Charles Besancon

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Trade-offs Among Multiple Goals for Transboundary Conservation by Charles Besançon

What do we know?: 

What do we know? at least 188 internationally adjoining protected area complexes (Besançon and Savy, 2005) Spanning the borders of 122 countries Multiple objectives

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biodiversity conservation; cultural heritage and exchange; international cooperation; maintenance of peace and security; promotion of sustainable development; regional economic integration; restitution of land tenure; local economic development; poverty alleviation, etc. Transboundary Conservation Objectives

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Paper concentrated on two issues New typology Need for further development of frameworks for assessing peace and security impacts This presentation Typology Lessons learned from the Transboundary Virunga-Bwindi region Where are we going?

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Transboundary protected areas Transboundary conservation and development areas Parks for Peace Transboundary migratory corridors A typology of transboundary conservation practice

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Transboundary protected areas “A transboundary protected area is an area of land and/or sea that straddles one or more borders between states, sub-national units such as provinces and regions, autonomous areas and/or areas beyond the limit of national sovereignty or jurisdiction, whose constituent parts are especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed co-operatively through legal or other effective means.” Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

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Transboundary conservation and development areas “Transboundary conservation and development areas are areas of land and/or sea that straddle one or more borders between states, sub-national units such as provinces and regions, autonomous areas and/or areas beyond the limit of national sovereignty or jurisdiction, whose constituent parts form a matrix that contributes to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, as well as the promotion of social and economic development, and which are managed co-operatively through legal or other effective means.” Maloti-Drakensberg TBCDA

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Parks for peace “Parks for Peace are transboundary protected areas that are formally dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and to the promotion of peace and cooperation” Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park

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Transboundary migratory corridors “Transboundary migratory corridors are areas of land and/or sea in two or more countries, which are not necessarily contiguous, but are required to sustain a biological migratory pathway, and where co-operative management has been secured through legal or other effective means.” European Greenbelt

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Utilizes a regional approach to protecting mountain gorillas and the afro-montane habitat they live in Organizes transboundary activities such as regional meetings; joint patrols; and joint monitoring Addresses threats to the ecosystem through promoting sustainable development programmes International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP)

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Can peace parks build peace and/or protect the environment? What determines their success and/or failure? Recommendations for policymakers Questions and conclusions

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Can peace parks build peace and/or protect the environment? Yes Possible to do both How? Through strengthening institutional structures (PAAs) third party mediation Operating in ‘neutral’ space Locally-based Offering incentives other than strict protection of resources (tourism) Example specific to IGCP: through organization of regional meetings, joint ranger patrols, trainings and monitoring.

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Can peace parks build peace and/or protect the environment? Militia/military effects are context specific Uganda In Bwindi and Mgahinga: SWIFT patrols are military with tourist sensitization ‘Militarization of the environment’ Rwanda Military reinforces government control of protected areas In DRC Local defense forces not paid salary. May be very destabilizing Presence of other foreign troops may bring stability because they are disciplined and want to see continued gorilla tourism They minimize raids by rogue groups and Interahamwe

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Can peace parks build peace and/or protect the environment? But - Also true that conservation may contribute toward conflict How? By increasing socio-economic inequalities – or fueling the belief that such inequalities are increasing By benefiting certain groups more than others Cultural/subcultural Ethnic Socio-political Socio-economic Gender, etc. By increasing competition for development resources & political control By limiting access to lands that provide some aspect of livelihoods in times of severe strain By introducing new structures that challenge existing ones (social, political, or economic)

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What determines their success and/or failure? Strong and resilient network of institutions and organizations with common purpose In this case – 3rd party actors in transboundary coordination role Failures can result from one party being too dominating Must have peace to maintain peace Helpful to have charismatic mega-fauna that looks like us (good marketing)

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Recommendations for policy makers Transboundary conservation is a very slow and deliberate process Design structures specific to the project area Create flexible processes in case of conflicts (many types) Must develop new tools for measurement of impacts Trade-offs are inherent when you have both conservation and social goals Complex context means a need to build strong networks to share experiences and disseminate best practice information

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The end charles.besancon@gmail.com

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