command and control structure for managing projects and toward a more collaborative and supportive management approach that empowers teams by delegating decision making to the team members. In addition modern project resource management approaches seek to optimize resource utilization. Trends and emerging practices for Project Resource Management include but are not limited to: uu Resource management methods. Due to the scarce nature of critical resources in some industries several trends have become popular in the past several years. There is extensive literature about lean management just- in-time JIT manufacturing Kaizen total productive maintenance TPM theory of constraints TOC and other methods. A project manager should determine if the performing organization has adopted one or more resource management tools and adapt the project accordingly. uu Emotional intelligence EI. The project manager should invest in personal EI by improving inbound e.g. self-management and self-awareness and outbound e.g. relationship management competencies. Research suggests that project teams that succeed in developing team EI or become an emotionally competent group are more effective. Additionally there is a reduction in staff turnover. uu Self-organizing teams. The increase in using agile approaches mainly for the execution of IT projects has given rise to the self-organizing team where the team functions with an absence of centralized control. In projects that have self-organizing teams the project manager who may not be called a project manager role provides the team with the environment and support needed and trusts the team to get the job done. Successful self- organizing teams usually consist of generalized specialists instead of subject matter experts who continuously adapt to the changing environment and embrace constructive feedback.

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311 uu Virtual teams/distributed teams. The globalization of projects has promoted the need for virtual teams that work on the same project but are not colocated at the same site. The availability of communication technology such as email audio conferencing social media web-based meetings and video conferencing has made virtual teams feasible. Managing virtual teams has unique advantages such as being able to use special expertise on a project team even when the expert is not in the same geographic area incorporating employees who work from home offices and including people with mobility limitations or disabilities. The challenges of managing virtual teams are mainly in the communication domain including a possible feeling of isolation gaps in sharing knowledge and experience between team members and difficulties in tracking progress and productivity possible time zone difference and cultural differences. TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique the project manager will need to tailor the way Project Resource Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Diversity. What is the diversity background of the team uu Physical location. What is the physical location of team members and physical resources uu Industry-specific resources. What special resources are needed in the industry uu Acquisition of team members. How will team members be acquired for the project Are team resources full-time or part-time on the project uu Management of team. How is team development managed for the project Are there organizational tools to manage team development or will new ones need to be established Are there team members who have special needs Will the team need special training to manage diversity uu Life cycle approaches. What life cycle approach will be used on the project CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS Projects with high variability benefit from team structures that maximize focus and collaboration such as self- organizing teams with generalizing specialists. Collaboration is intended to boost productivity and facilitate innovative problem solving. Collaborative teams may facilitate accelerated integration of distinct work activities improve communication increase knowledge sharing and provide flexibility of work assignments in addition to other advantages.

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312 Part 1 - Guide Although the benefits of collaboration also apply to other project environments collaborative teams are often critical to the success of projects with a high degree of variability and rapid changes because there is less time for centralized tasking and decision making. Planning for physical and human resources is much less predictable in projects with high variability. In these environments agreements for fast supply and lean methods are critical to controlling costs and achieving the schedule. 9.1 PLAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Plan Resource Management is the process of defining how to estimate acquire manage and use team and physical resources. The key benefit of this process is that it establishes the approach and level of management effort needed for managing project resources based on the type and complexity of the project. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 9-2. Figure 9-3 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 9-2. Plan Resource Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Resource Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Data representation • Hierarchical charts • Responsibility assignment matrix • Text-oriented formats .3 Organizational theory .4 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Quality management plan • Scope baseline .3 Project documents • Project schedule • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Stakeholder register .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Resource management plan .2 Team charter .3 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Risk register

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313 • Project charter 4.1 Develop Project Charter Project management plan • Quality management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Project schedule • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Stakeholder register • Project charter Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 9.1 Plan Resource Management Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Resource management plan • Team charter Project documents updates • Assumption log • Risk register Project Management Plan Figure 9-3. Plan Resource Management: Data Flow Diagram Resource planning is used to determine and identify an approach to ensure that sufficient resources are available for the successful completion of the project. Project resources may include team members supplies materials equipment services and facilities. Effective resource planning should consider and plan for the availability of or competition for scarce resources. Those resources can be obtained from the organization’s internal assets or from outside the organization through a procurement process. Other projects may be competing for the same resources required for the project at the same time and location. This may significantly impact project costs schedules risks quality and other project areas.

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314 Part 1 - Guide 9.1.1 PLAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 9.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter provides the high-level project description and requirements. It also has the key stakeholder list summary milestones and preapproved financial resources that may influence the resource management of the project. 9.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. The quality management plan helps define the level of resources that will be required to achieve and maintain the defined level of quality and achieve the metrics for the project. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline identifies the deliverables that drive the types and quantities of resources that will need to be managed. 9.1.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule shows the timeline for needed resources. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements will dictate the type and amount of resources needed for the project and may influence how they are managed. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains information on threats and opportunities that may impact resource planning. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register aids in identifying those stakeholders who have a particular interest in or an impact on resources needed for the project. It also helps to identify stakeholders who can influence the use of one kind of resource over another.

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315 9.1.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Resource Management include but are not limited to: uu Organizational culture and structure uu Geographic distribution of facilities and resources uu Existing resources competencies and availability and uu Marketplace conditions. 9.1.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Resource Management include but are not limited to: uu Human resource policies and procedures uu Physical resource management policies and procedures uu Safety policies uu Security policies uu Templates for the resource management plan and uu Historical information for similar projects. 9.1.2 PLAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 9.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Negotiating for the best resources within the organization uu Talent management and personnel development uu Determining the preliminary effort level needed to meet project objectives uu Determining reporting requirements based on the organizational culture uu Estimating lead times required for acquisition based on lessons learned and market conditions uu Identifying risks associated with resource acquisition retention and release plans uu Complying with applicable government and union regulations and uu Managing sellers and the logistics effort to ensure materials and supplies are available when needed.

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316 Part 1 - Guide 9.1.2.2 DATA REPRESENTATION Data representation techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to charts. Various formats exist to document and communicate team member roles and responsibilities. Most fall into hierarchical matrix or text- oriented formats. Some project assignments are listed in subsidiary plans such as the risk quality or communications management plans. Regardless of the method used to document team member roles the objective is to ensure that each work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities. A hierarchical format may be used to represent high-level roles while a text-based format may be better suited to document the detailed responsibilities. uu Hierarchical charts. The traditional organizational chart structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphical top-down format. u n Work breakdown structures WBS. The WBS is designed to show how project deliverables are broken down into work packages and provide a way of showing high-level areas of responsibility. u n Organizational breakdown structure OBS. While the WBS shows a breakdown of project deliverables an OBS is arranged according to an organization’s existing departments units or teams with the project activities or work packages listed under each department. An operational department such as information technology or purchasing can see all of its project responsibilities by looking at its portion of the OBS. u n Resource breakdown structure. The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical list of team and physical resources related by category and resource type that is used for planning managing and controlling project work. Each descending lower level represents an increasingly detailed description of the resource until the information is small enough to be used in conjunction with the work breakdown structure WBS to allow the work to be planned monitored and controlled.

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317 uu Assignment Matrix. A RAM shows the project resources assigned to each work package. It is used to illustrate the connections between work packages or activities and project team members. On larger projects RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example a high-level RAM can define the responsibilities of a project team group or unit within each component of the WBS. Lower-level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles responsibilities and levels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person and all people associated with one activity. This also ensures that there is only one person accountable for any one task to avoid confusion about who is ultimately in charge or has authority for the work. One example of a RAM is a RACI responsible accountable consult and inform chart shown in Figure 9-4. The sample chart shows the work to be done in the left column as activities. The assigned resources can be shown as individuals or groups. The project manager can select other options such as “lead” and “resource” designations as appropriate for the project. A RACI chart is a useful tool to use to ensure clear assignment of roles and responsibilities when the team consists of internal and external resources. uu Text-oriented formats. Team member responsibilities that require detailed descriptions can be specified in text- oriented formats. Usually in outline form these documents provide information such as responsibilities authority competencies and qualifications. The documents are known by various names including position descriptions and role-responsibility-authority forms. These documents can be used as templates for future projects especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned. Figure 9-4. Sample RACI Chart RACI ChartPerson Activity Create charter Collect requirements Submit change request Develop test plan Ann Ben Carlos Dina Ed A I R R Responsible A Accountable C Consult I Inform C CC A A A I II I I C R R R IR

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318 Part 1 - Guide 9.1.2.3 ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY Organizational theory provides information regarding the way in which people teams and organizational units behave. Effective use of common techniques identified in organizational theory can shorten the amount of time cost and effort needed to create the Plan Resource Management process outputs and improve planning efficiency. Applicable organizational theories may recommend exercising a flexible leadership style that adapts to the changes in a team’s maturity level throughout the project life cycle. It is important to recognize that the organization’s structure and culture impacts the project organizational structure. 9.1.2.4 MEETINGS The project team may hold meetings to plan resource management for the project. 9.1.3 PLAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 9.1.3.1 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN The resource management plan is the component of the project management plan that provides guidance on how project resources should be categorized allocated managed and released. It may be divided between the team management plan and physical resource management plan according to the specifics of the project. The resource management plan may include but is not limited to: uu Identification of resources. Methods for identifying and quantifying team and physical resources needed. uu Acquiring resources. Guidance on how to acquire team and physical resources for the project. uu Roles and responsibilities: u n Role. The function assumed by or assigned to a person in the project. Examples of project roles are civil engineer business analyst and testing coordinator. u n Authority. The rights to apply project resources make decisions sign approvals accept deliverables and influence others to carry out the work of the project. Examples of decisions that need clear authority include the selection of a method for completing an activity quality acceptance criteria and how to respond to project variances. Team members operate best when their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities.

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319 u n Responsibility. The assigned duties and work that a project team member is expected to perform in order to complete the project’s activities. u n Competence. The skill and capacity required to complete assigned activities within the project constraints. If project team members do not possess required competencies performance can be jeopardized. When such mismatches are identified proactive responses such as training hiring schedule changes or scope changes are initiated. uu Project organization charts. A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships. It can be formal or informal highly detailed or broadly framed based on the needs of the project. For example the project organization chart for a 3000-person disaster response team will have greater detail than a project organization chart for an internal 20-person project. uu Project team resource management. Guidance on how project team resources should be defined staffed managed and eventually released. uu Training. Training strategies for team members. uu Team development. Methods for developing the project team. uu Resource control. Methods for ensuring adequate physical resources are available as needed and that the acquisition of physical resources is optimized for project needs. Includes information on managing inventory equipment and supplies during throughout the project life cycle. uu Recognition plan. Which recognition and rewards will be given to team members and when they will be given. 9.1.3.2 TEAM CHARTER The team charter is a document that establishes the team values agreements and operating guidelines for the team. The team charter may include but is not limited to: uu Team values uu Communication guidelines uu Decision-making criteria and process uu Conflict resolution process uu Meeting guidelines and uu Team agreements.

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320 Part 1 - Guide The team charter establishes clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members. Early commitment to clear guidelines decreases misunderstandings and increases productivity. Discussing areas such as codes of conduct communication decision making and meeting etiquette allows team members to discover values that are important to one another. The team charter works best when the team develops it or at least has an opportunity to contribute to it. All project team members share responsibility for ensuring the rules documented in the team charter are followed. The team charter can be reviewed and updated periodically to ensure a continued understanding of the team ground rules and to orient and integrate new team members. 9.1.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log is updated with assumptions regarding the availability logistics requirements and location of physical resources as well as the skill sets and availability of team resources. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register is updated with risks associated with team and physical resource availability or other known resource-related risks. 9.2 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES Estimate Activity Resources is the process of estimating team resources and the type and quantities of materials equipment and supplies necessary to perform project work. The key benefit of this process is that it identifies the type quantity and characteristics of resources required to complete the project. This process is performed periodically throughout the project as needed. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 9-5. Figure 9-6 depicts the data flow diagram of the process.

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321 Figure 9-5. Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 9-6. Estimate Activity Resources: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Estimate Activity Resources .1 Expert judgment .2 Bottom-up estimating .3 Analogous estimating .4 Parametric estimating .5 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis .6 Project management information system .7 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan • Scope baseline .2 Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Cost estimates • Resource calendars • Risk register .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Resource requirements .2 Basis of estimates .3 Resource breakdown structure .4 Project documents updates • Activity attributes • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Project charter 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources Enterprise/ Organization • Resource requirements • Basis of estimates • Resource breakdown structure Project management plan • Resource management plan • Scope baseline Project documents • Activity attributes • Activity list • Assumption log • Cost estimates • Resource calendars • Risk register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Management Plan Project Documents Project document updates • Activity attributes • Assumption log • Lessons learned register

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322 Part 1 - Guide The Estimate Activity Resources process is closely coordinated with other processes such as the Estimate Costs process. For example: uu A construction project team will need to be familiar with local building codes. Such knowledge is often readily available from local sellers. If the internal labor pool lacks experience with unusual or specialized construction techniques the additional cost for a consultant may be the most effective way to secure knowledge of the local building codes. uu An automotive design team will need to be familiar with the latest automated assembly techniques. The requisite knowledge could be obtained by hiring a consultant by sending a designer to a seminar on robotics or by including someone from manufacturing as a member of the project team. 9.2.1 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES: INPUTS 9.2.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan defines the approach to identify the different resources needed for the project. It also defines the methods to quantify the resources needed for each activity and aggregates this information. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline identifies the project and product scope necessary to meet the project objectives. The scope drives the needs for both team and physical resources. 9.2.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. Activity attributes provide the primary data source for use in estimating team and physical resources required for each activity on the activity list. Examples of attributes include the resource requirements imposed dates activity location assumptions and constraints. uu Activity list. Described in Section 6.2.3.1. The activity list identifies the activities that will need resources.

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323 uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log may have information on productivity factors availability cost estimates and approaches to work that will influence the nature and number of team and physical resources. uu Cost estimates. Described in Section 7.2.3.1. The cost of resources may impact resource selection from the quantity and skill level perspectives. uu Resource calendars. A resource calendar identifies the working days shifts start and end of normal business hours weekends and public holidays when each specific resource is available. Information on which resources such as team resource equipment and material are potentially available during a planned activity period is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars also specify when and for how long identified team and physical resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level as well as various geographical locations. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register describes the individual risks that can impact resource selection and availability. 9.2.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Estimate Activity Resources process include but are not limited to: uu Resource location uu Resource availability uu Team resource skills uu Organizational culture uu Published estimating data and uu Marketplace conditions.

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324 Part 1 - Guide 9.2.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Estimate Activity Resources process include but are not limited to: uu Policies and procedures regarding staffing uu Policies and procedures relating to supplies and equipment and uu Historical information regarding types of resources used for similar work on previous projects. 9.2.2 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 9.2.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in team and physical resource planning and estimating. 9.2.2.2 BOTTOM-UP ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.5. Team and physical resources are estimated at the activity level and then aggregated to develop the estimates for work packages control accounts and summary project levels. 9.2.2.3 ANALOGOUS ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.2. Analogous estimating uses information regarding resources from a previous similar project as the basis for estimating a future project. It is used as quick estimating method and can be used when the project manager can only identify a few top levels of the WBS. 9.2.2.4 PARAMETRIC ESTIMATING Described in Section 6.4.2.3. Parametric estimating uses an algorithm or a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate resource quantities needed for an activity based on historical data and project parameters. For example if an activity needs 4000 hours of coding and it needs to finish it in 1 year it will require two people to code each doing 2000 hours a year. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending on the sophistication and underlying data built into the model.

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325 9.2.2.5 DATA ANALYSIS A data analysis technique used in this process includes but is not limited to alternatives analysis. Alternatives analysis is used to evaluate identified options in order to select the options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project. Many activities have multiple options for accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills different sizes or types of machines different tools manual versus automated and make-rent-or- buy decisions regarding the resources. Alternatives analysis assists in providing the best solution to perform the project activities within the defined constraints. 9.2.2.6 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems can include resource management software that can help plan organize and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates. Depending on the sophistication of the software resource breakdown structures resource availability resource rates and various resource calendars can be defined to assist in optimizing resource utilization. 9.2.2.7 MEETINGS The project manager may hold planning meetings with functional managers to estimate the resources needed per activity level of effort LoE skill level of the team resources and the quantity of the materials needed. Participants at these meetings may include the project manager the project sponsor selected project team members selected stakeholders and others as needed. 9.2.3 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES: OUTPUTS 9.2.3.1 RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Resource requirements identify the types and quantities of resources required for each work package or activity in a work package and can be aggregated to determine the estimated resources for each work package each WBS branch and the project as a whole. The amount of detail and the level of specificity of the resource requirement descriptions can vary by application area. The resource requirements’ documentation can include assumptions that were made in determining which types of resources are applied their availability and what quantities are needed.

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326 Part 1 - Guide 9.2.3.2 BASIS OF ESTIMATES Described in Section 6.4.3.2. The amount and type of additional details supporting the resource estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the resource estimate was derived. Supporting detail for resource estimates may include: uu Method used to develop the estimate uu Resources used to develop the estimate such as information from previous similar projects uu Assumptions associated with the estimate uu Known constraints uu Range of estimates uu Confidence level of the estimate and uu Documentation of identified risks influencing the estimate. 9.2.3.3 RESOURCE BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type see Figure 9-7 for example. Examples of resource categories include but are not limited to labor material equipment and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level grade level required certifications or other information as appropriate to the project. In Plan Resource Management the resource breakdown structure was used to guide the categorization for the project. In this process it is a completed document that will be used to acquire and monitor resources.

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327 Figure 9-7. Sample Resource Breakdown Structure 9.2.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Activity attributes. Described in Section 6.2.3.2. The activity attributes are updated with the resource requirements. uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log is updated with assumptions regarding the types and quantities of resources required. Additionally any resource constraints are entered including collective bargaining agreements continuous hours of operation planned leave etc. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were efficient and effective in developing resource estimates and information on those techniques that were not efficient or effective. Project Role 1 Role 2 Personnel Material Equipment Role 3 Material 1 Material 2 Level 1 Level 2 Grade 2 Equipment 1 Equipment 2

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328 Part 1 - Guide 9.3 ACQUIRE RESOURCES Acquire Resources is the process of obtaining team members facilities equipment materials supplies and other resources necessary to complete project work. The key benefit of this process is that it outlines and guides the selection of resources and assigns them to their respective activities. This process is performed periodically throughout the project as needed. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 9-8. Figure 9-9 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 9-8. Acquire Resources: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Acquire Resources .1 Decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .2 Interpersonal and team skills • Negotiation .3 Pre-assignment .4 Virtual teams .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan • Procurement management plan • Cost baseline .2 Project documents • Project schedule • Resource calendars • Resource requirements • Stakeholder register .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Physical resource assignments .2 Project team assignments .3 Resource calendars .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates • Resource management plan • Cost baseline .6 Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resource breakdown structure • Resource requirements • Risk register • Stakeholder register .7 Enterprise environmental factors updates .8 Organizational process assets updates

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329 Enterprise/ Organization • Project charter 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control Project management plan • Resource management plan • Procurement management plan • Cost baseline Project documents • Project schedule • Resource calendars • Resource requirements • Stakeholder register Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 9.3 Acquire Resources Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Change requests Project management plan updates • Resource management plan • Cost baseline Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resource breakdown structure • Resource requirements • Risk register • Stakeholder register • Physical resource assignments • Project team assignments • Resource calendars Project Management Plan • Enterprise environmental factors updates • Organizational process assets updates Figure 9-9. Acquire Resources: Data Flow Diagram The resources needed for the project can be internal or external to the project-performing organization. Internal resources are acquired assigned from functional or resource managers. External resources are acquired through the procurement processes. The project management team may or may not have direct control over resource selection because of collective bargaining agreements use of subcontractor personnel a matrix project environment internal or external reporting relationships or other reasons. It is important that the following factors are considered during the process of acquiring the project resources:

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330 Part 1 - Guide uu The project manager or project team should effectively negotiate and influence others who are in a position to provide the required team and physical resources for the project. uu Failure to acquire the necessary resources for the project may affect project schedules budgets customer satisfaction quality and risks. Insufficient resources or capabilities decrease the probability of success and in a worst-case scenario could result in project cancellation. uu If the team resources are not available due to constraints such as economic factors or assignment to other projects the project manager or project team may be required to assign alternative resources perhaps with different competencies or costs. Alternative resources are allowed provided there is no violation of legal regulatory mandatory or other specific criteria. These factors should be considered and accounted for in the planning stages of the project. The project manager or project management team will be required to document the impact of the unavailability of required resources in the project schedule project budget project risks project quality training plans and other project management plans. 9.3.1 ACQUIRE RESOURCES: INPUTS 9.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan provides guidance on how to acquire resources for the project. uu Procurement management plan. Described in Section 12.1.3.1. The procurement management plan has information regarding resources that will be acquired from outside the project. This includes information on how procurements will be integrated with other project work and stakeholders involved in procuring resources. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline provides the overall budget for the project activities.

