Industrial Safety

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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY:

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL SAFETY:

Measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss & danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. The issue of industrial safety evolved concurrently with industrial development in the US Shift from compensation to prevention as well as toward an increasing emphasis on addressing the long-term effects of occupational hazards. Today, industrial safety is widely regarded as one of the most important factors that any business, large or small, must consider in its operations. Employers are required to compensate employees for work-related injuries or sickness by paying medical expenses, disability benefits, and compensation for lost work time. WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 2 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Slide 3:

In general, workplace hazards can be categorized into three groups: 1. Chemical hazards - in which the body absorbs toxins. 2. Ergonomic hazards - in which the body is strained or injured, often over an extended period, because of the nature (design) of the task, its frequency, or intensity. 3. Physical hazards - in which the worker is exposed to harmful elements or physical dangers, such as heat or moving parts. In the modern context, corporate management increasingly has viewed industrial safety measures as an investment—one that may save money in the long run by way of reducing disability pay, improving productivity, and avoiding lawsuits. 3 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Rather than viewing an injury as a fluke or a random mistake, management today is more likely to look for systemic problems, such as: The way equipment is designed or used; The way workflow is configured; How workers are trained; Whether there is a gap between official policies and employee practices. 4 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

INTRODUCTION TO OSHA :

First comprehensive industrial safety legislation passed at the federal level was Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct) of 1970 was passed by Congress "to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources." OSHA was established within the Department of Labor and was authorized to regulate health and safety conditions for all employers with few exceptions. Includes safety standards, designed to prevent accidents, and health standards, designed to protect against exposure to toxins and to address the more long-term effects of occupational hazards. INTRODUCTION TO OSHA 5 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Purpose: encourage employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and to implement new or improve existing safety and health standards; provide for research in occupational safety and health and develop innovative ways of dealing with occupational safety and health problems; establish "separate but dependent responsibilities and rights" for employers and employees for the achievement of better safety and health conditions; maintain a reporting and recordkeeping system to monitor job-related injuries and illnesses; establish training programs to increase the number and competence of occupational safety and health personnel; and, 6 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Types Of Inspection carried by OSHA (based on priority): Imminent Danger: Condition where there is reasonable certainty that a danger exists that can be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or before the danger can be eliminated through normal enforcement procedures. Catastrophic and Fatal Accidents : Investigation of fatalities and catastrophes resulting in hospitalization of three or more employees. Employee Complaints: Each employee has the right to request an OSHA inspection when the employee feels that he or she is in imminent danger from a hazard or when he or she feels that there is a violation of an OSHA standard that threatens physical harm Programmed High Hazard Inspections : OSHA establishes programs of inspection aimed at specific high hazard industries, occupations, or health hazards. Re-inspections: Establishments cited for alleged serious violations may be re-inspected to determine whether the hazards have been corrected. 7 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Citation & Penalties: Other than serious violation - A violation that has a direct relationship to job safety and health, but probably would not cause death or serious physical harm. The maximum proposed penalty for this type of violation is $7000. Serious violation - A violation where there is substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result, and that the employer knew, or should have known, of the hazard. The maximum proposed penalty for this type of violation is $7000. Imminent danger situations are also cited and penalized as serious violations. Repeated violation - A violation of any standard, regulation, rule, or order where, upon re-inspection, another violation of the same previously cited section is found. Repeated violations can bring fines of up to $70,000. 8 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Citation & Penalties (contd…): Willful violation - A violation that the employer intentionally and knowingly commits. The employer either knows that the operation constitutes a violation, or is aware that a hazardous condition exists and made no reasonable effort to eliminate it. The penalty range for this type of violation is $5000 to $70,000. Failure to Abate - Failure to correct any violations may bring civil penalties of up to $7000 per day for every day the violation continues beyond the prescribed abatement date. 9 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Safety Signs & Symbols :

Safety Signs & Symbols A visual alerting device in the form of a sign, label, decal, placard or other marking which advises the observer of the nature and degree of the potential hazard(s) which can cause an accident. It may also provide other directions to eliminate or reduce the hazard and advise of the probable consequences of no avoiding the hazard. 10 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Categories of Safety Signs:

Environmental safety sign Sign or placard in a work or public area that provides safety information about the immediate environment. Product safety sign Sign, label, or decal affixed to a product that provides hazard and safety information about that product. Categories of Safety Signs 11 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Safety Signs:

CAUTION: Potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. DANGER: Imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. NOTICE: Signs used to indicate a statement of company policy or information indirectly related to the safety of personnel or protection of property. Safety Signs 12 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Thermal Safety This symbol appears as a reminder to use caution when handling hot objects. Eye Safety This symbol appears when a danger to the eyes exists. Safety goggles should be worn when this symbol appears. Fire Safety This symbol appears when care should be taken around open flames. 13 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Safety Symbols:

