Search and Rescue

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By: MSEldridge (44 month(s) ago)

As a Pararescueman in the USAF, this a great teaching tool that would be nice to get a copy of .

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Search and Rescue: 

Search and Rescue Help Us Help You Prepared By Terry Cooper

Contents: 

Contents SAR Who/What/When What does a crash look like? ELTs and SARSAT/COSPAS. What you can do to help us find you. What you can do to survive.

Who does SAR?: 

Who does SAR? Primary SAR is provided by the Canadian Armed Forces and Coast Guard Mission Control Centre (MCC) at CFB Trenton Joint Rescue Coordination (JRCC) centres at Halifax, Trenton and Victoria. Additional SAR resources provided by the Civil Air Search And Rescue Association (CASARA), and Coast Guard Auxiliary (CGA)

CASARA: 

CASARA Civil Air Search and Rescue Association Nationwide volunteer organization Search taskings from Trenton JRCC in support of 424 SAR Squadron Ontario units: Thunder Bay, Hearst, Sault Ste. Marie, Chapleau, New Liskeard, North Bay, Sudbury, Niagara, London, Ottawa

SAR Responsibility Areas: 

SAR Responsibility Areas

What does SAR do?: 

What does SAR do? MCC determines crash location from SARSAT/COSPAS data JRCC determines search area and resources, and controls searches. CAF, CASARA and CCGA search for missing aircraft or vessels. CAF SAR Techs provide emergency medical care and evacuation.

When does SAR start?: 

When does SAR start? ELT signal detected by SARSAT/COSPAS or other aircraft. Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary expires and JRCC is notified. ATC loses contact with aircraft which is under their control.

What Will A Crashed Airplane Look Like?: 

What Will A Crashed Airplane Look Like?

What Will It Look Like? (2): 

What Will It Look Like? (2)

Visual Search 1: 

Visual Search 1 500 AGL: Where’s the crash?

Visual Search 2: 

Visual Search 2 How about now? (200 AGL)

What is an ELT?: 

What is an ELT? Low power radio transmitter (~50-75mw 121.5) (5W 406) 121.5Mhz, 243Mhz (military) or 406Mhz Triggered by impact/shock 48 Hour battery life External and Built-in antennas Typically installed in the tail of an aircraft

Typical ELT Location: 

Typical ELT Location ELT

ELT Types: 

ELT Types TSO C-91 (this is the most common) Original spec. for 121.5 ELT Reliability problems, poor frequency control Poor survivability TSO C-91a Next generation 121.5 ELT Remote control (panel switch) More reliable G switch Improved frequency control

ELT Types Cont.: 

ELT Types Cont. 406 ELTs, EPIRBs (marine) and PLBs SARSAT/COSPAS designed for 406 Beacon frequency 5W burst digital signal at 406MHz (~50ms) Low power continuous homing signal on 121.5MHz Very accurate frequency control More reliable G switch Improved survivability Identity broadcast (each unit registered) Possible GPS position broadcast (future) Personal Locator Beacons available High cost

Comparing ELT Types: 

Comparing ELT Types

SARSAT/COSPAS: 

SARSAT/COSPAS Satellites on Polar orbits (LEOS) Satellite orbits take 100 minutes Monitoring 121.5*, 243*, and 406 MHz Primarily designed for 406MHz Relay ELT signals to local user terminals (ground stations) Doppler shift used to find possible location of the beacon * 121.5 and 243 monitoring will cease by Feb. 2009

SARSAT/COSPAS System: 

SARSAT/COSPAS System

SAR Steps: 

SAR Steps JRCC is notified of missing aircraft Search resources are tasked. 1st stage search typically a track crawl Looking for active target (ELT, smoke, signals, etc.) Search progresses to low level coverage of search area (CSAD). Target found, SAR Techs jump in….

What’s the CSAD: 

What’s the CSAD CSAD 1 is a 20 NM box around the planned track of the aircraft CSAD 1 starts 10 NM prior to the last known point (LKP), and ends 10 NM past the destination. CSAD 2 widens the search area by a further 10 NM from the LKP to 15NM past the DEST.

CSAD: 

CSAD Last Known Position Destination Waypoint CSAD1 CSAD2 Planned Track 20Nm 10Nm 30Nm 15Nm

How long will it take?: 

How long will it take? Assuming your ELT is working. Average time to Satellite pass: 45 mins. Minimum of two passes before ELT targeted and search triggered (90 mins). Time to launch 1-2hrs Time to reach search area ? Plan on spending the night!

How to Be Found Alive: 

How to Be Found Alive Survive the return to earth Practice emergency procedures Be prepared to survive Be found quickly

What can you do? (Before and during the flight): 

What can you do? (Before and during the flight) File a flight plan, and follow it Use flight following whenever possible Regularly tell FSS where you are on 126.7 Tell FSS if you are deviating from course Make sure your ELT is in good condition and preferably is a TSO C-91a or 406. Ensure that your PAX are briefed on the ELT, survival kit, radios, and evacuation procedures

What can you do? (After the premature end of the flight): 

What can you do? (After the premature end of the flight) Aviate, Navigate, Communicate Tell someone what’s happening (mayday…) Get out of the plane Turn on the ELT as soon as possible and leave it on (prior to landing if possible). Prepare to spend the night Prepare to signal over flying aircraft Check that the ELT is on, maybe move it

Do Not …: 

Do Not … Leave the crash site unless in immediate danger. Turn off the ELT, I repeat DO NOT turn off the ELT

Be Prepared: 

Be Prepared Dress for the conditions (remember you may be out there all night). Carry a personal survival kit, on your person. Carry an aircraft survival kit and have it close at hand. File a Flight plan and stick to it (yes I’ve said this before, it’s important).

Personal Survival Kit: 

Personal Survival Kit Waterproof (wooden) matches Signal mirror (and flares) Sterile bandages Package of kleenex Sunscreen and mosquito repellent Small knife Signal tape or signal panel Space blanket Food (meal replacement bars) Parachute cord (multi-strand cord) Fishing line and hooks

CASARA Aircraft Survival Kit: 

CASARA Aircraft Survival Kit Bright Orange Cotton Bag with Contents List on Tag Overall Dimensions: Length: 24 inches Diameter: 9 inches Weight: 6 lbs

Kit Opened: 

Signal Panel Garbage Bags (x4) 2 Large Coffee Cans with wire handles, taped open ends together Kit Opened

Kit Contents: 

First Aid: Shell Dressings (x2) Emergency Blankets (x4) Triangular Bandages (x4) Roll of Gauze Bandage (2” x 18’) Heat/Signaling: Candles (x2) Matches in Waterproof Container Whistle Koolik (solid pocket stove) Butane Lighter Shelter: Folding Saw Knife (compass, fishing line, hooks) Plastic Tarp (8’6” x 10’) Parachute Cord (20’) Comfort: Teabags/OXO/Sugar Packets (x16) Granola Bars (x8) Hard Candy Bug Repellent Snare Wire Survival Handbook Kit Contents

Closer View: 

Closer View

Additional Survival Aids: 

Additional Survival Aids Personal Locator Beacon (406Mhz) carried on your person. Flashlight(s) Leatherman tool or the like Handheld aviation radio Handheld GPS (doesn’t need to be an aviation one)

Credits: 

Credits Presentation developed by T. Cooper Crash photos from www.CAP-ES.net (Scott E Lanis US Civil Air Patrol) Survival kit photos by J. McArthur

Slide35: 

Fly Safe (and file a flight plan)