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331 9.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule shows the activities and their planned start and end dates to help determine when the resources need to be available and acquired. uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.3.3.3. Resource calendars document the time periods that each resource needed for the project is available for the project. Creating a reliable schedule depends on having a good understanding of each resource’s availability and schedule constraints including time zones work hours vacation time local holidays maintenance schedule and commitments to other projects. Resource calendars are progressively elaborated and updated throughout the project. Once created as an output of this process they are used as needed whenever this process is repeated. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource requirements identify which resources need to be acquired. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register may reveal stakeholders’ needs or expectations for specific resources to be used on the project that need to be considered in the Acquire Resources process. 9.3.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Acquire Resources process include but are not limited to: uu Existing information on organizational resources including availability competence levels and prior experience for team resources and resource costs uu Marketplace conditions uu Organizational structure and uu Geographic locations. 9.3.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Acquire Resources process include but are not limited to: uu Policies and procedures for acquiring allocating and assigning resources to the project and uu Historical information and lessons learned repository.

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332 Part 1 - Guide 9.3.2 ACQUIRE RESOURCES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 9.3.2.1 DECISION MAKING Described in Section 5.2.2.4. Decision-making techniques that can be used in the Acquire Resources process include but are not limited to multicriteria decision analysis as described in Section 8.1.2.4. Selection criteria are often used to select physical project resources or the project team. Using a multicriteria decision analysis tool criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential resources for example choosing between internal and external team resources. The criteria are weighted according to their relative importance and values can be changed for different types of resources. Some examples of selection criteria that can be used are: uu Availability. Verify that the resource is available to work on the project within the time period needed. uu Cost. Verify if the cost of adding the resource is within the prescribed budget. uu Ability. Verify that the team member provides the capability needed by the project. Some selection criteria that are unique for team resources are: uu Experience. Verify that the team member has the relevant experience that will contribute to the project success. uu Knowledge. Consider if the team member has relevant knowledge of the customer similar implemented projects and nuances of the project environment. uu Skills. Determine if the team member has the relevant skills to use a project tool. uu Attitude. Determine if the team member has the ability to work with others as a cohesive team. uu International factors. Consider team member location time zone and communication capabilities. 9.3.2.2 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS An interpersonal and team skill that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to negotiation. Described in Section 12.2.2.5. Many projects need to negotiate for required resources. The project management team may need to negotiate with: uu Functional managers. Ensure that the project receives the best resources possible in the required timeframe and until their responsibilities are complete. uu Other project management teams within the performing organization. Appropriately assign or share scarce or specialized resources. uu External organizations and suppliers. Provide appropriate scarce specialized qualified certified or other specific team or physical resources. Special consideration should be given to external negotiating policies practices processes guidelines legal and other such criteria.

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333 The project management team’s ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating resource allocation as does the politics of the organizations involved. For example convincing a functional manager about the high visibility of the project may influence him or her to assign the best resources to this project over competing ones. 9.3.2.3 PRE-ASSIGNMENT When physical or team resources for a project are determined in advance they are considered pre-assigned. This situation can occur if the project is the result of specific resources being identified as part of a competitive proposal or if the project is dependent upon the expertise of particular persons. Pre-assignment might also include the team members who have already been assigned in Develop Project Charter Process or other processes before the initial Resource Management Plan has been completed. 9.3.2.4 VIRTUAL TEAMS The use of virtual teams creates new possibilities when acquiring project team members. Virtual teams can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face. The availability of communication technology such as email audio conferencing social media web-based meetings and video conferencing has made virtual teams feasible. The virtual team model makes it possible to: uu Form teams of people from the same organization who live in widespread geographic areas uu Add special expertise to a project team even though the expert is not in the same geographic area uu Incorporate employees who work from home offices uu Form teams of people who work different shifts hours or days uu Include people with mobility limitations or disabilities uu Move forward with projects that would have been held or canceled due to travel expenses and uu Save the expense of offices and all physical equipment needed for employees. Communication planning becomes increasingly important in a virtual team environment. Additional time may be needed to set clear expectations facilitate communications develop protocols for resolving conflict include people in decision making understand cultural differences and share credit in successes. 9.3.3 ACQUIRE RESOURCES: OUTPUTS 9.3.3.1 PHYSICAL RESOURCE ASSIGNMENTS Documentation of the physical resource assignments records the material equipment supplies locations and other physical resources that will be used during the project.

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334 Part 1 - Guide 9.3.3.2 PROJECT TEAM ASSIGNMENTS Documentation of team assignments records the team members and their roles and responsibilities for the project. Documentation can include a project team directory and names inserted into the project management plan such as the project organization charts and schedules. 9.3.3.3 RESOURCE CALENDARS A resource calendar identifies the working days shifts start and end of normal business hours weekends and public holidays when each specific resource is available. Information on which resources such as team resource equipment and material are potentially available during a planned activity period is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars also specify when and for how long identified team and physical resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level as well as various geographical locations. 9.3.3.4 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. When changes occur as a result of carrying out the Acquire Resources process for example impacts to the schedule or when recommended corrective or preventive actions impact any of the components of the project management plan or project documents the project manager needs to submit a change request. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. 9.3.3.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components of the project management plan that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan may be updated to reflect actual experience in acquiring resources for the project including lessons learned in acquiring resources early in the project that will impact how resources are acquired later in the project. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline may change as a result of the acquisition of resources for the project.

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335 9.3.3.6 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well for acquiring resources. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. Changes to the project schedule may result from the availability of required resources. uu Resource breakdown structure. Described in Section 9.2.3.3. Resources acquired during this process are recorded in the resource breakdown structure. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource requirements documentation is updated to reflect resources acquired for the project. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. New risks identified during this process are recorded in the risk register and managed using the risk management processes. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register is updated with any new stakeholders and any new information about existing stakeholders that has been gained as a result of this process. 9.3.3.7 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS UPDATES Enterprise environmental factors that are updated include but are not limited to: uu Resource availability within the organization and uu Amount of the organization’s consumable resources that have been used. 9.3.3.8 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS UPDATES Organizational process assets that are updated as a result of the Acquire Resources process include but are not limited to documentation related to acquiring assigning and allocating resources.

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336 Part 1 - Guide 9.4 DEVELOP TEAM Develop Team is the process of improving competencies team member interaction and the overall team environment to enhance project performance. The key benefit of this process is that it results in improved teamwork enhanced interpersonal skills and competencies motivated employees reduced attrition and improved overall project performance. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 9-10. Figure 9-11 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 9-10. Develop Team: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Develop Team .1 Colocation .2 Virtual teams .3 Communication technology .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Conflict management • Influencing • Motivation • Negotiation • Team building .5 Recognition and rewards .6 Training .7 Individual and team assessments .8 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Team charter .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets 1. Team performance assessments .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates • Resource management plan .4 Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Team charter .5 Enterprise environmental factors updates .6 Organizational process assets updates

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337 Enterprise/ Organization • Project charter 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 9.5 Manage Team Project management plan • Resource management plan Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Team charter Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 9.4 Develop Team Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Change requests • Team performance assessments Project management plan updates • Resource management plan Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Team charter Project Management Plan • Enterprise environmental factors updates • Organizational process assets updates Figure 9-11. Develop Team: Data Flow Diagram Project managers require the skills to identify build maintain motivate lead and inspire project teams to achieve high team performance and to meet the project’s objectives. Teamwork is a critical factor for project success and developing effective project teams is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager. Project managers should create an environment that facilitates teamwork and continually motivates the team by providing challenges and opportunities providing timely feedback and support as needed and recognizing and rewarding good performance. High team performance can be achieved by employing these behaviors: uu Using open and effective communication uu Creating team-building opportunities uu Developing trust among team members uu Managing conflicts in a constructive manner uu Encouraging collaborative problem solving and uu Encouraging collaborative decision making.

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338 Part 1 - Guide Project managers operate in a global environment and work on projects characterized by cultural diversity. Team members often have diverse industry experience communicate in multiple languages and sometimes work with a “team language” or cultural norm that may be different from their native one. The project management team should capitalize on cultural differences focus on developing and sustaining the project team throughout the project life cycle and promote working together interdependently in a climate of mutual trust. Developing the project team improves the people skills technical competencies and overall team environment and project performance. It requires clear timely effective and efficient communication between team members throughout the life of the project. Objectives of developing a project team include but are not limited to: uu Improving the knowledge and skills of team members to increase their ability to complete project deliverables while lowering costs reducing schedules and improving quality uu Improving feelings of trust and agreement among team members to raise morale lower conflict and increase teamwork uu Creating a dynamic cohesive and collaborative team culture to: 1 improve individual and team productivity team spirit and cooperation and 2 allow cross-training and mentoring between team members to share knowledge and expertise and uu Empowering the team to participate in decision making and take ownership of the provided solutions to improve team productivity for more effective and efficient results. One of the models used to describe team development is the Tuckman ladder 19 20 which includes five stages of development that teams may go through. Although it is common for these stages to occur in order it is not uncommon for a team to get stuck in a particular stage or regress to an earlier stage. Projects with team members who worked together in the past might skip a stage. uu Forming. This phase is where the team members meet and learn about the project and their formal roles and responsibilities. Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase. uu Storming. During this phase the team begins to address the project work technical decisions and the project management approach. If team members are not collaborative or open to differing ideas and perspectives the environment can become counterproductive. uu Norming. In this phase team members begin to work together and adjust their work habits and behaviors to support the team. The team members learn to trust each other. uu Performing. Teams that reach the performing stage function as a well-organized unit. They are interdependent and work through issues smoothly and effectively. uu Adjourning. In this phase the team completes the work and moves on from the project. This typically occurs when staff is released from the project as deliverables are completed or as part of the Close Project or Phase process.

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339 The duration of a particular stage depends upon team dynamics team size and team leadership. Project managers should have a good understanding of team dynamics in order to move their team members through all stages in an effective manner. 9.4.1 DEVELOP TEAM: INPUTS 9.4.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1 the resource management plan provides guidance on providing project team member rewards feedback additional training and disciplinary actions as a result of team performance assessments and other forms of project team management. The resource management plan may include also the team performance assessment criteria. 9.4.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to developing the team can be applied to later phases in the project to improve team performance. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule defines how and when to provide training to the project team and develop the competencies required at different phases. It identifies the need for team development strategies based on variations if any during the project execution. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. Project team assignments identify the team and member roles and responsibilities. uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.2.1.2. Resource calendars identify times when the project team members can participate in team development activities. It also helps illustrate team availability during the entire project. uu Team charter. Described in Section 9.1.3.2. The team charter is where the team operating guidelines are documented. The team values and operating guidelines provide the structure that describes how the team will operate together. 9.4.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Develop Team process include but are not limited to: uu Human resource management policies regarding hiring and termination employee performance reviews employee development and training records and recognition and rewards uu Team member skills competencies and specialized knowledge and uu Geographic distribution of team members.

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340 Part 1 - Guide 9.4.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Develop Team process include but are not limited to historical information and the lessons learned repository. 9.4.2 DEVELOP TEAM: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 9.4.2.1 COLOCATION Colocation involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. Colocation can be temporary such as at strategically important times during the project or can continue for the entire project. Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room common places to post schedules and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community. 9.4.2.2 VIRTUAL TEAMS The use of virtual teams can bring benefits such as the use of more skilled resources reduced costs less travel and relocation expenses and the proximity of team members to suppliers customers or other key stakeholders. Virtual teams can use technology to create an online team environment where the team can store files use conversations threads to discuss issues and keep a team calendar. 9.4.2.3 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Described in Section 10.1.2.3. Communication technology is important in addressing the team development issues in colocated and virtual teams. It helps build a harmonious environment for the colocated team and a better understanding for the virtual team especially those working in different time zones. Examples of communication technology that may be used are: uu Shared portal. A shared repository for information sharing e.g. website collaboration software or intranet is effective for virtual project teams. uu Video conferencing. Video conferencing is an important technique for effective communication with virtual teams. uu Audio conferencing. Communication within a team using audio conferencing is another technique to build rapport and confidence within virtual teams. uu Email/chat. Regular communications using email and chat is also an effective technique.

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341 9.4.2.4 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Conflict management. Described in Section 9.5.2.1. The project manager needs to resolve conflicts in a timely manner and in a constructive way in order to achieve a high-performing team. uu Influencing. Described in Section 9.5.2.1. An influencing skill used in this process is gathering relevant and critical information to address important issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust. uu Motivation. Motivation is providing a reason for someone to act. Teams are motivated by empowering them to participate in decision making and encouraging them to work independently. uu Negotiation. Described in Section 12.2.2.5. Negotiation among team members is used to reach consensus on project needs. Negotiation can build trust and harmony among the team members. uu Team building. Team building is conducting activities that enhance the team’s social relations and build a collaborative and cooperative working environment. Team building activities can vary from a 5-minute agenda item in a status review meeting to an offsite professionally facilitated event designed to improve interpersonal relationships. The objective of team-building activities is to help individual team members work together effectively. Team-building strategies are particularly valuable when team members operate from remote locations without the benefit of face-to-face contact. Informal communication and activities can help in building trust and establishing good working relationships. While team building is essential during the initial stages of a project it should be a continuous process. Changes in a project environment are inevitable and to manage them effectively a continuous or renewed team-building effort may be applied. The project manager should continually monitor team functionality and performance to determine if any actions are needed to prevent or correct various team problems. 9.4.2.5 RECOGNITION AND REWARDS Part of the team development process involves recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior. The original plan for rewarding people is developed during the Plan Resource Management process. Rewards will be effective only if they satisfy a need that is valued by that individual. Reward decisions are made formally or informally during the process of managing the project team. Cultural differences should be considered when determining recognition and rewards.

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342 Part 1 - Guide People are motivated when they feel they are valued in the organization and this value is demonstrated by the rewards given to them. Generally money is viewed as a tangible aspect of any reward system but intangible rewards could be equally or even more effective. Most project team members are motivated by an opportunity to grow accomplish be appreciated and apply their professional skills to meet new challenges. A good strategy for project managers is to give the team recognition throughout the life cycle of the project rather than waiting until the project is completed. 9.4.2.6 TRAINING Training includes all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team members. Training can be formal or informal. Examples of training methods include classroom online computer-based on-the-job training from another project team member mentoring and coaching. If project team members lack the necessary management or technical skills such skills can be developed as part of the project work. Scheduled training takes place as stated in the resource management plan. Unplanned training takes place as a result of observation conversation and project performance appraisals conducted during management of the project team. Training costs could be included in the project budget or supported by the performing organization if the added skills may be useful for future projects. It may be performed by in-house or by external trainers. 9.4.2.7 INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM ASSESSMENTS Individual and team assessment tools give the project manager and the project team insight into areas of strengths and weaknesses. These tools help project managers assess team members’ preferences aspirations how they process and organize information how they make decisions and how they interact with people. Various tools are available such as attitudinal surveys specific assessments structured interviews ability tests and focus groups. These tools can provide improved understanding trust commitment and communications among team members and facilitate more productive teams throughout the project. 9.4.2.8 MEETINGS Meetings are used to discuss and address pertinent topics for developing the team. Attendees include the project manager and the project team. Types of meetings include but are not limited to project orientation meetings team- building meetings and team development meetings.

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343 9.4.3 DEVELOP TEAM: OUTPUTS 9.4.3.1 TEAM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS As project team development efforts such as training team building and colocation are implemented the project management team makes formal or informal assessments of the project team’s effectiveness. Effective team development strategies and activities are expected to increase the team’s performance which increases the likelihood of meeting project objectives. The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness may include indicators such as: uu Improvements in skills that allow individuals to perform assignments more effectively uu Improvements in competencies that help team members perform better as a team uu Reduced staff turnover rate and uu Increased team cohesiveness where team members share information and experiences openly and help each other to improve the overall project performance. As a result of conducting an evaluation of the team’s overall performance the project management team can identify the specific training coaching mentoring assistance or changes required to improve the team’s performance. This should also include identifying the appropriate or required resources necessary to achieve and implement the improvements identified in the assessment. 9.4.3.2 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. If change requests occur as a result of carrying out the Develop Team process or if recommended corrective or preventive actions impact any of the components of the project management plan or project documents the project manager needs to submit a change request and follow the Perform Integrated Change Control process as defined in Section 4.6. 9.4.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to the resource management plan as described in Section 9.1.3.1.

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344 Part 1 - Guide 9.4.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well for the development of the team. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. Activities to develop the project team may result in changes to the project schedule. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. When team development results in changes to agreed- upon assignments these changes are recorded in the project team assignments documentation. uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.2.1.2. Resource calendars are updated to reflect the availability of resources for the project. uu Team charter. Described in Section 9.1.3.2. The team charter may be updated to reflect changes to agreed-upon team operating guidelines that result from team development. 9.4.3.5 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS UPDATES Enterprise environmental factors that are updated as a result of the Develop Project Team process include but are not limited to: uu Employee development plan records and uu Skill assessments. 9.4.3.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS UPDATES Organizational process assets that are updated as a result of the Develop Team process include but are not limited to: uu Training requirements and uu Personnel assessment.

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345 9.5 MANAGE TEAM Manage Team is the process of tracking team member performance providing feedback resolving issues and managing team changes to optimize project performance. The key benefit of this process is that it influences team behavior manages conflict and resolves issues. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 9-12. Figure 9-13 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 9-12. Manage Team: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Manage Team .1 Interpersonal and team skills • Conflict management • Decision making • Emotional intelligence • Influencing • Leadership .2 Project management information system .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan .2 Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments • Team charter .3 Work performance reports .4 Team performance assessments .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .1 Change requests .2 Project management plan updates • Resource management plan • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .3 Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments .4 Enterprise environmental factors updates

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346 Part 1 - Guide Enterprise/ Organization • Project charter 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work Project management plan • Resource management plan • Work performance reports 9.4 Develop Team • Team performance assessments Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments • Team charter Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 9.5 Manage Team Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Change requests Project management plan updates • Resource management plan • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments Project Management Plan • Enterprise environmental factors updates Figure 9-13. Manage Team: Data Flow Diagram Managing the project team requires a variety of management and leadership skills for fostering teamwork and integrating the efforts of team members to create high-performance teams. Team management involves a combination of skills with special emphasis on communication conflict management negotiation and leadership. Project managers should provide challenging assignments to team members and provide recognition for high performance. The project manager needs to be sensitive to both the willingness and the ability of team members to perform their work and adjust their management and leadership styles accordingly. Team members with low-skill abilities will require more intensive oversight than those who have demonstrated ability and experience.

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347 9.5.1 MANAGE TEAM: INPUTS 9.5.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1 the resource management plan provides guidance on how project team resources should be managed and eventually released. 9.5.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of managing the team. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. Project team assignments identify the team member roles and responsibilities. uu Team charter. Described in Section 9.1.3.2. The team charter provides guidance for how the team will make decisions conduct meetings and resolve conflict. 9.5.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE REPORTS Described in Section 4.5.3.1. Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information intended to generate decisions actions or awareness. Performance reports that can help with project team management include results from schedule control cost control quality control and scope validation. The information from performance reports and related forecasts assists in determining future team resource requirements recognition and rewards and updates to the resource management plan. 9.5.1.4 TEAM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS Described in Section 9.4.3.1. The project management team makes ongoing formal or informal assessments of the project team’s performance. By continually assessing the project team’s performance actions can be taken to resolve issues modify communication address conflict and improve team interaction.

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348 Part 1 - Guide 9.5.1.5 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Manage Team process include but are not limited to human resource management policies. 9.5.1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Manage Team process include but are not limited to: uu Certificates of appreciation uu Corporate apparel and uu Other organizational perquisites. 9.5.2 MANAGE TEAM: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 9.5.2.1 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Conflict management. Conflict is inevitable in a project environment. Sources of conflict include scarce resources scheduling priorities and personal work styles. Team ground rules group norms and solid project management practices like communication planning and role definition reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private using a direct collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues formal procedures may be used including disciplinary actions. The success of project managers in managing their project teams often depends on their ability to resolve conflict. Different project managers may use different conflict resolution methods. Factors that influence conflict resolution methods include: u n Importance and intensity of the conflict u n Time pressure for resolving the conflict u n Relative power of the people involved in the conflict u n Importance of maintaining a good relationship and u n Motivation to resolve conflict on a long-term or short-term basis.

