Search and Rescue: Search and Rescue Help Us Help You
Terry Cooper Contents: Contents SAR Who/What/When
What does a crash look like?
ELTs and SARSAT/COSPAS.
What you can do to help us find you.
What you can do to survive. Who does SAR?: Who does SAR? Primary SAR is provided by the Canadian Armed Forces and Coast Guard
Mission Control Centre (MCC) at CFB Trenton
Joint Rescue Coordination (JRCC) centres at Halifax, Trenton and Victoria.
Additional SAR resources provided by the Civil Air Search And Rescue Association (CASARA), and Coast Guard Auxiliary (CGA) CASARA: CASARA Civil Air Search and Rescue Association
Nationwide volunteer organization
Search taskings from Trenton JRCC in support of 424 SAR Squadron
Ontario units: Thunder Bay, Hearst, Sault Ste. Marie, Chapleau, New Liskeard, North Bay, Sudbury, Niagara, London, Ottawa SAR Responsibility Areas: SAR Responsibility Areas What does SAR do?: What does SAR do? MCC determines crash location from SARSAT/COSPAS data
JRCC determines search area and resources, and controls searches.
CAF, CASARA and CCGA search for missing aircraft or vessels.
CAF SAR Techs provide emergency medical care and evacuation. When does SAR start?: When does SAR start? ELT signal detected by SARSAT/COSPAS or other aircraft.
Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary expires and JRCC is notified.
ATC loses contact with aircraft which is under their control. What Will A Crashed Airplane Look Like?: What Will A Crashed Airplane Look Like? What Will It Look Like? (2): What Will It Look Like? (2) Visual Search 1: Visual Search 1 500 AGL: Where’s the crash? Visual Search 2: Visual Search 2 How about now? (200 AGL) What is an ELT?: What is an ELT? Low power radio transmitter (~50-75mw 121.5) (5W 406)
121.5Mhz, 243Mhz (military) or 406Mhz
Triggered by impact/shock
48 Hour battery life
External and Built-in antennas
Typically installed in the tail of an aircraft Typical ELT Location: Typical ELT Location ELT ELT Types: ELT Types TSO C-91 (this is the most common)
Original spec. for 121.5 ELT
Reliability problems, poor frequency control
Next generation 121.5 ELT
Remote control (panel switch)
More reliable G switch
Improved frequency control ELT Types Cont.: ELT Types Cont. 406 ELTs, EPIRBs (marine) and PLBs
SARSAT/COSPAS designed for 406 Beacon frequency
5W burst digital signal at 406MHz (~50ms)
Low power continuous homing signal on 121.5MHz
Very accurate frequency control
More reliable G switch
Identity broadcast (each unit registered)
Possible GPS position broadcast (future)
Personal Locator Beacons available
High cost Comparing ELT Types: Comparing ELT Types SARSAT/COSPAS: SARSAT/COSPAS Satellites on Polar orbits (LEOS)
Satellite orbits take 100 minutes
Monitoring 121.5*, 243*, and 406 MHz
Primarily designed for 406MHz
Relay ELT signals to local user terminals (ground stations)
Doppler shift used to find possible location of the beacon
* 121.5 and 243 monitoring will cease by Feb. 2009 SARSAT/COSPAS System: SARSAT/COSPAS System SAR Steps: SAR Steps JRCC is notified of missing aircraft
Search resources are tasked.
1st stage search typically a track crawl
Looking for active target (ELT, smoke, signals, etc.)
Search progresses to low level coverage of search area (CSAD).
Target found, SAR Techs jump in…. What’s the CSAD: What’s the CSAD CSAD 1 is a 20 NM box around the planned track of the aircraft
CSAD 1 starts 10 NM prior to the last known point (LKP), and ends 10 NM past the destination.
CSAD 2 widens the search area by a further 10 NM from the LKP to 15NM past the DEST. CSAD: CSAD Last Known
Position Destination Waypoint CSAD1 CSAD2 Planned Track 20Nm 10Nm 30Nm 15Nm How long will it take?: How long will it take? Assuming your ELT is working.
Average time to Satellite pass: 45 mins.
Minimum of two passes before ELT targeted and search triggered (90 mins).
Time to launch 1-2hrs
Time to reach search area ?
Plan on spending the night! How to Be Found Alive: How to Be Found Alive Survive the return to earth
Practice emergency procedures
Be prepared to survive
Be found quickly What can you do?(Before and during the flight): What can you do? (Before and during the flight) File a flight plan, and follow it
Use flight following whenever possible
Regularly tell FSS where you are on 126.7
Tell FSS if you are deviating from course
Make sure your ELT is in good condition and preferably is a TSO C-91a or 406.
Ensure that your PAX are briefed on the ELT, survival kit, radios, and evacuation procedures What can you do?(After the premature end of the flight): What can you do? (After the premature end of the flight) Aviate, Navigate, Communicate
Tell someone what’s happening (mayday…)
Get out of the plane
Turn on the ELT as soon as possible and leave it on (prior to landing if possible).
Prepare to spend the night
Prepare to signal over flying aircraft
Check that the ELT is on, maybe move it Do Not …: Do Not … Leave the crash site unless in immediate danger.
Turn off the ELT, I repeat DO NOT turn off the ELT
Be Prepared: Be Prepared Dress for the conditions (remember you may be out there all night).
Carry a personal survival kit, on your person.
Carry an aircraft survival kit and have it close at hand.
File a Flight plan and stick to it (yes I’ve said this before, it’s important). Personal Survival Kit: Personal Survival Kit Waterproof (wooden) matches
Signal mirror (and flares)
Package of kleenex
Sunscreen and mosquito repellent
Signal tape or signal panel
Food (meal replacement bars)
Parachute cord (multi-strand cord)
Fishing line and hooks CASARAAircraft Survival Kit: CASARA Aircraft Survival Kit Bright Orange Cotton Bag with Contents List on Tag
Length: 24 inches
Diameter: 9 inches
Weight: 6 lbs Kit Opened: Signal Panel
Garbage Bags (x4)
2 Large Coffee Cans with wire handles,
taped open ends together Kit Opened Kit Contents: First Aid:
Shell Dressings (x2)
Emergency Blankets (x4)
Triangular Bandages (x4)
Roll of Gauze Bandage (2” x 18’)
Matches in Waterproof Container
Koolik (solid pocket stove)
Knife (compass, fishing line, hooks)
Plastic Tarp (8’6” x 10’)
Parachute Cord (20’)
Teabags/OXO/Sugar Packets (x16)
Granola Bars (x8)
Survival Handbook Kit Contents Closer View: Closer View Additional Survival Aids: Additional Survival Aids Personal Locator Beacon (406Mhz) carried on your person.
Leatherman tool or the like
Handheld aviation radio
Handheld GPS (doesn’t need to be an aviation one) Credits: Credits Presentation developed by T. Cooper
Crash photos from www.CAP-ES.net (Scott E Lanis US Civil Air Patrol)
Survival kit photos by J. McArthur Slide35: Fly Safe
(and file a flight plan)