Safety Symbols 14 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

SAFETY ISSUES:

Although safety equipment is useful and can save a trip to the hospital, it is the responsibility of every employee to pitch in to help with safety issues. Safety issues can occur in any situation including: SAFETY ISSUES Sabotage Trespassers committing vandalism or setting fire for fun Workplace violence Protesters intruding into the plant Theft (different motivations) Bomb threats Fraud Workplace drug crime Product contamination Theft of confidential information Infiltration by adversaries computer hacking 15 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Slide 16:

Management issues includes security policy internal and external collaboration, incident reporting and analysis, employee and contractor training and security awareness, investigations of suspicious incidents and security breaches, Emergency response and crisis management Periodic reassessment 16 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Physical security includes Access control Perimeter protection („keeping intruders offsite“) Security officers Backup systems Other measures, such as entering post control etc Information, Computer and network security: Operations security Spoken information security Computer and network security Audits and investigation 17 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

SAFETY ACCIDENTS:

SAFETY ACCIDENTS Industrial Accidents Reason Impact Terra Industries Inc. Port Neal, Iowa Inadequate indication of Process condition Release of Ammonia. More then 20 employees affected Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, Ukraine Inadequate knowledge of process as well as safety parameters $ 200 Billion More then 1 Lakh people affected Bhopal Gas Tragedy, India Negligence in safety $ 500 Million More then 20,000 people affected 18 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

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Industrial Accidents Reason Impact Explosion & Fire at Buncefield all storage depot (UK) Explosion of flammable vapors generated from petroleum storage tank. 40 people injured People in Netherland & France could clearly hear the loud explsoions . Jaipur Oil Tank Farm Fire (India July 3, 2010) Improper maintanance of pressure vessels & safety release valves. Destruction of oil worth Millions 11 fatalities 19 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

TOOLS ENSURING SAFETY:

1. Risk Assessment: a step in a risk management procedure. Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard). Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk: R, the magnitude of the potential loss L, and P, the probability that the loss will occur. TOOLS ENSURING SAFETY 20 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Slide 21:

2. Emergency Management / Disaster Management It is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster response (e.g., emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.), and supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human-made disasters have occurred. In general, any Emergency management is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards. Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of risk of those exposed. effective emergency management relies on thorough integration of emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government involvement. 21 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Slide 22:

Activities at each level (individual, group, community) affect the other levels. It is common to place the responsibility for governmental emergency management with the institutions for civil defense or within the conventional structure of the emergency services. However, emergency management actually starts at the lowest level and only increases to the next higher organizational level after the current level's resources have been exhausted. In the private sector, emergency management is sometimes referred to as business continuity planning. 22 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Slide 23:

3. HAZOP study (hazard and operability study) It is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation. The HAZOP technique was initially developed to analyze chemical process systems, but has later been extended to other types of systems and also to complex operations and to software systems. A HAZOP is a qualitative technique based on guide-words and is carried out by a multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP team) during a set of meetings. 23 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

Slide 24:

4. General Public Awareness To maximize public awareness and support for your community AED program, you may need to develop a campaign directed both at the grassroots level and at the political decision-maker level. success will depend on how effective you are at bringing the media into your campaign as allies. Developing a public awareness and support campaign entails these steps: a. Establish an AED task force b. Frame your issues c. Develop a statement of need d. Promote media coverage e. Lobby local political leaders • 24 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

NEGLIGENCE OF SAFETY- REDUCED PROFITS:

NEGLIGENCE OF SAFETY- REDUCED PROFITS Safety Incidents necessitates Indirect costs Social Impact Morale effect Interruption Investigation Corrective Action Environmental Damage 25 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

IMPLEMENT SAFETY – A WIN WIN SITUATION:

IMPLEMENT SAFETY – A WIN WIN SITUATION Safety Practices – Return on Investment Reduced Insurance Premium Reduced Worker Compensation Liability & Litigation Expense Increased Productivity Worker Morale Decrease in absenteeism Equipment downtime 26 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

SAFETY IS EFFICIENCY:

SAFETY IS EFFICIENCY Safety Practices – Return on Investment Safety Management = Risk Management Risk Control Cost Control Cost Control Efficiency Efficiency = Productivity Productivity = Profit 27 http://embaitm.blogspot.com

CONCLUSION:

Policy are in place but lacks implementation. It’s the time that principles laid down must be transformed into action, action must deliver result and progress towards result must be measurable. “Be Aware, Be Alert & Be Alive” CONCLUSION 28 http://embaitm.blogspot.com