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349 There are five general techniques for resolving conflict. Each technique has its place and use: u m Withdraw/avoid. Retreating from an actual or potential conflict situation postponing the issue to be better prepared or to be resolved by others. u m Smooth/accommodate. Emphasizing areas of agreement rather than areas of difference conceding one’s position to the needs of others to maintain harmony and relationships. u m Compromise/reconcile. Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties in order to temporarily or partially resolve the conflict. This approach occasionally results in a lose-lose situation. u m Force/direct. Pushing one’s viewpoint at the expense of others offering only win-lose solutions usually enforced through a power position to resolve an emergency. This approach often results to a win-lose situation. u m Collaborate/problem solve. Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that typically leads to consensus and commitment. This approach can result in a win-win situation. uu Decision making. Decision making in this context involves the ability to negotiate and influence the organization and the project management team rather than the set of tools described in the decision making tool set. Some guidelines for decision making include: u n Focus on goals to be served u n Follow a decision-making process u n Study the environmental factors u n Analyze available information u n Stimulate team creativity and u n Account for risk. uu Emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify assess and manage the personal emotions of oneself and other people as well as the collective emotions of groups of people. The team can use emotional intelligence to reduce tension and increase cooperation by identifying assessing and controlling the sentiments of project team members anticipating their actions acknowledging their concerns and following up on their issues.

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350 Part 1 - Guide uu Influencing. Because project managers often have little or no direct authority over team members in a matrix environment their ability to influence stakeholders on a timely basis is critical to project success. Key influencing skills include: u n Ability to be persuasive u n Clearly articulating points and positions u n High levels of active and effective listening skills u n Awareness of and consideration for the various perspectives in any situation and u n Gathering relevant information to address issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust. uu Leadership. Successful projects require leaders with strong leadership skills. Leadership is the ability to lead a team and inspire them to do their jobs well. It encompasses a wide range of skills abilities and actions. Leadership is important through all phases of the project life cycle. There are multiple leadership theories defining leadership styles that should be used as needed for each situation or team. It is especially important to communicate the vision and inspire the project team to achieve high performance. 9.5.2.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems can include resource management or scheduling software that can be used for managing and coordinating team members across project activities. 9.5.3 MANAGE TEAM: OUTPUTS 9.5.3.1 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. When change requests occur as a result of carrying out the Manage Team process or when recommended corrective or preventive actions impact any of the components of the project management plan or project documents the project manager needs to submit a change request. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. For example staffing changes whether made by choice or by uncontrollable events can disrupt the project team. This disruption can cause the schedule to slip or the budget to be exceeded. Staffing changes include moving people to different assignments outsourcing some of the work or replacing team members who leave.

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351 9.5.3.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components of the project management plan that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan is updated to reflect actual experience in managing the project team. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. Changes to the project schedule may be required to reflect the way the team is performing. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the project cost baseline may be required to reflect the way the team is performing. 9.5.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. New issues raised as a result of this process are recorded in the issue log. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well for the managing the team. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. If changes to the team are required those changes are recorded in the project team assignments documentation. 9.5.3.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS UPDATES Enterprise environmental factors that are updated as a result of the Manage Team process include but are not limited to: uu Input to organizational performance appraisals and uu Personnel skill.

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352 Part 1 - Guide 9.6 CONTROL RESOURCES Control Resources is the process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned as well as monitoring the planned versus actual utilization of resources and taking corrective action as necessary. The key benefit of this process is ensuring that the assigned resources are available to the project at the right time and in the right place and are released when no longer needed. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 9-14. Figure 9-15 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 9-14. Control Resources: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Control Resources .1 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Cost-benefit analysis • Performance reviews • Trend analysis .2 Problem solving .3 Interpersonal and team skills • Negotiation • Influencing .4 Project management information system .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan .2 Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Physical resource assignments • Project schedule • Resource breakdown structure • Resource requirements • Risk register .3 Work performance data .4 Agreements .5 Organizational process assets .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates • Resource management plan • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .4 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Physical resource assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Risk register

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353 • Project charter 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work Project management plan • Resource management plan 12.2 Conduct Procurements • Agreements Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Physical resource assignments • Project schedule • Resource breakdown structure • Resource requirements • Risk register Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 9.6 Control Resources Enterprise/ Organization • Organizational process assets • Work performance information • Change requests Project management plan updates • Resource management plan • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Physical resource assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Risk register Project Management Plan 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work • Work performance data Figure 9-15. Control Resources: Data Flow Diagram The Control Resources process should be performed continuously in all project phases and throughout the project life cycle. The resources needed for the project should be assigned and released at the right time right place and right amount for the project to continue without delays. The Control Resources process is concerned with physical resources such as equipment materials facilities and infrastructure. Team members are addressed in the Manage Team process. The Control Resources techniques discussed here are those used most frequently on projects. There are many others that may be useful on certain projects or in some application areas.

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354 Part 1 - Guide Updating resource allocation requires knowing what actual resources have been used to date and what is still needed. This is done mainly by reviewing the performance usage to date. Control Resources is concerned with: uu Monitoring resource expenditures uu Identifying and dealing with resource shortage/surplus in a timely manner uu Ensuring that resources are used and released according to the plan and project needs uu Informing appropriate stakeholders if any issues arise with relevant resources uu Influencing the factors that can create resources utilization change and uu Managing the actual changes as they occur. Any changes needed to the schedule or cost baselines can be approved only through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. 9.6.1 CONTROL RESOURCES: INPUTS 9.6.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1 the resource management plan provides guidance on how physical resources should be used controlled and eventually released. 9.6.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log is used to identify issues such as lack of resources delays in raw material supplies or low grades of raw material. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve physical resource control. uu Physical resource assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. The physical resource assignments describe the expected resource utilization along with details such as type amount location and whether the resource is internal to the organization or outsourced.

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355 uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule shows the resources that are needed when they are needed and the location where they are needed. uu Resource breakdown structure. Described in Section 9.2.3.3. The resource breakdown structure provides a reference in case any resource needs to be replaced or reacquired during the course of the project. uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource requirements identify the needed material equipment supplies and other resources. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register identifies individual risks that can impact equipment materials or supplies. 9.6.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data contains data on project status such as the number and type of resources that have been used. 9.6.1.4 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. Agreements made within the context of the project are the basis for all resources external to the organization and should define procedures when new unplanned resources are needed or when issues arise with the current resources. 9.6.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Control Resources process include but are not limited to: uu Policies regarding resource control and assignment uu Escalation procedures for handling issues within the performing organization and uu Lessons learned repository from previous similar projects.

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356 Part 1 - Guide 9.6.2 CONTROL RESOURCES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 9.6.2.1 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used in this process include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. Described in Section 9.2.2.5. Alternatives can be analyzed to select the best resolution for correcting variances in resource utilization. Alternatives such as paying additional for overtime or additional team resources can be weighed against a late delivery or phased deliveries. uu Cost-benefit analysis. Described in Section 8.1.2.3. This analysis helps to determine the best corrective action in terms of cost in case of project deviations. uu Performance reviews. Performance reviews measure compare and analyze planned resource utilization to actual resource utilization. Cost and schedule work performance information can also be analyzed to help pinpoint issues that can influence resource utilization. uu Trend analysis. Described in Section 4.5.2.2. As the project progresses the project team may use trend analysis based on current performance information to determine the resources needed at upcoming stages of the project. Trend analysis examines project performance over time and can be used to determine whether performance is improving or deteriorating. 9.6.2.2 PROBLEM SOLVING Described in Section 8.2.2.7. Problem solving may use a set of tools that helps the project manager to solve problems that arise during the control resource process. The problem can come from inside the organization machines or infrastructure used by another department in the organization and not released in time materials that have been damaged because of unsuitable storage conditions etc. or from outside the organization major supplier that has gone bankrupt or bad weather that has damaged resources. The project manager should use methodical steps to deal with problem solving which can include: uu Identify the problem. Specify the problem. uu Define the problem. Break it into smaller manageable problems. uu Investigate. Collect data. uu Analyze. Find the root cause of the problem. uu Solve. Choose the suitable solution from a variety of available ones. uu Check the solution. Determine if the problem has been fixed.

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357 9.6.2.3 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills sometimes known as “soft skills” are personal competencies. The interpersonal and team skills used in this process include: uu Negotiation. Described in Section 12.2.2.5. The project manager may need to negotiate for additional physical resources changes in physical resources or costs associated with the resources. uu Influencing. Described in Section 9.5.2.1. Influencing can help the project manager solve problems and obtain the resources needed in a timely manner. 9.6.2.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems can include resource management or scheduling software that can be used to monitor the resource utilization which helps ensure that the right resources are working on the right activities at the right time and place. 9.6.3 CONTROL RESOURCES: OUTPUTS 9.6.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Described in Section 4.5.1.3. Work performance information includes information on how the project work is progressing by comparing resource requirements and resource allocation to resource utilization across the project activities. This comparison can show gaps in resource availability that need to be addressed. 9.6.3.2 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. When change requests occur as a result of carrying out the Control Resources process or when recommended corrective or preventive actions impact any of the components of the project management plan or project documents the project manager needs to submit a change request. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6.

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358 Part 1 - Guide 9.6.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan is updated to reflect actual experience in managing project resources. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. Changes to the project schedule may be required to reflect the way project resources are being managed. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes to the project cost baseline may be required to reflect the way project resources are being managed. 9.6.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of performing this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log may be updated with new assumptions regarding equipment materials supplies and other physical resources. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. New issues raised as a result of this process are recorded in the issue log. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with techniques that were effective in managing resource logistics scrap utilization variances and corrective actions that were used to respond to resource variances. uu Physical resource assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.1. Physical resource assignments are dynamic and subject to change due to availability the project organization environment or other factors. uu Resource breakdown structure. Described in Section 9.2.3.3. Changes to the resource breakdown structure may be required to reflect the way project resources are being used. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register is updated with any new risks associated with resource availability utilization or other physical resource risks.

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359 10 PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT Project Communications Management includes the processes necessary to ensure that the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met through development of artifacts and implementation of activities designed to achieve effective information exchange. Project Communications Management consists of two parts. The first part is developing a strategy to ensure communication is effective for stakeholders. The second part is carrying out the activities necessary to implement the communication strategy. The Project Communications Management processes are: 10.1 Plan Communications Management—The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communication activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group available organizational assets and the needs of the project. 10.2 Manage Communications—The process of ensuring timely and appropriate collection creation distribution storage retrieval management monitoring and the ultimate disposition of project information. 10.3 Monitor Communications—The process of ensuring the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met. Figure 10-1 provides an overview of the Project Communications Management processes. The Project Communications Management processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK ® Guide.

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360 Part 1 - Guide .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance reports .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Communication technology .2 Communication methods .3 Communication skills .4 Project management information system .5 Project reporting .6 Interpersonal and team skills .7 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Project communications .2 Project management plan updates .3 Project documents updates .4 Organizational process assets updates .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Communication requirements analysis .3 Communication technology .4 Communication models .5 Communication methods .6 Interpersonal and team skills .7 Data representation .8 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Communications management plan .2 Project management plan updates .3 Project documents update .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance data .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Project management information system .3 Data representation .4 Interpersonal and team skills .5 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates Project Communications Management Overview 10.2 Manage Communications 10.1 Plan Communications Management 10.3 Monitor Communications Figure 10-1. Project Communications Overview KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT Communication is the exchange of information intended or involuntary. The information exchanged can be in the form of ideas instructions or emotions. The mechanisms by which information is exchanged can be in: uu Written form. Either physical or electronic. uu Spoken. Either face-to-face or remote. uu Formal or informal as in formal papers or social media. uu Through gestures. Tone of voice and facial expressions. uu Through media. Pictures actions or even just the choice of words. uu Choice of words. There is often more than one word to express an idea there can be subtle differences in the meaning of each of these words and phrases.

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361 Communications describe the possible means by which the information can be sent or received either through communication activities such as meetings and presentations or artifacts such as emails social media project reports or project documentation. Project managers spend most of their time communicating with team members and other project stakeholders both internal at all organizational levels and external to the organization. Effective communication builds a bridge between diverse stakeholders who may have different cultural and organizational backgrounds as well as different levels of expertise perspectives and interests. Communication activities have many dimensions including but not limited to: uu Internal. Focus on stakeholders within the project and within the organization. uu External. Focus on external stakeholders such as customers vendors other projects organizations government the public and environmental advocates. uu Formal. Reports formal meetings both regular and ad hoc meeting agendas and minutes stakeholder briefings and presentations. uu Informal. General communications activities using emails social media websites and informal ad hoc discussions. uu Hierarchical focus. The position of the stakeholder or group with respect to the project team will affect the format and content of the message in the following ways: u n Upward. Senior management stakeholders. u n Downward. The team and others who will contribute to the work of the project. u n Horizontal. Peers of the project manager or team. uu Official. Annual reports reports to regulators or government bodies. uu Unofficial. Communications that focus on establishing and maintaining the profile and recognition of the project and building strong relationships between the project team and its stakeholders using flexible and often informal means. uu Written and oral. Verbal words and voice inflections and nonverbal body language and actions social media and websites media releases.

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362 Part 1 - Guide Communication develops the relationships necessary for successful project and program outcomes. Communication activities and artifacts to support communication vary widely ranging from emails and informal conversations to formal meetings and regular project reports. The act of sending and receiving information takes place consciously or unconsciously through words facial expressions gestures and other actions. In the context of successfully managing project relationships with stakeholders communication includes developing strategies and plans for suitable communications artifacts and activities with the stakeholder community and the application of skills to enhance the effectiveness of the planned and other ad hoc communications. There are two parts to successful communication. The first part involves developing an appropriate communication strategy based on both the needs of the project and the project’s stakeholders. From that strategy a communications management plan is developed to ensure that the appropriate messages are communicated to stakeholders in various formats and various means as defined by the communication strategy. These messages constitute the project’s communications—the second part of successful communication. Project communications are the products of the planning process addressed by the communications management plan that defines the collection creation dissemination storage retrieval management tracking and disposition of these communications artifacts. Finally the communication strategy and communications management plan will form the foundation to monitor the effect of the communication. The project’s communications are supported by efforts to prevent misunderstandings and miscommunication and by careful selection of the methods messengers and messages developed from the planning process. Misunderstandings can be reduced but not eliminated through using the 5Cs of written communications in composing a traditional non-social media written or spoken message:

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363 uu Correct grammar and spelling. Poor use of grammar or inaccurate spelling can be distracting and can also introduce distortions in the message diminishing credibility. uu Concise expression and elimination of excess words. A concise well-crafted message reduces the opportunities for misunderstanding the intent of the message. uu Clear purpose and expression directed to the needs of the reader. Ensure that the needs and interests of the audience are factored into the message. uu Coherent logical flow of ideas. A coherent logical flow of ideas and using “markers” such as introduction and summaries of the ideas throughout the writing. uu Controlling flow of words and ideas. Controlling the flow of words and ideas may involve graphics or just summaries. The 5Cs of written communications are supported by communication skills such as: uu Listening actively. Staying engaged with the speaker and summarizing conversations to ensure effective information exchange. uu Awareness of cultural and personal differences. Developing the team’s awareness of cultural and personal differences to reduce misunderstandings and enhance communication capability. uu Identifying setting and managing stakeholder expectations. Negotiating with stakeholders reduces the existence of conflicting expectations among the stakeholder community. uu Enhancement of skills. Enhancing the skills of all team members in the following activities: u n Persuading a person a team or an organization to perform an action u n Motivating people and providing encouragement or reassurance u n Coaching to improve performance and achieve desired results u n Negotiating to achieve mutually acceptable agreements between parties and reduce approval or decision delays and u n Resolving conflict to prevent disruptive impacts. The fundamental attributes of effective communication activities and developing effective communication artifacts are: u n Clarity on the purpose of the communication—defining its purpose u n Understanding as much as possible about the receiver of the communications meeting needs and preferences and u n Monitoring and measuring the effectiveness of the communications.

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364 Part 1 - Guide TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT Along with a focus on stakeholders and recognition of the value to projects and organizations of effective stakeholder engagement comes the recognition that developing and implementing appropriate communication strategies is vital to maintaining effective relationships with stakeholders. Trends and emerging practices for Project Communications Management include but are not limited to: uu Inclusion of stakeholders in project reviews. The stakeholder community of each project includes individuals groups and organizations that the project team has identified as essential to the successful delivery of project objectives and organizational outcomes. An effective communication strategy requires regular and timely reviews of the stakeholder community and updates to manage changes in its membership and attitudes. uu Inclusion of stakeholders in project meetings. Project meetings should include stakeholders from outside the project and even the organization where appropriate. Practices inherent in the agile approaches can be applied to all types of projects. Practices often include short daily standup meetings where the achievements and issues of the previous day and plans for the current day’s work are discussed with the project team and key stakeholders. uu Increased use of social computing. Social computing in the form of infrastructure social media services and personal devices has changed how organizations and their people communicate and do business. Social computing incorporates different approaches to collaboration supported by public IT infrastructure. Social networking refers to how users build networks of relationships to explore their interests and activities with others. Social media tools can not only support information exchange but also build relationships accompanied by deeper levels of trust and community. uu Multifaceted approaches to communication. The standard communication strategy for project stakeholder communications embraces and selects from all technologies and respects cultural practical and personal preferences for language media content and delivery. When appropriate social media and other advanced computing technologies may be included. Multifaceted approaches such as these are more effective for communicating to stakeholders from different generations and cultures.

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365 TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique the project team will need to tailor the way that Project Communications Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Stakeholders. Are the stakeholders internal or external to the organization or both uu Physical location. What is the physical location of team members Is the team colocated Is the team in the same geographical area Is the team distributed across multiple time zones uu Communications technology. What technology is available to develop record transmit retrieve track and store communication artifacts What technologies are most appropriate and cost effective for communicating to stakeholders uu Language. Language is a main factor to consider in communication activities. Is one language used Or are many languages used Have allowances been made to adjust to the complexity of team members from diverse language groups uu Knowledge management. Does the organization have a formal knowledge management repository Is the repository used CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS Project environments subject to various elements of ambiguity and change have an inherent need to communicate evolving and emerging details more frequently and quickly. This motivates streamlining team member access to information frequent team checkpoints and colocating team members as much as possible. In addition posting project artifacts in a transparent fashion and holding regular stakeholder reviews are intended to promote communication with management and stakeholders.

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366 Part 1 - Guide 10.1 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT Plan Communications Management is the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group available organizational assets and the needs of the project. The key benefit of this process is a documented approach to effectively and efficiently engage stakeholders by presenting relevant information in a timely manner. This process is performed periodically throughout the project as needed. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 10-2. Figure 10-3 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 10-2. Plan Communications Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Communications Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Communication requirements analysis .3 Communication technology .4 Communication models .5 Communication methods .6 Interpersonal and team skills • Communication styles assessment • Political awareness • Cultural awareness .7 Data representation • Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix .8 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Resource management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .3 Project documents • Requirements documentation • Stakeholder register .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Communications management plan .2 Project management plan updates • Stakeholder engagement plan .3 Project documents updates • Project schedule • Stakeholder register

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367 • Project charter 4.1 Develop Project Charter Project management plan • Resource management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan Project documents • Requirements documentation • Stakeholder register • Project charter Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 10.1 Plan Communications Management Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Communications management plan Project management plan updates • Stakeholder engagement plan Project documents updates • Project schedule • Stakeholder register Project Management Plan Figure 10-3. Plan Communications Management: Data Flow Diagram An effective communications management plan that recognizes the diverse information needs of the project’s stakeholders is developed early in the project life cycle. It should be reviewed regularly and modified when necessary when the stakeholder community changes or at the start of each new project phase. On most projects communications planning is performed very early during stakeholder identification and project management plan development. While all projects share the need to communicate project information the information needs and methods of distribution may vary widely. In addition the methods of storage retrieval and ultimate disposition of the project information need to be considered and documented during this process. The results of the Plan Communications Management process should be reviewed regularly throughout the project and revised as needed to ensure continued applicability.

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368 Part 1 - Guide 10.1.1 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 10.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter identifies the key stakeholder list. It may also contain information about the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders. 10.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. Provides guidance on how team resources will be categorized allocated managed and released. Team members and groups may have communication requirements that should be identified in the communications management plan. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. These strategies are often fulfilled via communications. 10.1.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation can include project stakeholder communications. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register is used to plan communications activities with stakeholders. 10.1.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Communications Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational culture political climate and governance framework uu Personnel administration policies uu Stakeholder risk thresholds uu Established communication channels tools and systems uu Global regional or local trends practices or habits and uu Geographic distribution of facilities and resources.

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369 10.1.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Communications Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational policies and procedures for social media ethics and security uu Organizational policies and procedures for issue risk change and data management uu Organizational communication requirements uu Standardized guidelines for development exchange storage and retrieval of information uu Historical information and lessons learned repository and uu Stakeholder and communications data and information from previous projects. 10.1.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 10.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Politics and power structures in the organization uu Environment and culture of the organization and other customer organizations uu Organizational change management approach and practices uu Industry or type of project deliverables uu Organizational communications technologies uu Organizational policies and procedures regarding legal requirements of corporate communications uu Organizational policies and procedures regarding security and uu Stakeholders including customers or sponsors. 10.1.2.2 COMMUNICATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS Analysis of communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information.

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370 Part 1 - Guide Sources of information typically used to identify and define project communication requirements include but are not limited to: uu Stakeholder information and communication requirements from within the stakeholder register and stakeholder engagement plan uu Number of potential communication channels or paths including one-to-one one-to-many and many-to-many communications uu Organizational charts uu Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships and interdependencies uu Development approach uu Disciplines departments and specialties involved in the project uu Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations uu Internal information needs e.g. when communicating within organizations uu External information needs e.g. when communicating with the media public or contractors and uu Legal requirements. 10.1.2.3 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly. Common methods used for information exchange and collaboration include conversations meetings written documents databases social media and websites. Factors that can affect the choice of communication technology include: uu Urgency of the need for information. The urgency frequency and format of the information to be communicated may vary from project to project and also within different phases of a project. uu Availability and reliability of technology. The technology that is required for distribution of project communications artifacts should be compatible available and accessible for all stakeholders throughout the project. uu Ease of use. The choice of communication technologies should be suitable for project participants and proper training events should be planned where appropriate.

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371 uu Project environment. Whether the team will meet and operate on a face-to-face basis or in a virtual environment whether they will be located in one or multiple time zones whether they will use multiple languages for communication and finally whether there are any other project environmental factors such as various aspects of culture which may constrain the efficiency of the communication. uu Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information. Some aspects to consider are: u n Whether information to be communicated is sensitive or confidential. If so additional security measures may be required. u n Social media policies for employees to ensure appropriate behavior security and the protection of proprietary information. 10.1.2.4 COMMUNICATION MODELS Communication models can represent the communication process in its most basic linear form sender and receiver in a more interactive form that encompasses the additional element of feedback sender receiver and feedback or in a more complex model that incorporates the human elements of the senders or receivers and attempts to show the complexity of any communication that involves people. uu Sample basic sender/receiver communication model. This model describes communication as a process and consists of two parties defined as the sender and receiver. This model is concerned with ensuring that the message is delivered rather than understood. The sequence of steps in a basic communication model is: u n Encode. The message is coded into symbols such as text sound or some other medium for transmission sending. u n Transmit message. The message is sent via a communication channel. The transmission of this message may be compromised by various physical factors such as unfamiliar technology or inadequate infrastructure. Noise and other factors may be present and contribute to loss of information in transmission and/or reception of the message. u n Decode. The data received is translated by the receiver back into a form useful to the receiver.

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372 Part 1 - Guide uu Sample interactive communication model. This model also describes communication as a process consisting of two parties the sender and receiver but recognizes the need to ensure that the message has been understood. In this model noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the understanding of the message such as the distraction of the receiver variations in the perceptions of receivers or lack of appropriate knowledge or interest. The additional steps in an interactive communication model are: u n Acknowledge. Upon receipt of a message the receiver may signal acknowledge receipt of the message but this does not necessarily mean agreement with or comprehension of the message—merely that it has been received. u n Feedback/response. When the received message has been decoded and understood the receiver encodes thoughts and ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender. If the sender perceives that the feedback matches the original message the communication has been successful. In communication between people feedback can be achieved through active listening described in Section 10.2.2.6. As part of the communication process the sender is responsible for the transmission of the message ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete and confirming the message is correctly interpreted. The receiver is responsible for ensuring that the information is received in its entirety interpreted correctly and acknowledged or responded to appropriately. These components take place in an environment where there will likely be noise and other barriers to effective communication.

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373 Cross-cultural communication presents challenges to ensuring that the meaning of the message has been understood. Differences in communication styles can arise from differences in working methods age nationality professional discipline ethnicity race or gender. People from different cultures communicate using different languages e.g. technical design documents different styles and expect different processes and protocols. The communication model shown in Figure 10-4 incorporates the idea that the message itself and how it is transmitted are influenced by the sender’s current emotional state knowledge background personality culture and biases. Similarly the receiver’s emotional state knowledge background personality culture and biases will influence how the message is received and interpreted and will contribute to the barriers or noise. This communication model and its enhancements can assist in developing communication strategies and plans for person-to-person or even small group to small group communications. It is not useful for other communications artifacts such as emails broadcast messages or social media. Figure 10-4. Communication Model for Cross-Cultural Communication Sender Encode Decode Receiver Decode Encode Transmit Message Feedback Message Current Emotional State Culture: • Generational • National • Professional discipline • Gender Personality biases assumptions Current Emotional State Culture: • Generational • National • Professional discipline • Gender Personality biases assumptions Noise Medium Noise Noise Acknowledge Message

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374 Part 1 - Guide 10.1.2.5 COMMUNICATION METHODS There are several communication methods that are used to share information among project stakeholders. These methods are broadly classified as follows: uu Interactive communication. Between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information in real time. It employs communications artifacts such as meetings phone calls instant messaging some forms of social media and videoconferencing. uu Push communication. Sent or distributed directly to specific recipients who need to receive the information. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not ensure that it actually reached or was understood by the intended audience. Push communications artifacts include letters memos reports emails faxes voice mails blogs and press releases. uu Pull communication. Used for large complex information sets or for large audiences and requires the recipients to access content at their own discretion subject to security procedures. These methods include web portals intranet sites e-learning lessons learned databases or knowledge repositories. Different approaches should be applied to meet the needs of the major forms of communication defined in the communications management plan: uu Interpersonal communication. Information is exchanged between individuals typically face-to-face. uu Small group communication. Occurs within groups of around three to six people. uu Public communication. A single speaker addressing a group of people. uu Mass communication. There is a minimal connection between the person or group sending the message and the large sometimes anonymous groups for whom the information is intended. uu Networks and social computing communication. Supports emerging communication trends of many-to-many supported by social computing technology and media.

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375 Possible communications artifacts and methods include but are not limited to: uu Notice boards uu Newsletters/in-house magazines/e-magazines uu Letters to staff/volunteers uu Press releases uu Annual reports uu Emails and intranets uu Web portals and other information repositories for pull communication uu Phone conversations uu Presentations uu Team briefings/group meetings uu Focus groups uu Face-to-face formal or informal meetings between various stakeholders uu Consultation groups or staff forums and uu Social computing technology and media. 10.1.2.6 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Communication styles assessment. A technique used to assess communication styles and identify the preferred communication method format and content for planned communication activities. Often used with unsupportive stakeholders this assessment may follow a stakeholder engagement assessment described in Section 13.2.2.5 to identify gaps in stakeholder engagement that require additional tailored communication activities and artifacts.

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376 Part 1 - Guide uu Political awareness. Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. Political awareness concerns the recognition of power relationships both formal and informal and also the willingness to operate within these structures. An understanding of the strategies of the organization knowing who wields power and influence in this arena and developing an ability to communicate with these stakeholders are all aspects of political awareness. uu Cultural awareness. Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals groups and organizations and adapting the project’s communication strategy in the context of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project’s stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members. 10.1.2.7 DATA REPRESENTATION A data representation technique that can be used for this process includes but is not limited to a stakeholder engagement assessment matrix. Described in Section 13.2.2.5. The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix shown in Figure 13-6 displays gaps between current and desired engagement levels of individual stakeholders it can be further analyzed in this process to identify additional communication requirements beyond the regular reports as a method to close any engagement level gaps. 10.1.2.8 MEETINGS Project meetings can include virtual e-meetings or face-to-face meetings and can be supported with document collaboration technologies including email messages and project websites. The Plan Communications Management process requires discussion with the project team to determine the most appropriate way to update and communicate project information and to respond to requests from various stakeholders for information.

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377 10.1.3 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 10.1.3.1 COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT PLAN The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned structured implemented and monitored for effectiveness. The plan contains the following information: uu Stakeholder communication requirements uu Information to be communicated including language format content and level of detail uu Escalation processes uu Reason for the distribution of that information uu Timeframe and frequency for the distribution of required information and receipt of acknowledgment or response if applicable uu Person responsible for communicating the information uu Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information uu Person or groups who will receive the information including information about their needs requirements and expectations uu Methods or technologies used to convey the information such as memos email press releases or social media uu Resources allocated for communication activities including time and budget uu Method for updating and refining the communications management plan as the project progresses and develops such as when the stakeholder community changes as the project moves through different phases uu Glossary of common terminology uu Flow charts of the information flow in the project workflows with possible sequence of authorization list of reports meeting plans etc. and uu Constraints derived from specific legislation or regulation technology organizational policies etc. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings project team meetings e-meetings and email messages. The use of a project website and project management software can be included if these are to be used in the project.

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378 Part 1 - Guide 10.1.3.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to the stakeholder engagement plan which is described in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan is updated to reflect any processes procedures tools or techniques that affect the engagement of stakeholders in project decisions and execution. 10.1.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule may be updated to reflect communication activities. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1.The stakeholder register may be updated to reflect communications planned.

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379 10.2 MANAGE COMMUNICATIONS Manage Communications is the process of ensuring timely and appropriate collection creation distribution storage retrieval management monitoring and the ultimate disposition of project information. The key benefit of this process is that it enables an efficient and effective information flow between the project team and the stakeholders. This process is performed throughout the project. The Manage Communications process identifies all aspects of effective communication including choice of appropriate technologies methods and techniques. In addition it should allow for flexibility in the communications activities allowing adjustments in the methods and techniques to accommodate the changing needs of stakeholders and the project. The inputs tools techniques and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 10-5. Figure 10-6 depicts the data flow diagram of the Manage Communications process. Figure 10-5. Manage Communications: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Manage Communications .1 Communication technology .2 Communication methods .3 Communication skills • Communication competence • Feedback • Nonverbal • Presentations .4 Project management information system .5 Project reporting .6 Interpersonal and team skills • Active listening • Conflict management • Cultural awareness • Meeting management • Networking • Political awareness .7 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .2 Project documents • Change log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Quality report • Risk report • Stakeholder register .3 Work performance reports .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Project communications .2 Project management plan updates • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .3 Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Risk register • Stakeholder register .4 Organizational process assets updates

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380 Part 1 - Guide Enterprise/ Organization • Project charter 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work Project management plan • Resource management plan • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan Project documents • Change log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Quality report • Risk report • Stakeholder register • Work performance reports Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 10.2 Manage Communications Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Project communications Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Risk register • Stakeholder register Project management plan updates • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan • Organizational process assets updates Project Management Plan Figure 10-6. Manage Communications: Data Flow Diagram

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381 This process goes beyond the distribution of relevant information and seeks to ensure that the information being communicated to project stakeholders has been appropriately generated and formatted and received by the intended audience. It also provides opportunities for stakeholders to make requests for further information clarification and discussion. Techniques and considerations for effective communications management include but are not limited to: uu Sender-receiver models. Incorporating feedback loops to provide opportunities for interaction/participation and remove barriers to effective communication. uu Choice of media. Decisions about application of communications artifacts to meet specific project needs such as when to communicate in writing versus orally when to prepare an informal memo versus a formal report and when to use push/pull options and the choice of appropriate technology. uu Writing style. Appropriate use of active versus passive voice sentence structure and word choice. uu Meeting management. Described in Section 10.2.2.6. Preparing an agenda inviting essential participants and ensuring they attend. Dealing with conflicts within the meeting or resulting from inadequate follow-up of minutes and actions or attendance of the wrong people. uu Presentations. Awareness of the impact of body language and design of visual aids. uu Facilitation. Described in Section 4.1.2.3. Building consensus and overcoming obstacles such as difficult group dynamics and maintaining interest and enthusiasm among group members. uu Active listening. Described in Section 10.2.2.6. Listening actively involves acknowledging clarifying and confirming understanding and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension. 10.2.1 MANAGE COMMUNICATIONS: INPUTS 10.2.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan describes the communications that are needed for management of team or physical resources. uu Communications management plan. Described in Section 10.1.3.1. The communications management plan describes how project communications will be planned structured monitored and controlled. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in detail in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan describes how stakeholders will be engaged through appropriate communication strategies.

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382 Part 1 - Guide 10.2.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to uu Change log. Described in Section 4.6.3.3. The change log is used to communicate changes and approved deferred and rejected change requests to the impacted stakeholders. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.6.3.3. Information about issues is communicated to impacted stakeholders. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to managing communications can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of communications and the communication process. uu Quality report. Described in Section 8.2.3.1. Information in the quality report includes quality issues project and product improvements and process improvements. This information is forwarded to those who can take corrective actions in order to achieve the project quality expectations. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk together with summary information on identified individual project risks. This information is communicated to risk owners and other impacted stakeholders. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register identifies the individuals groups or organizations that will need various types of information. 10.2.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE REPORTS Described in Section 4.5.3.1. Work performance reports are circulated to the project stakeholders through this process as defined in the communications management plan. Examples of work performance reports include status reports and progress reports. Work performance reports can contain earned value graphs and information trend lines and forecasts reserve burndown charts defect histograms contract performance information and risk summaries. They can be presented as dashboards heat reports stop light charts or other representations useful for creating awareness and generating decisions and actions.

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383 10.2.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence this process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational culture political climate and governance framework uu Personnel administration policies uu Stakeholder risk thresholds uu Established communication channels tools and systems uu Global regional or local trends and practices or habits and uu Geographic distribution of facilities and resources. 10.2.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence this process include but are not limited to: uu Corporate policies and procedures for social media ethics and security uu Corporate policies and procedures for issue risk change and data management uu Organizational communication requirements uu Standardized guidelines for development exchange storage and retrieval of information and uu Historical information from previous projects including the lessons learned repository. 10.2.2 MANAGE COMMUNICATIONS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 10.2.2.1 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Described in Section 10.1.2.3. Factors that influence the technology include whether the team is colocated the confidentiality of any information that needs to be shared resources available to the team members and how the organization’s culture influences the way in which meetings and discussions are normally conducted. 10.2.2.2 COMMUNICATION METHODS Described in Section 10.1.2.5. The choice of communication methods should allow flexibility in the event that the membership of the stakeholder community changes or their needs and expectations change.

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384 Part 1 - Guide 10.2.2.3 COMMUNICATION SKILLS Communication techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Communication competence. A combination of tailored communication skills that considers factors such as clarity of purpose in key messages effective relationships and information sharing and leadership behaviors. uu Feedback. Feedback is information about reactions to communications a deliverable or a situation. Feedback supports interactive communication between the project manager team and all other project stakeholders. Examples include coaching mentoring and negotiating. uu Nonverbal. Examples of nonverbal communication include appropriate body language to transmit meaning through gestures tone of voice and facial expressions. Mirroring and eye contact are also important techniques. The team members should be aware of how they are expressing themselves both through what they say and what they don’t say. uu Presentations. A presentation is the formal delivery of information and/or documentation. Clear and effective presentations of project information to relevant stakeholders can include but are not limited to: u n Progress reports and information updates to stakeholders u n Background information to support decision making u n General information about the project and its objectives for the purposes of raising the profile of the work of the project and the team and u n Specific information aimed at increasing understanding and support of the work and objectives of the project. Presentations will be successful when the content and delivery take the following into account: u n The audience their expectations and needs and u n The needs and objectives of the project and project team.

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385 10.2.2.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems can ensure that stakeholders can easily retrieve the information they need in a timely way. Project information is managed and distributed using a variety of tools including: uu Electronic project management tools. Project management software meeting and virtual office support software web interfaces specialized project portals and dashboards and collaborative work management tools. uu Electronic communications management. Email fax and voice mail audio video and web conferencing and websites and web publishing. uu Social media management. Websites and web publishing and blogs and applications which offer the opportunity to engage with stakeholders and form online communities. 10.2.2.5 PROJECT REPORTING Project reporting is the act of collecting and distributing project information. Project information is distributed to many groups of stakeholders and should be adapted to provide information at an appropriate level format and detail for each type of stakeholder. The format may range from a simple communication to more elaborate custom reports and presentations. Information may be prepared regularly or on an exception basis. While work performance reports are the output of the Monitor and Control Project Work process this process develops ad hoc reports project presentations blogs and other types of communication about the project.

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386 Part 1 - Guide 10.2.2.6 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Active listening. Techniques of active listening involve acknowledging clarifying and confirming understanding and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension. uu Conflict management. Described in Section 9.5.2.1. uu Cultural awareness. Described in Section 10.1.2.6. uu Meeting management. Meeting management is taking steps to ensure meetings meet their intended objectives effectively and efficiently. The following steps should be used for meeting planning: u n Prepare and distribute the agenda stating the objectives of the meeting. u n Ensure that the meetings start and finish at the published time. u n Ensure the appropriate participants are invited and attend. u n Stay on topic. u n Manage expectations issues and conflicts during the meeting. u n Record all actions and those who have been allocated the responsibility for completing the action. uu Networking. Networking is interacting with others to exchange information and develop contacts. Networks provide project managers and their teams with access to informal organizations to solve problems influence actions of their stakeholders and increase stakeholder support for the work and outcomes of the project thus improving performance. uu Political awareness. Described in Section 10.1.2.6. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project. 10.2.2.7 MEETINGS Meetings support the actions defined in the communication strategy and communications plan.

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387 10.2.3 MANAGE COMMUNICATIONS: OUTPUTS 10.2.3.1 PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS Project communications artifacts may include but are not limited to: performance reports deliverable status schedule progress cost incurred presentations and other information required by stakeholders. 10.2.3.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components of the project management plan that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Communications management plan. Described in Section 10.1.3.1. When changes are made to the project communications approach as a result of this process these changes are reflected in the project communications plan. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. Stakeholder communication requirements and agreed-upon communications strategies are updated as a result of this process. 10.2.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Sections 4.3.3.3. The issue log is updated to reflect any communication issues on the project or how any communications have been used to impact active issues. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.3.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well and what did not work well for managing communications. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The project schedule may be updated to reflect the status of communication activities. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register is updated to capture risks associated with managing communications. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register can be updated to include information regarding communications activities with project stakeholders.

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388 Part 1 - Guide 10.2.3.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS UPDATES Organizational process assets that may be updated as a result of this process include but are not limited to: uu Project records such as correspondence memos meeting minutes and other documents used on the project and uu Planned and ad hoc project reports and presentations. 10.3 MONITOR COMMUNICATIONS Monitor Communications is the process of ensuring the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met. The key benefit of this process is the optimal information flow as defined in the communications management plan and the stakeholder engagement plan. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 10-7. Figure 10-8 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 10-7. Monitor Communications: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Monitor Communications .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .2 Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project communications .3 Work performance data .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Expert judgment .2 Project management information system .3 Data analysis • Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Observation/conversation .5 Meetings .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .4 Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Stakeholder register

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389 • Project charter 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work Project management plan • Resource management plan • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project communications • Work performance reports Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 10.3 Monitor Communications Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Work performance information • Change requests Project management plan updates • Communications management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan Project documents updates: • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Stakeholder register Project Management Plan 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work Figure 10-8. Monitor Communications: Data Flow Diagram Monitor Communications determines if the planned communications artifacts and activities have had the desired effect of increasing or maintaining stakeholders’ support for the project’s deliverables and expected outcomes. The impact and consequences of project communications should be carefully evaluated and monitored to ensure that the right message with the right content the same meaning for sender and receiver is delivered to the right audience through the right channel and at the right time. Monitor Communications may require a variety of methods such as customer satisfaction surveys collecting lessons learned observations of the team reviewing data from the issue log or evaluating changes in the stakeholder engagement assessment matrix described in Section 13.2.2.5. The Monitor Communications process can trigger an iteration of the Plan Communications Management and/or Manage Communications processes to improve effectiveness of communication through additional and possibly amended communications plans and activities. Such iterations illustrate the continuous nature of the Project Communications Management processes. Issues or key performance indicators risks or conflicts may trigger an immediate revision.

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390 Part 1 - Guide 10.3.1 MONITOR COMMUNICATIONS: INPUTS 10.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan can be used to understand the actual project organization and any changes through understanding of roles and responsibilities and the project organization charts. uu Communications management plan. Described in Section 10.1.3.1. The communications management plan contains the current plan for collecting creating and distributing information in a timely manner. It identifies the team members stakeholders and the work involved in the communication process. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan identifies the communication strategies that are planned to engage stakeholders. 10.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log provides the project’s history a record of stakeholder engagement issues and how they were resolved. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project to improve communication effectiveness. uu Project communications. Described in Section 10.2.3.1. Provides information about communications that have been distributed. 10.3.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data contains data on the types and quantities of communications that have actually been distributed.

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391 10.3.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Monitor Communications process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational culture political climate and governance framework uu Established communication channels tools and systems uu Global regional or local trends practices or habits and uu Geographic distribution of facilities and resources. 10.3.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that may influence the Monitor Communications process include but are not limited to: uu Corporate policies and procedures for social media ethics and security uu Organizational communication requirements uu Standardized guidelines for development exchange storage and retrieval of information uu Historical information and lessons learned repository from previous projects and uu Stakeholder and communications data and information from previous projects. 10.3.2 MONITOR COMMUNICATIONS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 10.3.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Communications with the public the community and the media and in an international environment between virtual groups and uu Communications and project management systems.

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392 Part 1 - Guide 10.3.2.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems provides a set of standard tools for the project manager to capture store and distribute information to internal and external stakeholders with the information they need according the communications plan. The information contained in the system is monitored to assess its validity and effectiveness. 10.3.2.3 DATA REPRESENTATION A data representation technique that can be used includes but is not limited to the stakeholder engagement assessment matrix Section 13.2.2.5 which can provide information about the effectiveness of the communications activities. This is achieved by reviewing changes between desired and current engagement and adjusting communications as necessary. 10.3.2.4 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to observation/conversation as described in Section 5.2.2.6. Discussion and dialogue with the project team helps determine the most appropriate way to update and communicate project performance and to respond to requests from stakeholders for information. Observation and conversation enables the project manager to identify issues within the team conflicts between people or individual performance issues. 10.3.2.5 MEETINGS Face-to-face or virtual meetings are used for decision making responding to stakeholder requests and having discussions with suppliers vendors and other project stakeholders. 10.3.3 MONITOR COMMUNICATIONS: OUTPUTS 10.3.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Described in Section 4.5.1.3. Work performance information includes information on how project communication is performing by comparing the communications that were implemented compared to those that were planned. It also considers feedback on communications such as survey results on communication effectiveness.

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393 10.3.3.2 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. The Monitor Communications process often results in the need for adjustment action and intervention on communications activities defined in the communications management plan. Change requests are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. These change requests may result in: uu Revision of stakeholder communication requirements including stakeholders’ information distribution content or format and distribution method and uu New procedures to eliminate bottlenecks. 10.3.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Communications management plan. Described in Section 10.1.3.1. The communications management plan is updated with new information to make communication more effective. uu Stakeholder engagement plan. Described in Section 13.2.3.1. The stakeholder engagement plan is updated to reflect the actual situation of stakeholders their communication needs and their importance. 10.3.3.4 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log may be updated with new information on issues raised their progress and resolution. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register may be updated with causes of issues reasons behind the corrective actions chosen and other communication lessons learned as appropriate. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register may be updated with revised stakeholder communication requirements.

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394 Part 1 - Guide

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395 11 PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT Project Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning identification analysis response planning response implementation and monitoring risk on a project. The objectives of project risk management are to increase the probability and/or impact of positive risks and to decrease the probability and/or impact of negative risks in order to optimize the chances of project success. The Project Risk Management processes are: 11.1 Plan Risk Management—The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project. 11.2 Identify Risks—The process of identifying individual project risks as well as sources of overall project risk and documenting their characteristics. 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis—The process of prioritizing individual project risks for further analysis or action by assessing their probability of occurrence and impact as well as other characteristics. 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis—The process of numerically analyzing the combined effect of identified individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty on overall project objectives. 11.5 Plan Risk Responses—The process of developing options selecting strategies and agreeing on actions to address overall project risk exposure as well as to treat individual project risks. 11.6 Implement Risk Responses—The process of implementing agreed-upon risk response plans. 11.7 Monitor Risks—The process of monitoring the implementation of agreed-upon risk response plans tracking identified risks identifying and analyzing new risks and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project. Figure 11-1 provides an overview of the Project Risk Management processes. The Project Management Risk processes are presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while in practice they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in this PMBOK ® Guide.

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396 Part 1 - Guide Figure 11-1. Project Risk Management Overview .1 Inputs .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Risk management plan Project Risk Management Overview 11.1 Plan Risk Management .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Agreements .4 Procurement documentation .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Data analysis .4 Interpersonal and team skills .5 Prompt lists .6 Meetings . 3 Outputs .1 Risk register .2 Risk report .3 Project documents updates 11.2 Identify Risks .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Data analysis .4 Interpersonal and team skills .5 Risk categorization .6 Data representation .7 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Project documents updates 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Interpersonal and team skills .4 Strategies for threats .5 Strategies for opportunities .6 Contingent response strategies .7 Strategies for overall project risk .8 Data analysis .9 Decision making .3 Outputs .1 Change requests .2 Project management plan updates .3 Project documents updates 11.5 Plan Risk Responses .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Interpersonal and team skills .3 Project management information system .3 Outputs .1 Change requests .2 Project documents updates 11.6 Implement Risk Responses .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Work performance data .4 Work performance reports .2 Tools Techniques .1 Data analysis .2 Audits .3 Meetings .3 Outputs .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates .5 Organizational process assets updates 11.7 Monitor Risks .1 Inputs .1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .2 Tools Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Interpersonal and team skills .4 Representations of uncertainty .5 Data analysis .3 Outputs .1 Project documents updates 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

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397 KEY CONCEPTS FOR PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT All projects are risky since they are unique undertakings with varying degrees of complexity that aim to deliver benefits. They do this in a context of constraints and assumptions while responding to stakeholder expectations that may be conflicting and changing. Organizations should choose to take project risk in a controlled and intentional manner in order to create value while balancing risk and reward. Project Risk Management aims to identify and manage risks that are not addressed by the other project management processes. When unmanaged these risks have the potential to cause the project to deviate from the plan and fail to achieve the defined project objectives. Consequently the effectiveness of Project Risk Management is directly related to project success. Risk exists at two levels within every project. Each project contains individual risks that can affect the achievement of project objectives. It is also important to consider the riskiness of the overall project which arises from the combination of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty. Project Risk Management processes address both levels of risk in projects and these are defined as follows: uu Individual project risk is an uncertain event or condition that if it occurs has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives. uu Overall project risk is the effect of uncertainty on the project as a whole arising from all sources of uncertainty including individual risks representing the exposure of stakeholders to the implications of variations in project outcome both positive and negative. Individual project risks can have a positive or negative effect on project objectives if they occur. Project Risk Management aims to exploit or enhance positive risks opportunities while avoiding or mitigating negative risks threats. Unmanaged threats may result in issues or problems such as delay cost overruns performance shortfall or loss of reputation. Opportunities that are captured can lead to benefits such as reduced time and cost improved performance or reputation. Overall project risk can also be positive or negative. Management of overall project risk aims to keep project risk exposure within an acceptable range by reducing drivers of negative variation promoting drivers of positive variation and maximizing the probability of achieving overall project objectives.

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398 Part 1 - Guide Risks will continue to emerge during the lifetime of the project so Project Risk Management processes should be conducted iteratively. Risk is initially addressed during project planning by shaping the project strategy. Risk should also be monitored and managed as the project progresses to ensure that the project stays on track and emergent risks are addressed. In order to manage risk effectively on a particular project the project team needs to know what level of risk exposure is acceptable in pursuit of the project objectives. This is defined by measurable risk thresholds that reflect the risk appetite of the organization and project stakeholders. Risk thresholds express the degree of acceptable variation around a project objective. They are explicitly stated and communicated to the project team and reflected in the definitions of risk impact levels for the project. TRENDS AND EMERGING PRACTICES IN PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT The focus of project risk management is broadening to ensure that all types of risk are considered and that project risks are understood in a wider context. Trends and emerging practices for Project Risk Management include but are not limited to: uu Non-event risks. Most projects focus only on risks that are uncertain future events that may or may not occur. Examples of event-based risks include: a key seller may go out of business during the project the customer may change the requirement after design is complete or a subcontractor may propose enhancements to the standard operating processes. There is an increasing recognition that non-event risks need to be identified and managed. There are two main types of non-event risks: u n Variability risk. Uncertainty exists about some key characteristics of a planned event or activity or decision. Examples of variability risks include: productivity may be above or below target the number of errors found during testing may be higher or lower than expected or unseasonal weather conditions may occur during the construction phase. u n Ambiguity risk. Uncertainty exists about what might happen in the future. Areas of the project where imperfect knowledge might affect the project’s ability to achieve its objectives include: elements of the requirement or technical solution future developments in regulatory frameworks or inherent systemic complexity in the project.

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399 Variability risks can be addressed using Monte Carlo analysis with the range of variation reflected in probability distributions followed by actions to reduce the spread of possible outcomes. Ambiguity risks are managed by defining those areas where there is a deficit of knowledge or understanding then filling the gap by obtaining expert external input or benchmarking against best practices. Ambiguity is also addressed through incremental development prototyping or simulation. uu Project resilience. The existence of emergent risk is becoming clear with a growing awareness of so-called unknowable-unknowns. These are risks that can only be recognized after they have occurred. Emergent risks can be tackled through developing project resilience. This requires each project to have: u n Right level of budget and schedule contingency for emergent risks in addition to a specific risk budget for known risks u n Flexible project processes that can cope with emergent risk while maintaining overall direction toward project goals including strong change management u n Empowered project team that has clear objectives and that is trusted to get the job done within agreed- upon limits u n Frequent review of early warning signs to identify emergent risks as early as possible and u n Clear input from stakeholders to clarify areas where the project scope or strategy can be adjusted in response to emergent risks. uu Integrated risk management. Projects exist in an organizational context and they may form part of a program or portfolio. Risk exists at each of these levels and risks should be owned and managed at the appropriate level. Some risks identified at higher levels will be delegated to the project team for management and some project risks may be escalated to higher levels if they are best managed outside the project. A coordinated approach to enterprise-wide risk management ensures alignment and coherence in the way risk is managed across all levels. This builds risk efficiency into the structure of programs and portfolios providing the greatest overall value for a given level of risk exposure.

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400 Part 1 - Guide TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS Because each project is unique it is necessary to tailor the way Project Risk Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: uu Project size. Does the project’s size in terms of budget duration scope or team size require a more detailed approach to risk management Or is it small enough to justify a simplified risk process uu Project complexity. Is a robust risk approach demanded by high levels of innovation new technology commercial arrangements interfaces or external dependencies that increase project complexity Or is the project simple enough that a reduced risk process will suffice uu Project importance. How strategically important is the project Is the level of risk increased for this project because it aims to produce breakthrough opportunities addresses significant blocks to organizational performance or involves major product innovation uu Development approach. Is this a waterfall project where risk processes can be followed sequentially and iteratively or does the project follow an agile approach where risk is addressed at the start of each iteration as well as during its execution Tailoring of the Project Risk Management processes to meet these considerations is part of the Plan Risk Management process and the outcomes of tailoring decisions are recorded in the risk management plan. CONSIDERATIONS FOR AGILE/ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENTS High-variability environments by definition incur more uncertainty and risk. To address this projects managed using adaptive approaches make use of frequent reviews of incremental work products and cross-functional project teams to accelerate knowledge sharing and ensure that risk is understood and managed. Risk is considered when selecting the content of each iteration and risks will also be identified analyzed and managed during each iteration. Additionally the requirements are kept as a living document that is updated regularly and work may be reprioritized as the project progresses based on an improved understanding of current risk exposure.

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401 11.1 PLAN RISK MANAGEMENT Plan Risk Management is the process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project. The key benefit of this process is that it ensures that the degree type and visibility of risk management are proportionate to both risks and the importance of the project to the organization and other stakeholders. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 11-2. Figure 11-3 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-2. Plan Risk Management: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs Plan Risk Management .1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Stakeholder analysis .3 Meetings .1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • All components .3 Project documents • Stakeholder register .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets .1 Risk management plan

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402 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 11.1 Plan Risk Management Enterprise/ Organization 4.1 Develop Project Charter • Project charter Project documents • Stakeholder register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project management plan • All components Project Management Plan Project Documents • Risk management plan Figure 11-3. Plan Risk Management: Data Flow Diagram The Plan Risk Management process should begin when a project is conceived and should be completed early in the project. It may be necessary to revisit this process later in the project life cycle for example at a major phase change or if the project scope changes significantly or if a subsequent review of risk management effectiveness determines that the Project Risk Management process requires modification. 11.1.1 PLAN RISK MANAGEMENT: INPUTS 11.1.1.1 PROJECT CHARTER Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The project charter documents the high-level project description and boundaries high- level requirements and risks.

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403 11.1.1.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. In planning Project Risk Management all approved subsidiary management plans should be taken into consideration in order to make the risk management plan consistent with them. The methodology outlined in other project management plan components might influence the Plan Risk Management process. 11.1.1.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to the stakeholder register as described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register contains details of the project’s stakeholders and provides an overview of their project roles and their attitude toward risk on this project. This is useful in determining roles and responsibilities for managing risk on the project as well as setting risk thresholds for the project. 11.1.1.4 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Risk Management process include but are not limited to overall risk thresholds set by the organization or key stakeholders. 11.1.1.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Risk Management process include but are not limited to: uu Organizational risk policy uu Risk categories possibly organized into a risk breakdown structure uu Common definitions of risk concepts and terms uu Risk statement formats uu Templates for the risk management plan risk register and risk report uu Roles and responsibilities uu Authority levels for decision making and uu Lessons learned repository from previous similar projects.

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404 Part 1 - Guide 11.1.2 PLAN RISK MANAGEMENT: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.1.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Familiarity with the organization’s approach to managing risk including enterprise risk management where this is performed uu Tailoring risk management to the specific needs of a project and uu Types of risk that are likely to be encountered on projects in the same area. 11.1.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process includes but are not limited to a stakeholder analysis Section 13.1.2.3 to determine the risk appetite of project stakeholders. 11.1.2.3 MEETINGS The risk management plan may be developed as part of the project kick-off meeting or a specific planning meeting may be held. Attendees may include the project manager selected project team members key stakeholders or team members who are responsible to manage the risk management process on the project. Others outside the organization may also be invited as needed including customers sellers and regulators. A skilled facilitator can help participants remain focused on the task agree on key aspects of the risk approach identify and overcome sources of bias and resolve any disagreements that may arise. Plans for conducting risk management activities are defined in these meetings and documented in the risk management plan see Section 11.1.3.1.

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405 11.1.3 PLAN RISK MANAGEMENT: OUTPUTS 11.1.3.1 RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. The risk management plan may include some or all of the following elements: uu Risk strategy. Describes the general approach to managing risk on this project. uu Methodology. Defines the specific approaches tools and data sources that will be used to perform risk management on the project. uu Roles and responsibilities. Defines the lead support and risk management team members for each type of activity described in the risk management plan and clarifies their responsibilities. uu Funding. Identifies the funds needed to perform activities related to Project Risk Management. Establishes protocols for the application of contingency and management reserves. uu Timing. Defines when and how often the Project Risk Management processes will be performed throughout the project life cycle and establishes risk management activities for inclusion into the project schedule. uu Risk categories. Provide a means for grouping individual project risks. A common way to structure risk categories is with a risk breakdown structure RBS which is a hierarchical representation of potential sources of risk see example in Figure 11-4. An RBS helps the project team consider the full range of sources from which individual project risks may arise. This can be useful when identifying risks or when categorizing identified risks. The organization may have a generic RBS to be used for all projects or there may be several RBS frameworks for different types of projects or the project may develop a tailored RBS. Where an RBS is not used an organization may use a custom risk categorization framework which may take the form of a simple list of categories or a structure based on project objectives.

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406 Part 1 - Guide RBS LEVEL 0 0. ALL SOURCES OF PROJECT RISK 1. TECHNICAL RISK 2. MANAGEMENT RISK 3. COMMERCIAL RISK 4. EXTERNAL RISK RBS LEVEL 1RBS LEVEL 2 1.1 Scope definition 1.2 Requirements definition 1.3 Estimates assumptions and constraints 1.4 Technical processes 1.5 Technology 1.6 Technical interfaces Etc. 2.1 Project management 2.2 Program/portfolio management 2.3 Operations management 2.4 Organization 2.5 Resourcing 2.6 Communication Etc. 3.1 Contractual terms and conditions 3.2 Internal procurement 3.3 Suppliers and vendors 3.4 Subcontracts 3.5 Client/customer stability 3.6 Partnerships and joint ventures Etc. 4.1 Legislation 4.2 Exchange rates 4.3 Site/facilities 4.4 Environmental/weather 4.5 Competition 4.6 Regulatory Etc. Figure 11-4. Extract from Sample Risk Breakdown Structure RBS

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407 uu Stakeholder risk appetite. The risk appetites of key stakeholders on the project are recorded in the risk management plan as they inform the details of the Plan Risk Management process. In particular stakeholder risk appetite should be expressed as measurable risk thresholds around each project objective. These thresholds will determine the acceptable level of overall project risk exposure and they are also used to inform the definitions of probability and impacts to be used when assessing and prioritizing individual project risks. uu Definitions of risk probability and impacts. Definitions of risk probability and impact levels are specific to the project context and reflect the risk appetite and thresholds of the organization and key stakeholders. The project may generate specific definitions of probability and impact levels or it may start with general definitions provided by the organization. The number of levels reflects the degree of detail required for the Project Risk Management process with more levels used for a more detailed risk approach typically five levels and fewer for a simple process usually three. Table 11-1 provides an example of definitions of probability and impacts against three project objectives. These scales can be used to evaluate both threats and opportunities by interpreting the impact definitions as negative for threats delay additional cost and performance shortfall and positive for opportunities reduced time or cost and performance enhancement. Table 11-1. Example of Definitions for Probability and Impacts SCALEPROBABILITY TIME COST QUALITY +/– IMPACT ON PROJECT OBJECTIVES Very significant impact on overall functionality Significant impact on overall functionality Some impact in key functional areas Minor impact on overall functionality Minor impact on secondary functions No change in functionality Very High High Medium Low Very Low Nil 70 51-70 31-50 11-30 1-10 1 6 months 3-6 months 1-3 months 1-4 weeks 1 week No change 5M 1M-5M 501K-1M 100K-500K 100K No change

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408 Part 1 - Guide uu Probability and impact matrix. Described in Section 11.3.2.6. Prioritization rules may be specified by the organization in advance of the project and be included in organizational process assets or they may be tailored to the specific project. Opportunities and threats are represented in a common probability and impact matrix using positive definitions of impact for opportunities and negative impact definitions for threats. Descriptive terms such as very high high medium low and very low or numeric values can be used for probability and impact. Where numeric values are used these can be multiplied to give a probability-impact score for each risk which allows the relative priority of individual risks to be evaluated within each priority level. An example probability and impact matrix is presented in Figure 11-5 which also shows a possible numeric risk scoring scheme. Figure 11-5. Example Probability and Impact Matrix with Scoring Scheme uu Reporting formats. Reporting formats define how the outcomes of the Project Risk Management process will be documented analyzed and communicated. This section of the risk management plan describes the content and format of the risk register and the risk report as well as any other required outputs from the Project Risk Management processes. uu Tracking. Tracking documents how risk activities will be recorded and how risk management processes will be audited. Probability Probability 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 Very Low 0.05 Very High 0.90 High 0.70 Medium 0.50 Low 0.30 Very Low 0.10 Very High 0.90 High 0.70 Medium 0.50 Low 0.30 Very Low 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.01 Low 0.10 0.18 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.02 Moderate 0.20 0.36 0.28 0.20 0.12 0.04 High 0.40 0.72 0.56 0.40 0.24 0.08 Very High 0.80 Threats 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 Very Low 0.05 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.01 Low 0.10 0.18 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.02 Moderate 0.20 0.36 0.28 0.20 0.12 0.04 High 0.40 0.72 0.56 0.40 0.24 0.08 Very High 0.80 Opportunities Negative Impact Positive Impact

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409 11.2 IDENTIFY RISKS Identify Risks is the process of identifying individual project risks as well as sources of overall project risk and documenting their characteristics. The key benefit of this process is the documentation of existing individual project risks and the sources of overall project risk. It also brings together information so the project team can respond appropriately to identified risks. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 11-6. Figure 11-7 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-6. Identify Risks: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Brainstorming • Checklists • Interviews .3 Data analysis • Root cause analysis • Assumption and constraint analysis • SWOT analysis • Document analysis .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Facilitation .5 Prompt lists .6 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Requirements management plan • Schedule management plan • Cost management plan • Quality management plan • Resource management plan • Risk management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .2 Project documents • Assumption log • Cost estimates • Duration estimates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Resource requirements • Stakeholder register .3 Agreements .4 Procurement documentation .5 Enterprise environmental factors .6 Organizational process assets .1 Risk register .2 Risk report .3 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Lessons learned register Identify Risks

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410 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 12.1 Plan Procurement Management Project management plan • Requirements management plan • Schedule management plan • Cost management plan • Resource management plan • Quality management plan • Risk management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project documents • Assumption log • Cost estimates • Duration estimates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Resource requirements • Stakeholder register • Procurement documentation 12.2 Conduct Procurements • Agreements Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 11.2 Identify Risks Enterprise/ Organization • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets • Risk register • Risk report Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Lessons learned register Figure 11-7. Identify Risks: Data Flow Diagram

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411 Identify Risks considers both individual project risks and sources of overall project risk. Participants in risk identification activities may include the following: project manager project team members project risk specialist if assigned customers subject matter experts from outside the project team end users other project managers operations managers stakeholders and risk management experts within the organization. While these personnel are often key participants for risk identification all project stakeholders should be encouraged to identify individual project risks. It is particularly important to involve the project team so they can develop and maintain a sense of ownership and responsibility for identified individual project risks the level of overall project risk and associated risk response actions. When describing and recording individual project risks a consistent format should be used for risk statements to ensure that each risk is understood clearly and unambiguously in order to support effective analysis and risk response development. Risk owners for individual project risks may be nominated as part of the Identify Risks process and will be confirmed during the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. Preliminary risk responses may also be identified and recorded and will be reviewed and confirmed as part of the Plan Risk Responses process. Identify Risks is an iterative process since new individual project risks may emerge as the project progresses through its life cycle and the level of overall project risk will also change. The frequency of iteration and participation in each risk identification cycle will vary by situation and this will be defined in the risk management plan. 11.2.1 IDENTIFY RISKS: INPUTS 11.2.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Requirements management plan. Described in Section 5.1.3.2. The requirements management plan may indicate project objectives that are particularly at risk. uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. The schedule management plan may identify areas that are subject to uncertainty or ambiguity. uu Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. The cost management plan may identify areas that are subject to uncertainty or ambiguity. uu Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. The quality management plan may identify areas that are subject to uncertainty or ambiguity or where key assumptions have been made that might give rise to risk. uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan may identify areas that are subject to uncertainty or ambiguity or where key assumptions have been made that might give rise to risk.

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412 Part 1 - Guide uu Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. The risk management plan provides information on risk-related roles and responsibilities indicates how risk management activities are included in the budget and schedule and describes categories of risk which may be expressed as a risk breakdown structure Figure 11-4. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline includes deliverables and criteria for their acceptance some of which might give rise to risk. It also contains the WBS which can be used as a framework to structure risk identification techniques. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. The schedule baseline may be reviewed to identify milestones and deliverable due dates that are subject to uncertainty or ambiguity or where key assumptions have been made that might give rise to risk. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline may be reviewed to identify costs or funding requirements that are subject to uncertainty or ambiguity or where key assumptions have been made that might give rise to risk. 11.2.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Assumptions and constraints recorded in the assumption log may give rise to individual project risks and may also influence the level of overall project risk. uu Cost estimates. Described in Section 7.2.3.1. Cost estimates provide quantitative assessments of project costs ideally expressed as a range indicating the degree of risk where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. uu Duration estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.1. Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations ideally expressed as a range indicating the degree of risk where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. Issues recorded in the issue log may give rise to individual project risks and may also influence the level of overall project risk. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned about risk identified from earlier phases of the project are reviewed to determine whether similar risks might recur during the remainder of the project. uu Requirements documentation. Described in Section 5.2.3.1. Requirements documentation lists the project requirements and allows the team to identify those that could be at risk.

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413 uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource requirements provide quantitative assessments of project resource requirements ideally expressed as a range indicating the degree of risk where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register indicates which individuals or groups might participate in identifying risks to the project. It also details those individuals who are available to act as risk owners. 11.2.1.3 AGREEMENTS Described in Section 12.2.3.2. If the project requires external procurement of resources the agreements may have information such as milestone dates contract type acceptance criteria and awards and penalties that can present threats or opportunities. 11.2.1.4 PROCUREMENT DOCUMENTATION Described in Section 12.3.1.4. If the project requires external procurement of resources the initial procurement documentation should be reviewed as procuring goods and services from outside the organization may increase or decrease overall project risk and may introduce additional individual project risks. As the procurement documentation is updated throughout the project the most up to date documentation can be reviewed for risks. For example seller performance reports approved change requests and information on inspections. 11.2.1.5 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Identify Risks process include but are not limited to: uu Published material including commercial risk databases or checklists uu Academic studies uu Benchmarking results and uu Industry studies of similar projects. 11.2.1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Identify Risks process include but are not limited to: uu Project files including actual data uu Organizational and project process controls uu Risk statement formats and uu Checklists from previous similar projects.

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414 Part 1 - Guide 11.2.2 IDENTIFY RISKS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.2.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of similar projects or business areas. Such experts should be identified by the project manager and invited to consider all aspects of individual project risks as well as sources of overall project risk based on their previous experience and areas of expertise. The experts’ bias should be taken into account in this process. 11.2.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Brainstorming. The goal of brainstorming see Section 4.1.2.2 is to obtain a comprehensive list of individual project risks and sources of overall project risk. The project team usually performs brainstorming often with a multidisciplinary set of experts who are not part of the team. Ideas are generated under the guidance of a facilitator either in a free-form brainstorm session or one that uses more structured techniques. Categories of risk such as in a risk breakdown structure can be used as a framework. Particular attention should be paid to ensuring that risks identified through brainstorming are clearly described since the technique can result in ideas that are not fully formed. uu Checklists. A checklist is a list of items actions or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder. Risk checklists are developed based on historical information and knowledge that has been accumulated from similar projects and from other sources of information. They are an effective way to capture lessons learned from similar completed projects listing specific individual project risks that have occurred previously and that may be relevant to this project. The organization may maintain a risk checklist based on its own completed projects or may use generic risk checklists from the industry. While a checklist may be quick and simple to use it is impossible to build an exhaustive one and care should be taken to ensure the checklist is not used to avoid the effort of proper risk identification. The project team should also explore items that do not appear on the checklist. Additionally the checklist should be reviewed from time to time to update new information as well as remove or archive obsolete information. uu Interviews. Individual project risks and sources of overall project risk can be identified by interviewing experienced project participants stakeholders and subject matter experts. Interviews see Section 5.2.2.2 should be conducted in an environment of trust and confidentiality to encourage honest and unbiased contributions.

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415 11.2.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Root cause analysis. Root cause analysis see Section 8.2.2.2 is typically used to discover the underlying causes that lead to a problem and develop preventive action. It can be used to identify threats by starting with a problem statement for example the project might be delayed or over budget and exploring which threats might result in that problem occurring. The same technique can be used to find opportunities by starting with a benefit statement for example early delivery or under budget and exploring which opportunities might result in that benefit being realized. uu Assumption and constraint analysis. Every project and its project management plan are conceived and developed based on a set of assumptions and within a series of constraints. These are often already incorporated in the scope baseline and project estimates. Assumption and constraint analysis explores the validity of assumptions and constraints to determine which pose a risk to the project. Threats may be identified from the inaccuracy instability inconsistency or incompleteness of assumptions. Constraints may give rise to opportunities through removing or relaxing a limiting factor that affects the execution of a project or process. uu SWOT analysis. This technique examines the project from each of the strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats SWOT perspectives. For risk identification it is used to increase the breadth of identified risks by including internally generated risks. The technique starts with the identification of strengths and weaknesses of the organization focusing on either the project organization or the business area in general. SWOT analysis then identifies any opportunities for the project that may arise from strengths and any threats resulting from weaknesses. The analysis also examines the degree to which organizational strengths may offset threats and determines if weaknesses might hinder opportunities. uu Document analysis. Described in Section 5.2.2.3. Risks may be identified from a structured review of project documents including but not limited to plans assumptions constraints previous project files contracts agreements and technical documentation. Uncertainty or ambiguity in project documents as well as inconsistencies within a document or between different documents may be indicators of risk on the project.

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416 Part 1 - Guide 11.2.2.4 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process includes but are not limited to facilitation see Section 4.1.2.3. Facilitation improves the effectiveness of many of the techniques used to identify individual project risks and sources of overall project risk. A skilled facilitator can help participants remain focused on the risk identification task follow the method associated with the technique accurately ensure clear risk descriptions identify and overcome sources of bias and resolve any disagreements that may arise. 11.2.2.5 PROMPT LISTS A prompt list is a predetermined list of risk categories that might give rise to individual project risks and that could also act as sources of overall project risk. The prompt list can be used as a framework to aid the project team in idea generation when using risk identification techniques. The risk categories in the lowest level of the risk breakdown structure can be used as a prompt list for individual project risks. Some common strategic frameworks are more suitable for identifying sources of overall project risk for example PESTLE political economic social technological legal environmental TECOP technical environmental commercial operational political or VUCA volatility uncertainty complexity ambiguity. 11.2.2.6 MEETINGS To undertake risk identification the project team may conduct a specialized meeting often called a risk workshop. Most risk workshops include some form of brainstorming see Section 4.1.2.2 but other risk identification techniques may be included depending on the level of the risk process defined in the risk management plan. Use of a skilled facilitator will increase the effectiveness of the meeting. It is also essential to ensure that the right people participate in the risk workshop. On larger projects it may be appropriate to invite the project sponsor subject matter experts sellers representatives of the customer or other project stakeholders. Risk workshops for smaller projects may be restricted to a subset of the project team.

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417 11.2.3 IDENTIFY RISKS: OUTPUTS 11.2.3.1 RISK REGISTER The risk register captures details of identified individual project risks. The results of Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Responses Implement Risk Responses and Monitor Risks are recorded in the risk register as those processes are conducted throughout the project. The risk register may contain limited or extensive risk information depending on project variables such as size and complexity. On completion of the Identify Risks process the content of the risk register may include but is not limited to: uu List of identified risks. Each individual project risk is given a unique identifier in the risk register. Identified risks are described in as much detail as required to ensure unambiguous understanding. A structured risk statement may be used to distinguish risks from their causes and their effects. uu Potential risk owners. Where a potential risk owner has been identified during the Identify Risks process the risk owner is recorded in the risk register. This will be confirmed during the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. uu List of potential risk responses. Where a potential risk response has been identified during the Identify Risks process it is recorded in the risk register. This will be confirmed during the Plan Risk Responses process. Additional data may be recorded for each identified risk depending on the risk register format specified in the risk management plan. This may include: a short risk title risk category current risk status one or more causes one or more effects on objectives risk triggers events or conditions that indicate that a risk is about to occur WBS reference of affected activities and timing information when was the risk identified when might the risk occur when might it no longer be relevant and what is the deadline for taking action.

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418 Part 1 - Guide 11.2.3.2 RISK REPORT The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout the Project Risk Management process. The results of Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Responses Implement Risk Responses and Monitor Risks are also included in the risk report as those processes are completed. On completion of the Identify Risks process information in the risk report may include but is not limited to: uu Sources of overall project risk indicating which are the most important drivers of overall project risk exposure and uu Summary information on identified individual project risks such as number of identified threats and opportunities distribution of risks across risk categories metrics and trends etc. Additional information may be included in the risk report depending on the reporting requirements specified in the risk management plan. 11.2.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. During the Identify Risks process new assumptions may be made new constraints may be identified and existing assumptions or constraints may be revisited and changed. The assumption log should be updated with this new information. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log should be updated to capture any new issues uncovered or changes in currently logged issues. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register can be updated with information on techniques that were effective in identifying risks to improve performance in later phases or other projects.

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419 11.3 PERFORM QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is the process of prioritizing individual project risks for further analysis or action by assessing their probability of occurrence and impact as well as other characteristics. The key benefit of this process is that it focuses efforts on high-priority risks. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 11-8. Figure 11-9 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-8. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Interviews .3 Data analysis • Risk data quality assessment • Risk probability and impact assessment • Assessment of other risk parameters .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Facilitation .5 Risk categorization .6 Data representation • Probability and impact matrix • Hierarchical charts .7 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Risk management plan .2 Project documents • Assumption log • Risk register • Stakeholder register .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Risk register • Risk report Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

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420 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Enterprise/ Organization Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Risk register • Risk report Project management plan • Risk management plan Project documents • Assumption log • Risk register • Stakeholder register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Management Plan Project Documents Figure 11-9. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis assesses the priority of identified individual project risks using their probability of occurrence the corresponding impact on project objectives if the risks occur and other factors. Such assessments are subjective as they are based on perceptions of risk by the project team and other stakeholders. Effective assessment therefore requires explicit identification and management of the risk attitudes of key participants in the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. Risk perception introduces bias into the assessment of identified risks so attention should be paid to identifying bias and correcting for it. Where a facilitator is used to support the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process addressing bias is a key part of the facilitator’s role. An evaluation of the quality of the available information on individual project risks also helps to clarify the assessment of each risk’s importance to the project.

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421 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis establishes the relative priorities of individual project risks for Plan Risk Responses. It identifies a risk owner for each risk who will take responsibility for planning an appropriate risk response and ensuring that it is implemented. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis also lays the foundation for Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis if this process is required. The Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process is performed regularly throughout the project life cycle as defined in the risk management plan. Often in an agile development environment the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process is conducted before the start of each iteration. 11.3.1 PERFORM QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: INPUTS 11.3.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include the risk management plan as described in Section 11.1.3.1. Of particular interest in this process are the roles and responsibilities for conducting risk management budgets for risk management schedule activities for risk management risk categories often defined in a risk breakdown structure definitions of probability and impact the probability and impact matrix and stakeholders’ risk thresholds. These inputs are usually tailored to the project during the Plan Risk Management process. If they are not available they may be developed during the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process and presented to the project sponsor for approval before use. 11.3.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. The assumption log is used for identifying managing and monitoring key assumptions and constraints that may affect the project. These may inform the assessment of the priority of individual project risks. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains details of each identified individual project risk that will be assessed during the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. This includes details of project stakeholders who may be nominated as risk owners.

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422 Part 1 - Guide 11.3.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis include but are not limited to: uu Industry studies of similar projects and uu Published material including commercial risk databases or checklists. 11.3.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis include but are not limited to information from similar completed projects. 11.3.2 PERFORM QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.3.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Previous similar projects and uu Qualitative risk analysis. Expert judgment is often obtained through facilitated risk workshops or interviews. The possibility of expert views being biased should be taken into account in this process. 11.3.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to interviews. Structured or semi-structured interviews Section 5.2.2.2 can be used to assess the probability and impacts of individual project risks as well as other factors. The interviewer should promote an environment of trust and confidentiality in the interview setting to encourage honest and unbiased assessments.

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423 11.3.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used during this process include but are not limited to: uu Risk data quality assessment. Risk data quality assessment evaluates the degree to which the data about individual project risks is accurate and reliable as a basis for qualitative risk analysis. The use of low-quality risk data may lead to a qualitative risk analysis that is of little use to the project. If data quality is unacceptable it may be necessary to gather better data. Risk data quality may be assessed via a questionnaire measuring the project’s stakeholder perceptions of various characteristics which may include completeness objectivity relevancy and timeliness. A weighted average of selected data quality characteristics can then be generated to give an overall quality score. uu Risk probability and impact assessment. Risk probability assessment considers the likelihood that a specific risk will occur. Risk impact assessment considers the potential effect on one or more project objectives such as schedule cost quality or performance. Impacts will be negative for threats and positive for opportunities. Probability and impact are assessed for each identified individual project risk. Risks can be assessed in interviews or meetings with participants selected for their familiarity with the types of risk recorded in the risk register. Project team members and knowledgeable persons external to the project are included. The level of probability for each risk and its impact on each objective are evaluated during the interview or meeting. Differences in the levels of probability and impact perceived by stakeholders are to be expected and such differences should be explored. Explanatory detail including assumptions justifying the levels assigned are also recorded. Risk probabilities and impacts are assessed using the definitions given in the risk management plan see Table 11-1. Risks with low probability and impact may be included within the risk register as part of a watch list for future monitoring. uu Assessment of other risk parameters. The project team may consider other characteristics of risk in addition to probability and impact when prioritizing individual project risks for further analysis and action. These characteristics may include but are not limited to:

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424 Part 1 - Guide u n Urgency. The period of time within which a response to the risk is to be implemented in order to be effective. A short period indicates high urgency. u n Proximity. The period of time before the risk might have an impact on one or more project objectives. A short period indicates high proximity. u n Dormancy. The period of time that may elapse after a risk has occurred before its impact is discovered. A short period indicates low dormancy. u n Manageability. The ease with which the risk owner or owning organization can manage the occurrence or impact of a risk. Where management is easy manageability is high. u n Controllability. The degree to which the risk owner or owning organization is able to control the risk’s outcome. Where the outcome can be easily controlled controllability is high. u n Detectability. The ease with which the results of the risk occurring or being about to occur can be detected and recognized. Where the risk occurrence can be detected easily detectability is high. u n Connectivity. The extent to which the risk is related to other individual project risks. Where a risk is connected to many other risks connectivity is high. u n Strategic impact. The potential for the risk to have a positive or negative effect on the organization’s strategic goals. Where the risk has a major effect on strategic goals strategic impact is high. u n Propinquity. The degree to which a risk is perceived to matter by one or more stakeholders. Where a risk is perceived as very significant propinquity is high. The consideration of some of these characteristics can provide a more robust prioritization of risks than is possible by only assessing probability and impact. 11.3.2.4 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to facilitation see Section 4.1.2.3. Facilitation improves the effectiveness of the qualitative analysis of individual project risks. A skilled facilitator can help participants remain focused on the risk analysis task follow the method associated with the technique accurately reach consensus on assessments of probability and impacts identify and overcome sources of bias and resolve any disagreements that may arise.

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425 11.3.2.5 RISK CATEGORIZATION Risks to the project can be categorized by sources of risk e.g. using the risk breakdown structure RBS see Figure 11-4 the area of the project affected e.g. using the work breakdown structure WBS see Figures 5-12 5-13 and 5-14 or other useful categories e.g. project phase project budget and roles and responsibilities to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty. Risks can also be categorized by common root causes. Risk categories that may be used for the project are defined in the risk management plan. Grouping risks into categories can lead to the development of more effective risk responses by focusing attention and effort on the areas of highest risk exposure or by developing generic risk responses to address groups of related risks. 11.3.2.6 DATA REPRESENTATION Data representation techniques that can be used during this process include but are not limited to: uu Probability and impact matrix. A probability and impact matrix is a grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs. This matrix specifies combinations of probability and impact that allow individual project risks to be divided into priority groups see Figure 11-5. Risks can be prioritized for further analysis and planning of risk responses based on their probability and impacts. The probability of occurrence for each individual project risk is assessed as well as its impact on one or more project objectives if it does occur using definitions of probability and impact for the project as specified in the risk management plan. Individual project risks are assigned to a priority level based on the combination of their assessed probability and impact using a probability and impact matrix. An organization can assess a risk separately for each objective e.g. cost time and scope by having a separate probability and impact matrix for each. Alternatively it may develop ways to determine one overall priority level for each risk either by combining assessments for different objectives or by taking the highest priority level regardless of which objective is affected. uu Hierarchical charts. Where risks have been categorized using more than two parameters the probability and impact matrix cannot be used and other graphical representations are required. For example a bubble chart displays three dimensions of data where each risk is plotted as a disk bubble and the three parameters are represented by the x-axis value the y-axis value and the bubble size. An example bubble chart is shown in Figure 11-10 with detectability and proximity plotted on the x and y axes and impact value represented by bubble size.

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426 Part 1 - Guide Figure 11-10. Example Bubble Chart Showing Detectability Proximity and Impact Value 11.3.2.7 MEETINGS To undertake qualitative risk analysis the project team may conduct a specialized meeting often called a risk workshop dedicated to the discussion of identified individual project risks. The goals of this meeting include the review of previously identified risks assessment of probability and impacts and possibly other risk parameters categorization and prioritization. A risk owner who will be responsible for planning an appropriate risk response and for reporting progress on managing the risk will be allocated to each individual project risk as part of the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. The meeting may start by reviewing and confirming the probability and impact scales to be used for the analysis. The meeting may also identify additional risks during the discussion and these should be recorded for analysis. Use of a skilled facilitator will increase the effectiveness of the meeting. Proximity High Low Low High Detectability Large bubbles in this area are unacceptable Bubble size Impact Value Small bubbles in this area are acceptable

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427 11.3.3 PERFORM QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: OUTPUTS 11.3.3.1 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. During the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process new assumptions may be made new constraints may be identified and existing assumptions or constraints may be revisited and changed. The assumption log should be updated with this new information. uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log should be updated to capture any new issues uncovered or changes in currently logged issues. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register is updated with new information generated during the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. Updates to the risk register may include assessments of probability and impacts for each individual project risk its priority level or risk score the nominated risk owner risk urgency information or risk categorization and a watch list for low-priority risks or risks requiring further analysis. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report is updated to reflect the most important individual project risks usually those with the highest probability and impact as well as a prioritized list of all identified risks on the project and a summary conclusion.

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428 Part 1 - Guide 11.4 PERFORM QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis is the process of numerically analyzing the combined effect of identified individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty on overall project objectives. The key benefit of this process is that it quantifies overall project risk exposure and it can also provide additional quantitative risk information to support risk response planning. This process is not required for every project but where it is used it is performed throughout the project. The inputs and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 11-11. Figure 11-12 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-11. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Interviews .3 Interpersonal and team skills • Facilitation .4 Representations of uncertainty .5 Data analysis • Simulations • Sensitivity analysis • Decision tree analysis • Influence diagrams .1 Project management plan • Risk management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .2 Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost estimates • Cost forecasts • Duration estimates • Milestone list • Resource requirements • Risk register • Risk report • Schedule forecasts .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Project documents updates • Risk report Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

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429 • Project charter 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Enterprise/ Organization Project documents updates • Risk report Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost estimates • Cost forecasts • Duration estimates • Milestone list • Resource requirements • Risk register • Risk report • Schedule forecasts • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Documents Project Management Plan Project Documents Project management plan • Risk management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Figure 11-12. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis is not required for all projects. Undertaking a robust analysis depends on the availability of high-quality data about individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty as well as a sound underlying project baseline for scope schedule and cost. Quantitative risk analysis usually requires specialized risk software and expertise in the development and interpretation of risk models. It also consumes additional time and cost. The use of quantitative risk analysis for a project will be specified in the project’s risk management plan. It is most likely appropriate for large or complex projects strategically important projects projects for which it is a contractual requirement or projects in which a key stakeholder requires it. Quantitative risk analysis is the only reliable method to assess overall project risk through evaluating the aggregated effect on project outcomes of all individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis uses information on individual project risks that have been assessed by the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process as having a significant potential to affect the project’s objectives. Outputs from Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis are used as inputs to the Plan Risk Responses process particularly in recommending responses to the level of overall project risk and key individual risks. A quantitative risk analysis may also be undertaken following the Plan Risk Responses process to determine the likely effectiveness of planned responses in reducing overall project risk exposure.

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430 Part 1 - Guide 11.4.1 PERFORM QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: INPUTS 11.4.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. The risk management plan specifies whether quantitative risk analysis is required for the project. It also details the resources available for the analysis and the expected frequency of analyses. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. The scope baseline describes the starting point from which the effect of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty are evaluated. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. The schedule baseline describes the starting point from which the effect of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty can be evaluated. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline describes the starting point from which the effect of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty can be evaluated. 11.4.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. Assumptions may form inputs to the quantitative risk analysis if they are assessed as posing a risk to project objectives. The effect of constraints may also be modeled during a quantitative risk analysis. uu Basis of estimates. Described in Sections 6.4.3.2 and 7.2.3.2. The basis of estimates used in the planning of the project may be reflected in variability modeled during a quantitative risk analysis process. This may include information on the estimate’s purpose classification assumed accuracy methodology and source. uu Cost estimates. Described in Section 7.2.3.1. Cost estimates provide the starting point from which cost variability is evaluated. uu Cost forecasts. Described in Section 7.4.3.2. Forecasts such as the project’s estimate to complete ETC estimate at completion EAC budget at completion BAC and to-complete performance index TCPI may be compared to the results of a quantitative cost risk analysis to determine the confidence level associated with achieving these targets. uu Duration estimates. Described in Section 6.4.3.1. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated. uu Milestone list. Described in Section 6.2.3.3. Significant events in the project define the schedule targets against which the results of a quantitative schedule risk analysis are compared in order to determine the confidence level associated with achieving these targets.

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431 uu Resource requirements. Described in Section 9.2.3.1. Resource requirements provide the starting point from which variability is evaluated. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains details of individual project risks to be used as input for quantitative risk analysis. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report describes sources of overall project risk and the current overall project risk status. uu Schedule forecasts. Described in Section 6.6.3.2. Forecasts may be compared to the results of a quantitative schedule risk analysis to determine the confidence level associated with achieving these targets. 11.4.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process include but are not limited to: uu Industry studies of similar projects and uu Published material including commercial risk databases or checklists. 11.4.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process include information from similar completed projects. 11.4.2 PERFORM QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.4.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge or training in the following topics: uu Translating information on individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty into numeric inputs for the quantitative risk analysis model uu Selecting the most appropriate representation of uncertainty to model particular risks or other sources of uncertainty uu Modeling techniques that are appropriate in the context of the project uu Identifying which tools would be most suitable for the selected modeling techniques and uu Interpreting the outputs of quantitative risk analysis.

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432 Part 1 - Guide 11.4.2.2 DATA GATHERING Interviews see Section 5.2.2.2 may be used to generate inputs for the quantitative risk analysis drawing on inputs that include individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty. This is particularly useful where information is required from experts. The interviewer should promote an environment of trust and confidentiality during the interview to encourage honest and unbiased contributions. 11.4.2.3 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to facilitation see Section 4.1.2.3. A skilled facilitator is useful for gathering input data during a dedicated risk workshop involving project team members and other stakeholders. Facilitated workshops can improve effectiveness by establishing a clear understanding of the purpose of the workshop building consensus among participants ensuring continued focus on the task and using creative approaches to deal with interpersonal conflict or sources of bias. 11.4.2.4 REPRESENTATIONS OF UNCERTAINTY Quantitative risk analysis requires inputs to a quantitative risk analysis model that reflect individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty. Where the duration cost or resource requirement for a planned activity is uncertain the range of possible values can be represented in the model as a probability distribution. This may take several forms. The most commonly used are triangular normal lognormal beta uniform or discrete distributions. Care should be taken when selecting an appropriate probability distribution to reflect the range of possible values for the planned activity. Individual project risks may be covered by probability distributions. Alternatively risks may be included in the model as probabilistic branches where optional activities are added to the model to represent the time and/or cost impact of the risk should it occur and the chance that these activities actually occur in a particular simulation run matches the risk’s probability. Branches are most useful for risks that might occur independently of any planned activity. Where risks are related for example with a common cause or a logical dependency correlation is used in the model to indicate this relationship. Other sources of uncertainty may also be represented using branches to describe alternative paths through the project.

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433 11.4.2.5 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used during this process include but are not limited to: uu Simulation. Quantitative risk analysis uses a model that simulates the combined effects of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty to evaluate their potential impact on achieving project objectives. Simulations are typically performed using a Monte Carlo analysis. When running a Monte Carlo analysis for cost risk the simulation uses the project cost estimates. When running a Monte Carlo analysis for schedule risk the schedule network diagram and duration estimates are used. An integrated quantitative cost-schedule risk analysis uses both inputs. The output is a quantitative risk analysis model. Computer software is used to iterate the quantitative risk analysis model several thousand times. The input values e.g. cost estimates duration estimates or occurrence of probabilistic branches are chosen at random for each iteration. Outputs represent the range of possible outcomes for the project e.g. project end date project cost at completion. Typical outputs include a histogram presenting the number of iterations where a particular outcome resulted from the simulation or a cumulative probability distribution S-curve representing the probability of achieving any particular outcome or less. An example S-curve from a Monte Carlo cost risk analysis is shown in Figure 11-13. Figure 11-13. Example S-Curve from Quantitative Cost Risk Analysis 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2.0M 23 Chance of Meeting Target Target 2.2M Expected Value 2.35M 85 Chance of Costing 2.45M or Less 2.1M 2.2M 2.3M 2.4M 2.5M 2.6M 2.7M 2.8M Predicted Total Project Cost Cumulative Probability Cumulative Probability Range of Uncertainty

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434 Part 1 - Guide For a quantitative schedule risk analysis it is also possible to conduct a criticality analysis that determines which elements of the risk model have the greatest effect on the project critical path. A criticality index is calculated for each element in the risk model which gives the frequency with which that element appears on the critical path during the simulation usually expressed as a percentage. The output from a criticality analysis allows the project team to focus risk response planning efforts on those activities with the highest potential effect on the overall schedule performance of the project. uu Sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis helps to determine which individual project risks or other sources of uncertainty have the most potential impact on project outcomes. It correlates variations in project outcomes with variations in elements of the quantitative risk analysis model. One typical display of sensitivity analysis is the tornado diagram which presents the calculated correlation coefficient for each element of the quantitative risk analysis model that can influence the project outcome. This can include individual project risks project activities with high degrees of variability or specific sources of ambiguity. Items are ordered by descending strength of correlation giving the typical tornado appearance. An example tornado diagram is shown in Figure 11-14. Figure 11-14. Example Tornado Diagram Activity or Risk Driving Projection Duration Correlation with Project Duration -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Activity B12.3 Manufacture reactors Risk 5.2 DCS may fail installation test Risk 5.7 Duplicate test may not be required Activity A3.12 Construct control room Risk 4.6 Piling contractor may deliver early Activity A7.1 Provide temporary facilities Activity D1.9 Install Equipment Risk 7.2 Hydrotest may find fewer faults

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435 uu Decision tree analysis. Decision trees are used to support selection of the best of several alternative courses of action. Alternative paths through the project are shown in the decision tree using branches representing different decisions or events each of which can have associated costs and related individual project risks including both threats and opportunities. The end-points of branches in the decision tree represent the outcome from following that particular path which can be negative or positive. The decision tree is evaluated by calculating the expected monetary value of each branch allowing the optimal path to be selected. An example decision tree is shown in Figure 11-15. Figure 11-15. Example Decision Tree Computed: Payoffs minus Costs along Path Decision Definition Decision Node Chance Node Net Path Value Decision to be Made Input: Cost of Each Decision Output: Decision Made Input: Scenario Probability Reward if it Occurs Output: Expected Monetary Value EMV Build or Upgrade 80M 60 40 60 40 -30M 36M .60 80M + .40 –30M EMV before costs of Build New Plant considering demand 46M .60 70M + .40 10M EMV before costs of Upgrade Plant considering demand Decision EMV 46M the larger of 36M and 46M 80M 200M – 120M –30M 90M – 120M 70M 120M – 50M 10M 60M – 50M 70M 10M Note 1: The decision tree shows how to make a decision between alternative capital strategies represented as “decision nodes” when the environment contains uncertain elements represented as “chance nodes”. Note 2: Here a decision is being made whether to invest 120M US to build a new plant or to instead invest only 50M US to upgrade the existing plant. For each decision the demand which is uncertain and therefore represents a “chance node” must be accounted for. For example strong demand leads to 200M revenue with the new plant but only 120M US for the upgraded plant perhaps due to capacity limitations of the upgraded plant. The end of each branch shows the net effect of the payoffs minus costs. For each decision branch all effects are added see shaded areas to determine the overall Expected Monetary Value EMV of the decision. Remember to account for the investment costs. From the calculations in the shaded areas the upgraded plant has a higher EMV of 46M – also the EMV of the overall decision. This choice also represents the lowest risk avoiding the worst case possible outcome of a loss of 30M. Decision Node Chance Node End of Branch Strong Demand 200M Weak Demand 90M Strong Demand 120M Weak Demand 60M Build New Plant Invest 120M Upgrade Plant Invest 50M

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436 Part 1 - Guide uu Influence diagrams. Influence diagrams are graphical aids to decision making under uncertainty. An influence diagram represents a project or situation within the project as a set of entities outcomes and influences together with the relationships and effects between them. Where an element in the influence diagram is uncertain as a result of the existence of individual project risks or other sources of uncertainty this can be represented in the influence diagram using ranges or probability distributions. The influence diagram is then evaluated using a simulation technique such as Monte Carlo analysis to indicate which elements have the greatest influence on key outcomes. Outputs from an influence diagram are similar to other quantitative risk analysis methods including S-curves and tornado diagrams. 11.4.3 PERFORM QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: OUTPUTS 11.4.3.1 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that can be considered as outputs for this process include but are not limited to the risk report described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report will be updated to reflect the results of the quantitative risk analysis. This will typically include: uu Assessment of overall project risk exposure. Overall project risk is reflected in two key measures: u n Chances of project success indicated by the probability that the project will achieve its key objectives e.g. required end date or interim milestones required cost target etc. given the identified individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty and u n Degree of inherent variability remaining within the project at the time the analysis was conducted indicated by the range of possible project outcomes. uu Detailed probabilistic analysis of the project. Key outputs from the quantitative risk analysis are presented such as S-curves tornado diagrams and criticality analysis together with a narrative interpretation of the results. Possible detailed results of a quantitative risk analysis may include: u n Amount of contingency reserve needed to provide a specified level of confidence u n Identification of individual project risks or other sources of uncertainty that have the greatest effect on the project critical path and u n Major drivers of overall project risk with the greatest influence on uncertainty in project outcomes. uu Prioritized list of individual project risks. This list includes those individual project risks that pose the greatest threat or present the greatest opportunity to the project as indicated by sensitivity analysis. uu Trends in quantitative risk analysis results. As the analysis is repeated at different times during the project life cycle trends may become apparent that inform the planning of risk responses. uu Recommended risk responses. The risk report may present suggested responses to the level of overall project risk exposure or key individual project risks based on the results of the quantitative risk analysis. These recommendations will form inputs to the Plan Risk Responses process.

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437 11.5 PLAN RISK RESPONSES Plan Risk Responses is the process of developing options selecting strategies and agreeing on actions to address overall project risk exposure as well as to treat individual project risks. The key benefit of this process is that it identifies appropriate ways to address overall project risk and individual project risks. This process also allocates resources and inserts activities into project documents and the project management plan as needed. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 11-16. Figure 11-17 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-16. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs .1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Interviews .3 Interpersonal and team skills • Facilitation .4 Strategies for threats .5 Strategies for opportunities .6 Contingent response strategies .7 Strategies for overall project risk .8 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Cost-benefit analysis .9 Decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .1 Project management plan • Resource management plan • Risk management plan • Cost baseline .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Resource calendars • Risk register • Risk report • Stakeholder register .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets .1 Change requests .2 Project management plan updates • Schedule management plan • Cost management plan • Quality management plan • Resource management plan • Procurement management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline .3 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Cost forecasts • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Risk register • Risk report Plan Risk Responses

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438 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 11.5 Plan Risk Responses Enterprise/ Organization 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control Project documents updates • Assumption log • Cost forecasts • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Project team assignments • Risk register • Risk report • Change requests Project management plan updates • Schedule management plan • Cost management plan • Quality management plan • Resource management plan • Procurement management plan • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Cost baseline Project management plan • Resource management plan • Risk management plan • Cost baseline Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project schedule • Resource breakdown structure • Resource calendars • Risk register • Risk report • Stakeholder register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents Figure 11-17. Plan Risk Responses: Data Flow Diagram

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439 Effective and appropriate risk responses can minimize individual threats maximize individual opportunities and reduce overall project risk exposure. Unsuitable risk responses can have the converse effect. Once risks have been identified analyzed and prioritized plans should be developed by the nominated risk owner for addressing every individual project risk the project team considers to be sufficiently important either because of the threat it poses to the project objectives or the opportunity it offers. The project manager should also consider how to respond appropriately to the current level of overall project risk. Risk responses should be appropriate for the significance of the risk cost-effective in meeting the challenge realistic within the project context agreed upon by all parties involved and owned by a responsible person. Selecting the optimal risk response from several options is often required. The strategy or mix of strategies most likely to be effective should be selected for each risk. Structured decision-making techniques may be used to choose the most appropriate response. For large or complex projects it may be appropriate to use a mathematical optimization model or real options analysis as a basis for a more robust economic analysis of alternative risk response strategies. Specific actions are developed to implement the agreed-upon risk response strategy including primary and backup strategies as necessary. A contingency plan or fallback plan can be developed for implementation if the selected strategy turns out not to be fully effective or if an accepted risk occurs. Secondary risks should also be identified. Secondary risks are risks that arise as a direct result of implementing a risk response. A contingency reserve is often allocated for time or cost. If developed it may include identification of the conditions that trigger its use. 11.5.1 PLAN RISK RESPONSES: INPUTS 11.5.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to: uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. The resource management plan is used to help determine how resources allocated to agreed-upon risk responses will be coordinated with other project resources. uu Risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1. Risk management roles and responsibilities and risk thresholds are used in this process. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. The cost baseline has information on the contingency fund that is allocated to respond to risks.

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440 Part 1 - Guide 11.5.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned about effective risk responses used in earlier phases of the project are reviewed to determine if similar responses might be useful during the remainder of the project. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. The schedule is used to determine how agreed-upon risk responses will be scheduled alongside other project activities. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.2. Project team assignments can show the resources that can be allocated to agreed-upon risk responses. uu Resource calendars. Described in Section 9.2.1.2. Resource calendars identify when potential resources are available to be allocated to agreed-upon risk responses. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register contains details of individual project risks that have been identified and prioritized and for which risk responses are required. The priority level for each risk can help to guide the selection of appropriate risk responses. For example high-priority threats or opportunities may require priority action and highly proactive response strategies. Threats and opportunities in the low-priority zone may not require proactive management action beyond being placed in the risk register as part of the watch list or adding a contingency reserve. The risk register identifies the nominated risk owner for each risk. It may also contain preliminary risk responses identified earlier in the Project Risk Management process. The risk register may provide other data on identified risks that can assist in planning risk responses including root causes risk triggers and warning signs risks requiring responses in the near term and risks where a need for additional analysis has been identified. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report presents the current level of overall risk exposure of the project that will inform selection of the risk response strategy. The risk report may also list individual project risks in priority order and provide additional analysis of the distribution of individual project risks that may inform risk response selection. uu Stakeholder register. Described in Section 13.1.3.1. The stakeholder register identifies potential owners for risk responses.

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441 11.5.1.3 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Risk Responses process include but are not limited to the risk appetite and thresholds of key stakeholders. 11.5.1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Risk Responses process include but are not limited to: uu Templates for the risk management plan risk register and risk report uu Historical databases and uu Lessons learned repositories from similar projects. 11.5.2 PLAN RISK RESPONSES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.5.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge in the following topics: uu Threat response strategies uu Opportunity response strategies uu Contingent response strategies and uu Overall project risk response strategies. Expert input may be sought from individuals with particular subject matter expertise relevant to a specific individual project risk for example where specialist technical knowledge is required.

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442 Part 1 - Guide 11.5.2.2 DATA GATHERING Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to interviews see Section 5.2.2.2. Development of responses to individual project risks and overall project risk may be undertaken during structured or semi-structured interviews see Section 5.2.2.2 with risk owners. Other stakeholders may also be interviewed if necessary. The interviewer should promote an environment of trust and confidentiality in the interview setting to encourage honest and unbiased decisions. 11.5.2.3 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process includes but are not limited to facilitation see Section 4.1.2.3. The use of facilitation improves the effectiveness of developing responses to individual project risks and overall project risk. A skilled facilitator can help risk owners understand the risk identify and compare alternative possible risk response strategies choose an appropriate response strategy and identify and overcome sources of bias. 11.5.2.4 STRATEGIES FOR THREATS Five alternative strategies may be considered for dealing with threats as follows: uu Escalate. Escalation is appropriate when the project team or the project sponsor agrees that a threat is outside the scope of the project or that the proposed response would exceed the project manager’s authority. Escalated risks are managed at the program level portfolio level or other relevant part of the organization and not on the project level. The project manager determines who should be notified about the threat and communicates the details to that person or part of the organization. It is important that ownership of escalated threats is accepted by the relevant party in the organization. Threats are usually escalated to the level that matches the objectives that would be affected if the threat occurred. Escalated threats are not monitored further by the project team after escalation although they may be recorded in the risk register for information.

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443 uu Avoid. Risk avoidance is when the project team acts to eliminate the threat or protect the project from its impact. It may be appropriate for high-priority threats with a high probability of occurrence and a large negative impact. Avoidance may involve changing some aspect of the project management plan or changing the objective that is in jeopardy in order to eliminate the threat entirely reducing its probability of occurrence to zero. The risk owner may also take action to isolate the project objectives from the risk’s impact if it were to occur. Examples of avoidance actions may include removing the cause of a threat extending the schedule changing the project strategy or reducing scope. Some risks can be avoided by clarifying requirements obtaining information improving communication or acquiring expertise. uu Transfer. Transfer involves shifting ownership of a threat to a third party to manage the risk and to bear the impact if the threat occurs. Risk transfer often involves payment of a risk premium to the party taking on the threat. Transfer can be achieved by a range of actions which include but are not limited to the use of insurance performance bonds warranties guarantees etc. Agreements may be used to transfer ownership and liability for specified risks to another party. uu Mitigate. In risk mitigation action is taken to reduce the probability of occurrence and/or impact of a threat. Early mitigation action is often more effective than trying to repair the damage after the threat has occurred. Adopting less complex processes conducting more tests or choosing a more stable seller are examples of mitigation actions. Mitigation may involve prototype development see Section 5.2.2.8 to reduce the risk of scaling up from a bench-scale model of a process or product. Where it is not possible to reduce probability a mitigation response might reduce the impact by targeting factors that drive the severity. For example designing redundancy into a system may reduce the impact from a failure of the original component. uu Accept. Risk acceptance acknowledges the existence of a threat but no proactive action is taken. This strategy may be appropriate for low-priority threats and it may also be adopted where it is not possible or cost-effective to address a threat in any other way. Acceptance can be either active or passive. The most common active acceptance strategy is to establish a contingency reserve including amounts of time money or resources to handle the threat if it occurs. Passive acceptance involves no proactive action apart from periodic review of the threat to ensure that it does not change significantly.

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444 Part 1 - Guide 11.5.2.5 STRATEGIES FOR OPPORTUNITIES Five alternative strategies may be considered for dealing with opportunities as follows: uu Escalate. This risk response strategy is appropriate when the project team or the project sponsor agrees that an opportunity is outside the scope of the project or that the proposed response would exceed the project manager’s authority. Escalated opportunities are managed at the program level portfolio level or other relevant part of the organization and not on the project level. The project manager determines who should be notified about the opportunity and communicates the details to that person or part of the organization. It is important that ownership of escalated opportunities is accepted by the relevant party in the organization. Opportunities are usually escalated to the level that matches the objectives that would be affected if the opportunity occurred. Escalated opportunities are not monitored further by the project team after escalation although they may be recorded in the risk register for information. uu Exploit. The exploit strategy may be selected for high-priority opportunities where the organization wants to ensure that the opportunity is realized. This strategy seeks to capture the benefit associated with a particular opportunity by ensuring that it definitely happens increasing the probability of occurrence to 100. Examples of exploiting responses may include assigning an organization’s most talented resources to the project to reduce the time to completion or using new technologies or technology upgrades to reduce cost and duration. uu Share. Sharing involves transferring ownership of an opportunity to a third party so that it shares some of the benefit if the opportunity occurs. It is important to select the new owner of a shared opportunity carefully so they are best able to capture the opportunity for the benefit of the project. Risk sharing often involves payment of a risk premium to the party taking on the opportunity. Examples of sharing actions include forming risk-sharing partnerships teams special-purpose companies or joint ventures. uu Enhance. The enhance strategy is used to increase the probability and/or impact of an opportunity. Early enhancement action is often more effective than trying to improve the benefit after the opportunity has occurred. The probability of occurrence of an opportunity may be increased by focusing attention on its causes. Where it is not possible to increase probability an enhancement response might increase the impact by targeting factors that drive the size of the potential benefit. Examples of enhancing opportunities include adding more resources to an activity to finish early. uu Accept. Accepting an opportunity acknowledges its existence but no proactive action is taken. This strategy may be appropriate for low-priority opportunities and it may also be adopted where it is not possible or cost-effective to address an opportunity in any other way. Acceptance can be either active or passive. The most common active acceptance strategy is to establish a contingency reserve including amounts of time money or resources to take advantage of the opportunity if it occurs. Passive acceptance involves no proactive action apart from periodic review of the opportunity to ensure that it does not change significantly.

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445 11.5.2.6 CONTINGENT RESPONSE STRATEGIES Some responses are designed for use only if certain events occur. For some risks it is appropriate for the project team to make a response plan that will only be executed under certain predefined conditions if it is believed that there will be sufficient warning to implement the plan. Events that trigger the contingency response such as missing intermediate milestones or gaining higher priority with a seller should be defined and tracked. Risk responses identified using this technique are often called contingency plans or fallback plans and include identified triggering events that set the plans in effect. 11.5.2.7 STRATEGIES FOR OVERALL PROJECT RISK Risk responses should be planned and implemented not only for individual project risks but also to address overall project risk. The same risk response strategies that are used to deal with individual project risks can also be applied to overall project risk: uu Avoid. Where the level of overall project risk is significantly negative and outside the agreed-upon risk thresholds for the project an avoid strategy may be adopted. This involves taking focused action to reduce the negative effect of uncertainty on the project as a whole and bring the project back within the thresholds. An example of avoidance at the overall project level would include removal of high-risk elements of scope from the project. Where it is not possible to bring the project back within the thresholds the project may be canceled. This represents the most extreme degree of risk avoidance and it should be used only if the overall level of threat is and will remain unacceptable. uu Exploit. Where the level of overall project risk is significantly positive and outside the agreed-upon risk thresholds for the project an exploit strategy may be adopted. This involves taking focused action to capture the positive effect of uncertainty on the project as a whole. An example of exploiting at the overall project level would include addition of high-benefit elements of scope to the project to add value or benefits to stakeholders. Alternatively the risk thresholds for the project may be modified with the agreement of key stakeholders in order to embrace the opportunity. uu Transfer/share. If the level of overall project risk is high but the organization is unable to address it effectively a third party may be involved to manage the risk on behalf of the organization. Where overall project risk is negative a transfer strategy is required which may involve payment of a risk premium. In the case of high positive overall project risk ownership may be shared in order to reap the associated benefits. Examples of both transfer and share strategies for overall project risk include but are not limited to setting up a collaborative business structure in which the buyer and the seller share the overall project risk launching a joint venture or special-purpose company or subcontracting key elements of the project.

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446 Part 1 - Guide uu Mitigate/enhance. These strategies involve changing the level of overall project risk to optimize the chances of achieving the project’s objectives. The mitigation strategy is used where overall project risk is negative and enhancement applies when it is positive. Examples of mitigation or enhancement strategies include replanning the project changing the scope and boundaries of the project modifying project priority changing resource allocations adjusting delivery times etc. uu Accept. Where no proactive risk response strategy is possible to address overall project risk the organization may choose to continue with the project as currently defined even if overall project risk is outside the agreed- upon thresholds. Acceptance can be either active or passive. The most common active acceptance strategy is to establish an overall contingency reserve for the project including amounts of time money or resources to be used if the project exceeds its thresholds. Passive acceptance involves no proactive action apart from periodic review of the level of overall project risk to ensure that it does not change significantly. 11.5.2.8 DATA ANALYSIS A number of alternative risk response strategies may be considered. Data analysis techniques that can be used to select a preferred risk response strategy include but are not limited to: uu Alternatives analysis. A simple comparison of the characteristics and requirements of alternative risk response options can lead to a decision on which response is most appropriate. uu Cost-benefit analysis. If the impact of an individual project risk can be quantified in monetary terms then the cost-effectiveness of alternative risk response strategies can be determined using cost-benefit analysis see Section 8.1.2.3. The ratio of change in impact level divided by implementation cost gives the cost effectiveness of the response strategy with a higher ratio indicating a more effective response. 11.5.2.9 DECISION MAKING Decision-making techniques that can be used to select a risk response strategy include but are not limited to multicriteria decision analysis described in Section 8.1.2.4. One or more risk response strategies may be under consideration. Decision-making techniques can help prioritize risk response strategies. Multicriteria decision analysis uses a decision matrix to provide a systematic approach for establishing key decision criteria evaluating and ranking alternatives and selecting a preferred option. Criteria for risk response selection may include but are not limited to cost of response likely effectiveness of response in changing probability and/or impact resource availability timing constraints urgency proximity and dormancy level of impact if the risk occurs effect of response on related risks introduction of secondary risks etc. Different strategies may be selected later in the project if the original choice proves to be ineffective.

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447 11.5.3 PLAN RISK RESPONSES: OUTPUTS 11.5.3.1 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Planned risk responses may result in a change request to the cost and schedule baselines or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. 11.5.3.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes through the organization’s change control process via a change request. Components that may require a change request for the project management plan include but are not limited to: uu Schedule management plan. Described in Section 6.1.3.1. Changes to the schedule management plan such as changes to resource loading and leveling or updates to the schedule strategy are incorporated. uu Cost management plan. Described in Section 7.1.3.1. Changes to the cost management plan such as changes to cost accounting tracking and reports as well as updates to the budget strategy and how contingency reserves are consumed are incorporated. uu Quality management plan. Described in Section 8.1.3.1. Changes to the quality management plan such as changes to approaches for meeting requirements quality management approaches or quality control processes are incorporated. uu Resource management plan. Described in Section 9.1.3.1. Changes to the resource management plan such as changes to resource allocation as well as updates to the resource strategy are incorporated. uu Procurement management plan. Described in Section 12.1.3.1. Changes to the procurement management plan such as alterations in the make-or-buy decision or contract types are incorporated. uu Scope baseline. Described in Section 5.4.3.1. Changes in the scope baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in scope that may arise from agreed-upon risk responses. uu Schedule baseline. Described in Section 6.5.3.1. Changes in the schedule baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in schedule estimates that may arise from agreed-upon risk responses. uu Cost baseline. Described in Section 7.3.3.1. Changes in the cost baseline are incorporated in response to approved changes in cost estimates that may arise from agreed-upon risk responses.

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448 Part 1 - Guide 11.5.3.3 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Assumption log. Described in Section 4.1.3.2. During the Plan Risk Responses process new assumptions may be made new constraints may be identified and existing assumptions or constraints may be revisited and changed. The assumption log should be updated with this new information. uu Cost forecasts. Described in Section 7.4.3.2. Cost forecasts may change as a result of planned risk responses. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information about risk responses that may be useful for future phases of the project or future projects. uu Project schedule. Described in Section 6.5.3.2. Activities relating to agreed-upon risk responses may be added to the project schedule. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.2. Once the responses are confirmed the necessary resources should be allocated to each action associated with a risk response plan. These resources include suitably qualified and experienced personnel to execute the agreed-upon action usually within the project team a specific budget and time allowance for the action and any required technical resources to complete the action. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register is updated when appropriate risk responses are chosen and agreed upon. Updates to the risk register may include but are not limited to: u n Agreed-upon response strategies u n Specific actions to implement the chosen response strategy u n Trigger conditions symptoms and warning signs of a risk occurrence u n Budget and schedule activities required to implement the chosen responses u n Contingency plans and risk triggers that call for their execution u n Fallback plans for use when a risk that has occurred and the primary response proves to be inadequate u n Residual risks that are expected to remain after planned responses have been taken as well as those that have been deliberately accepted and u n Secondary risks that arise as a direct outcome of implementing a risk response. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report may be updated to present agreed-upon responses to the current overall project risk exposure and high-priority risks together with the expected changes that may be expected as a result of implementing these responses.

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449 11.6 IMPLEMENT RISK RESPONSES Implement Risk Responses is the process of implementing agreed-upon risk response plans. The key benefit of this process is that it ensures that agreed-upon risk responses are executed as planned in order to address overall project risk exposure minimize individual project threats and maximize individual project opportunities. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 11-18. Figure 11-19 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-18. Implement Risk Responses: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Figure 11-19. Implement Risk Responses: Data Flow Diagram Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs .1 Expert judgment .2 Interpersonal and team skills • Influencing .3 Project management information system .1 Project management plan • Risk management plan .2 Project documents • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Risk report .3 Organizational process assets .1 Change requests .2 Project documents updates • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments • Risk register • Risk report Implement Risk Responses • Project charter 11.6 Implement Risk Responses Enterprise/ Organization 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control Project documents updates • Lessons learned register • Issue log • Project team assignments • Risk register • Risk report • Change requests Project management plan • Risk management plan Project documents • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Risk report • Organizational process assets Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents

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450 Part 1 - Guide Proper attention to the Implement Risk Responses process will ensure that agreed-upon risk responses are actually executed. A common problem with Project Risk Management is that project teams spend effort in identifying and analyzing risks and developing risk responses then risk responses are agreed upon and documented in the risk register and risk report but no action is taken to manage the risk. Only if risk owners give the required level of effort to implementing the agreed-upon responses will the overall risk exposure of the project and individual threats and opportunities be managed proactively. 11.6.1 IMPLEMENT RISK RESPONSES: INPUTS 11.6.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the risk management plan. Described in Section 11.1.3.1 the risk management plan lists the roles and responsibilities of project team members and other stakeholders for risk management. This information is used when allocating owners for agreed-upon risk responses. The risk management plan also defines the level of detail for the risk management methodology for the project. It also specifies risk thresholds for the project based on the risk appetite of key stakeholders which define the acceptable target that the implementation of risk responses is required to achieve. 11.6.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that can be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Lessons learned earlier in the project with regard to implementing risk responses can be applied to later phases in the project to improve the effectiveness of this process. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register records the agreed-upon risk responses for each individual risk and the nominated owners for each response plan. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report includes an assessment of the current overall project risk exposure as well as the agreed-upon risk response strategy. It also describes the major individual project risks with their planned responses. 11.6.1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS The organizational process assets that can influence the Implement Risk Responses process include but are not limited to the lessons learned repository from similar completed projects that indicate the effectiveness of particular risk responses.

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451 11.6.2 IMPLEMENT RISK RESPONSES: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.6.2.1 EXPERT JUDGMENT Described in Section 4.1.2.1. Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge to validate or modify risk responses if necessary and decide how to implement them in the most efficient and effective manner. 11.6.2.2 INTERPERSONAL AND TEAM SKILLS Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to influencing. Some risk response actions may be owned by people outside the immediate project team or who have other competing demands. The project manager or person responsible for facilitating the risk process may need to exercise influencing see Section 9.5.2.1 to encourage nominated risk owners to take necessary action where required. 11.6.2.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM PMIS Described in Section 4.3.2.2. Project management information systems can include schedule resource and cost software to ensure that agreed-upon risk response plans and their associated activities are integrated into the project alongside other project activities. 11.6.3 IMPLEMENT RISK RESPONSES: OUTPUTS 11.6.3.1 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. Implementation of risk responses may result in a change request to the cost and schedule baselines or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6.

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452 Part 1 - Guide 11.6.3.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES Project documents that may be updated as a result of carrying out this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. Where issues are identified as part of the Implement Risk Responses process they are recorded in the issue log. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. The lessons learned register is updated with information on challenges encountered when implementing risk responses and how they could have been avoided as well as approaches that worked well for implementing risk responses. uu Project team assignments. Described in Section 9.3.3.2. Once the risk responses are confirmed the necessary resources should be allocated to each action associated with a risk response plan. These resources include suitably qualified and experienced personnel to execute the agreed-upon action usually within the project team a specific budget and time allowance for the action and any required technical resources to complete the action. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register may be updated to reflect any changes to the previously agreed-upon risk responses for individual project risks that are subsequently made as a result of the Implement Risk Responses process. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report may be updated to reflect any changes to the previously agreed-upon risk response to overall project risk exposure that are subsequently made as a result of the Implement Risk Responses process.

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453 11.7 MONITOR RISKS Monitor Risks is the process of monitoring the implementation of agreed-upon risk response plans tracking identified risks identifying and analyzing new risks and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project. The key benefit of this process is that it enables project decisions to be based on current information about overall project risk exposure and individual project risks. This process is performed throughout the project. The inputs tools and techniques and outputs of the process are depicted in Figure 11-20. Figure 11-21 depicts the data flow diagram for the process. Figure 11-20. Monitor Risks: Inputs Tools Techniques and Outputs Tools Techniques Inputs Outputs .1 Data analysis • Technical performance analysis • Reserve analysis .2 Audits .3 Meetings .1 Project management plan • Risk management plan .2 Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Risk report .3 Work performance data .4 Work performance reports .1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project management plan updates • Any component .4 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Risk report .5 Organizational process assets updates Monitor Risks

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454 Part 1 - Guide • Project charter 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work • Work performance data • Work performance reports • Change requests • Work performance information Project management plan • Risk management plan Project documents • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Risk report Project Management Plan Project Documents Project Documents 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 11.7 Monitor Risks Project documents updates • Assumption log • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Risk report Project management plan updates • Any component Project Management Plan Enterprise/ Organization • Organizational process assets updates Figure 11-21. Monitor Risks: Data Flow Diagram In order to ensure that the project team and key stakeholders are aware of the current level of risk exposure project work should be continuously monitored for new changing and outdated individual project risks and for changes in the level of overall project risk by applying the Monitor Risks process. The Monitor Risks process uses performance information generated during project execution to determine if: uu Implemented risk responses are effective uu Level of overall project risk has changed uu Status of identified individual project risks has changed uu New individual project risks have arisen uu Risk management approach is still appropriate uu Project assumptions are still valid uu Risk management policies and procedures are being followed uu Contingency reserves for cost or schedule require modification and uu Project strategy is still valid.

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455 11.7.1 MONITOR RISKS: INPUTS 11.7.1.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN Described in Section 4.2.3.1. Project management plan components include but are not limited to the risk management plan. Described in Section 11.3.1.1. The risk management plan provides guidance on how and when risks should be reviewed which policies and procedures should be followed the roles and responsibilities in the monitoring process and reporting formats. 11.7.1.2 PROJECT DOCUMENTS Project documents that should be considered as inputs for this process include but are not limited to: uu Issue log. Described in Section 4.3.3.3. The issue log is used to see if any of the open issues have been updated and necessitate an update to the risk register. uu Lessons learned register. Described in Section 4.4.3.1. Risk-related lessons from earlier in the project can be applied to later phases in the project. uu Risk register. Described in Section 11.2.3.1. The risk register has key inputs that include identified individual project risks risk owners agreed-upon risk responses and specific implementation actions. It may also provide other details including control actions for assessing the effectiveness of response plans symptoms and warning signs of risk residual and secondary risks and a watch list of low-priority risks. uu Risk report. Described in Section 11.2.3.2. The risk report includes an assessment of the current overall project risk exposure as well as the agreed-upon risk response strategy. It also describes the major individual risks with planned responses and risk owners.

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456 Part 1 - Guide 11.7.1.3 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA Described in Section 4.3.3.2. Work performance data contains data on project status such as risk responses that have been implemented risks that have occurred risks that are active and those that have been closed out. 11.7.1.4 WORK PERFORMANCE REPORTS Described in Section 4 5.3.1. Work performance reports provide information from performance measurements that can be analyzed to provide project work performance information including variance analysis earned value data and forecasting data. This information could be relevant when monitoring performance-related risks. 11.7.2 MONITOR RISKS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 11.7.2.1 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to: uu Technical performance analysis. Technical performance analysis compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the schedule of technical achievement. It requires the definition of objective quantifiable measures of technical performance which can be used to compare actual results against targets. Such technical performance measures may include weight transaction times number of delivered defects storage capacity etc. Deviation can indicate the potential impact of threats or opportunities. uu Reserve analysis. Described in Section 7.2.2.6. Throughout execution of the project some individual project risks may occur with positive or negative impacts on budget or schedule contingency reserves. Reserve analysis compares the amount of the contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining at any time in the project in order to determine if the remaining reserve is adequate. This may be communicated using various graphical representations including a burndown chart. 11.7.2.2 AUDITS Described in Section 8.2.2.5. Risk audits are a type of audit that may be used to consider the effectiveness of the risk management process. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that risk audits are performed at an appropriate frequency as defined in the project’s risk management plan. Risk audits may be included during routine project review meetings or may form part of a risk review meeting or the team may choose to hold separate risk audit meetings. The format for the risk audit and its objectives should be clearly defined before the audit is conducted.

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457 11.7.2.3 MEETINGS Meetings that can be used during this process include but are not limited to risk reviews. Risk reviews are scheduled regularly and should examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with overall project risk and with identified individual project risks. Risk reviews may also result in identification of new individual project risks including secondary risks that arise from agreed-upon risk responses reassessment of current risks the closing of risks that are outdated issues that have arisen as the result of risks that have occurred and identification of lessons to be learned for implementation in ongoing phases in the current project or in similar projects in the future. The risk review may be conducted as part of a periodic project status meeting or a dedicated risk review meeting may be held as specified in the risk management plan. 11.7.3 MONITOR RISKS: OUTPUTS 11.7.3.1 WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Described in Section 4.5.1.3. Work performance information includes information on how project risk management is performing by comparing the individual risks that have occurred with the expectation of how they would occur. This information indicates the effectiveness of the response planning and response implementation processes. 11.7.3.2 CHANGE REQUESTS Described in Section 4.3.3.4. The Monitor Risks process may result in a change request to the cost and schedule baselines or other components of the project management plan. Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process Section 4.6. Change requests can include recommended corrective and preventive actions to address the current level of overall project risk or to address individual project risks. 11.7.3.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES Any change to the project management plan goes thro